Time and Earth Creation

By A Taha, PhD

London, United Kingdom

18 August 2016

Quran states that Earth was created in two days. Quran refers to the two days in Ayah (41.9). The two days represents 1/3 of the Universe’s six days in Ayahs (7.54 and 11.7) which makes it 4.6 billion Earth years (13.8 billion x 1/3 = 4.6 biilion); a figure that tally with most current estimates based on geological and other data. The Six Throne Days have been postulated to equal 15.75  billion Earth years as the universe total age out of which 13.8 billion Earth years have expired (see separate Article on this web site titled “The Six Days”).

22

A list of Important Dates in Earth History is provided that contains the dates of the events shown on a clock. This schematic shows if 4.6 billion years is pretended to be only 60 minutes then modern man has only lived on Earth for a tiny fraction of the last second, as shown on the top [22]

Ayah (41.10) that follows (41.9) is fascinating to say the least. This Ayah (41.10) says God ordained (or: calculated/measured/appointed) Earth provisions (or: means of sustenance) in four days which is twice Earth’s two days and 2/3 of the Universe’s six days. The four days correspond to 9.2 billion Earth years which is nearly twice the age of the Solar System itself. How can this be?

j

Quran Ayah (41.9)

k

Quran Ayah (41.10)

 

23

The surface of the Earth provides a place for the human beings, animals , plants to live as the life evolved from bacteria and virus more than 4.6 billion years ago [23]

The nebular hypothesis (a theory originally developed by Immanuel Kan in 1755 and subsequently developed by a variety of scientific disciplines including astronomy, physics, geology, and planetary science) is the most widely accepted model in the field of cosmogony to explain the formation and evolution of the solar system. It suggests that the solar system formed from “nebulous material”. That is the formation of the solar system began much more than 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a “giant molecular cloud”. Most of the collapsing mass collected in the center, forming the Sun, while the rest flattened into a protoplanetary disk out of which Earth, the other planets, moons, asteroids, and other small Solar System bodies formed. In other words, previous generations of stars lived and died, injecting heavy elements into the interstellar medium out of which the solar system formed. The solar system could have been formed in “an Orion nebula” like star-forming region where the most massive stars are formed. After formation they then lived their lives, died, and exploded in supernova.

24

NASA Orion Nebula – Great Nebula in Orion [24]

That supernova triggered the formation of our solar system. This would mean that all matter that makes up our solar system and planets, including Earth, was once ejected by supernova explosions long time ago before the formation of Earth itself. This makes Quran Ayah (41.10) fascinatingly comprehensible and in harmony with Ayah (41.9).

Referenced Quran Ayahs

Approximate translations to English of Quran Ayahs cited in this Article;

(7.54)        Your Lord is the one God, who created the heavens and the earth in six days, then mounted He the Throne (assumed all authority). The night overtakes the day, as it pursues it persistently, and the sun, the moon, and the stars are committed to serve by His command. Absolutely, He controls all creation and all commands. Most Exalted is God, Lord of the Worlds.

(11.7)       He is the One who created the heavens and the earth in six days – and His Throne was upon the water [and His (earthly) domain was completely covered with water] – in order to test you, to distinguish those among you who work righteousness. Yet, when you say, “You will be resurrected after death,” those who disbelieve would say, “This is clearly witchcraft.”

(41:9)        Say, “You disbelieve in the One who created the earth in two days, and you set up idols to rank with Him, though He is Lord of the universe.”

(41:10)      He placed on it stabilizers (mountains), made it productive, and He calculated its provisions in four days, to satisfy the needs of all its inhabitants.

Note on Citations from the Quran

A number of Quran Ayahs have been cited in this Article. Each of the cited Ayahs is preceded by a numerical code within two brackets; for example: (9.36) refers to Ayah Number 36 in Surah number 9. Ideally, the readers who know Arabic would refer directly to the original Quran in Arabic. Quran translation to any other language has always been difficult, even though many attempts have already been made. In 1982-84, a Quran Complex was established by Saudi Arabia government, named after King Fahd. This Quran Complex outlines Quran translation difficulties into English, considers all translations to be translations to the “meanings” or “interpretations” of the Quran and denotes own Quran translations as “Translations of the Meanings of the Quran”.

 

By A Taha, PhD

London, United Kingdom

18 August 2016

The Six Days

By A Taha, PhD

London, United Kingdom

17 August 2016

Time and the Big Bang

One popular theory of cosmology is called the Big Bang. According to the Big Bang theory, the universe was formed about 13.8 billion (or: 13,800,000,000) years ago, in what is called a “gravitational singularity“.

18

History of the Universe [18]

The singularity was small, dense, and very hot. According to this theory, all of the matter that we know today, including all galaxies, came out of this single point. This theory stipulates the universe once had an infinitesimal size and an almost infinite temperature and gravitational field strength. It has been expanding and cooling ever since. When it cooled below 10,000,000,000 degrees Kelvin, individual particles could form into atomic nuclei. When it cooled below 10,000 degrees Kelvin, individual electrons and atomic nuclei could form into atoms. Later, as the expansion continued, the atoms clumped into stars and galaxies, eventually producing the universe of today.

19

This diagram shows the progressives stages of the evolution of the universe: Particle Energy, Time, Temperature and Visible Matter Density are schematically given at stages [19]

 Stephen Hawking (born 1932) stated that time began with the Big Bang, and that questions about what happened before the Big Bang are meaningless. The Big Bang itself resulted from an extremely dense “singularity” event out of which matter, space and time came out intimately linked together.

20

A model representing the Inflationary Period before Standard Big Bang Theory: Such models suggest an extraordinary inflationary phase in the era 10^-36 seconds to 10^-32 seconds. More expansion is presumed to have occurred in this instant than in the entire period (14 billion years?) since. The inflationary epoch may have expanded the universe by 10^20 or 10^30 in this incredibly brief time [20]

The singularity from which our universe emerged is an event before matter, space and time. Hence, the Big Bang theory does not speak to what happened at or before the initial Big Bang event. It is a theory only of the aftermath of that event.

Scientists have come to some agreement on descriptions of events that happened 10^ -35 seconds after the Big Bang, but generally agree that descriptions about what happened before one Planck time (5 × 10^ -44 seconds) after the Big Bang will likely remain pure speculation. Current established physical theories are believed to fail at this Planck time.

Quran explain the creation of the universe accurately and in astounding precision. Quran address God creations in many Ayahs. The Arabic expression “kun fa yakun” in Ayahs (3.47 and 40.68) does not mention time at all because such God creation event is “beyond time”, that such event happens at t=0.

f

Quran Ayah (3.47)

 

g

Quran Ayah (40.68)

In the aftermath “matter and space” were joined as one and then were separated. This is accurately described in Quran Ayah (21.30).

The universe in its very early stages was still in the form of hot gases. This is also accurately described in Quran Ayah (41.11) in which rather than gas the word “smoke” is used which imply association with extreme heat.

 

h

Quran Ayah (41.11)

 The Six Days

Quran states that the universe was created in six days. The Quran refers to the six days in many Ayahs, such as (7.54, 10.3, 11.7, 25.59, 32.4, 50.38 and 57.4). In several Ayahs, such as (7.54 and 11.7) the six days are mentioned with God’s Throne and thus Muslims interpret the six days to be days at God’s Throne, not Earth days.

i

Quran Ayah (7.54)

Big Bang theory stipulates the universe age is about 13.8 billion years; that is Earth years. And, the energy at the Big Bang event slowed down the flow of time of up-to 10^12 (one million-million) times. A rough estimate would be one minute at Big Bang event corresponds to one million-million Earth minutes; or six days at Big Bang event corresponds to six million-million Earth days (or 16.427 billion Earth years).

Big Bang theory stipulates time to be continuously slowing down in proportion to the expansion of the universe; approximately described: ever since the Big Bang event the size of the universe doubles as the passage of time half. In other words, as the universe grows, the rate at which it doubles in size slows down. Hereunder is “refined” theoretically postulated sequence;

  • Throne Day 1 (6) corresponds to 8.00 billion Earth years.
  • Throne Day 2 (6) corresponds to 4.00 billion Earth years.
  • Throne Day 3 (6) corresponds to 2.00 billion Earth years.
  • Throne Day 4 (6) corresponds to 1.00 billion Earth years.
  • Throne Day 5 (6) corresponds to 0.50 billion Earth years.
  • Throne Day 6 (6) corresponds to 0.25 billion Earth years.

Total is 15 billion 750 million Earth years.

This figure is more than the famous estimate of 13.8 billion years which gives rise to a speculation: Could this figure mean the universe’s “time” as a constituency of space-time amounts to 15.75 billion years? That is to say the remainder of the universe time is only about 2 billion years (15.75 billion (total) – 13.80 billion (elapsed) = 1.95 billion years) remaining of the universe life. This speculation stems from the Arabic word “fee” as used in the Quran above mentioned Ayahs which means “in” and not “during” six days.

21

Past, present and potential scenarios of the universe future destiny and life span. This illustration shows three possible futures for the Universe, depending on the behavior of dark energy, by showing how the scale of the Universe may change with time [21]

Referenced Quran Ayahs

Approximate translations to English of Quran Ayahs cited in this Article;

(3.47)        She (Mary) said, “My Lord, how can I have a son, when no man has touched me?” He said, “God thus creates whatever He wills. To have anything done, He says to it: “Be and it is”.

(7:54) Your Lord is the one GOD, who created the heavens and the earth in six days, then assumed all authority. The night overtakes the day, as it pursues it persistently, and the sun, the moon, and the stars are committed to serve by His command. Absolutely, He controls all creation and all commands. Most Exalted is GOD, Lord of the universe.

(40.68)      He is the only One who controls life and death. To have anything done, He says to it “Be and it is”.

(41:11)      Then He turned to the sky, when it was still smoke, and said to it, and to the earth, “Come into existence, willingly or unwillingly.” They said, “We come willingly.”

Note on citations from the Quran

A number of Quran Ayahs have been cited in this Article. Each of the cited Ayahs is preceded by a numerical code within two brackets; for example: (9.36) refers to Ayah Number 36 in Surah number 9. Ideally, the readers who know Arabic would refer directly to the original Quran in Arabic. Quran translation to any other language has always been difficult, even though many attempts have already been made. In 1982-84, a Quran Complex was established by Saudi Arabia government, named after King Fahd. This Quran Complex outlines Quran translation difficulties into English, considers all translations to be translations to the “meanings” or “interpretations” of the Quran and denotes own Quran translations as “Translations of the Meanings of the Quran”.

 

By A Taha, PhD

London, United Kingdom

17 August 2016

Past, Present, and Future

By A Taha, PhD

London, United Kingdom

17 August 2016

Past, Present, and Future

There are basically two views regarding the nature of time.

First, “Conventional View” is that in daily life we divide time into three parts: past, present, and future; reality is associated with the present moment and the past slipped out of existence whereas the future is still unformed.

15

Symbolic signage of “Past, Present and Future” [15]

Second, “Block Universe View” is that time is laid out in its entirety with all past and future events located together with no special moment as the present or any process that would systematically turn future events into the present, then past, events. British physicist Julian Barbour (born 1937) argued that there are individual moments, but they are not ordered; there is only a “heap of moments”. The moments exist; but the time that connects them does not. In short; time does not pass or flow.

16

Potential representation of “Heap of Moments” notion in this image titled: “A Time for Everything” [16]

Modern conception of time is based on Einstein‘s theory of relativity (1905), in which rates of time run differently depending on relative motion, and space and time are merged into “space-time”, where we live on a “world-line” rather than a “time-line”. The world-line of an object is the path of that object in 4-dimensional space-time, tracing the history of its location in space at each instant in time. In other words, the path on which every event in your lifetime is located, from birth to death. That is every particle in the universe, has own world-line which is their fixed, permanent path in space-time.

17

Special Relativity World Line: Two-dimensional space depicted in three-dimensional space-time. The past and future light cones are absolute; the present is a relative concept different for observers in relative motion [17]

Albert Einstein (1879-1955) concluded (in 1952) that the past, present, and future all exist simultaneously (Block Universe View). Einstein said “The distinction between the past, present and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion“.

Quran frequently calls mankind not to regard humanity past as merely “tales of the ancients” or as historical footnotes that are irrelevant, see for example Ayah (83.13);

c

Quran Ayah (83.13)

When the Quran speaks of Moses and Aaron, other previous prophets, men and women that have already walked the earth before us it raises their stories, as living truths, out of their historical time. This is expressed in the key word “remember” in many Ayahs, such as (7.69, 7.74, 7.205, 19.16, 19.51, 38.48, and 88.21). The Quran uses direct expressions that encourage the elimination of time past by pulling these events to the forefront for immediate attention in the present. And that these past events also remain valid and relevant in the future. In these Ayahs, the Quran seems to ask us to look at time, in-line with the Block Universe View, as heap of moments systematically organized and connected (by their virtues rather than by time).

d

Quran Ayah (88.21)

Quran also brings status from then future (which, say now; 20-21st century) to the Arabs present (in the 6th century) who were really not in a position to fully understand Ayah (21.30) as we may understand it now. This Ayah (21.30) appears to refer to the unbelievers of now (including the many atheists among astrophysics scientists who are enabled by God to see or comprehend what they currently research) and not the 6th century unbelievers.

e

Quran Ayah (21.30)

Referenced Quran Ayahs

Approximate translations to English of Quran Ayahs cited in this Article;

(21.30)      Do the unbelievers not realize that the heaven and the earth used to be one solid mass that we parted them (exploded into existence)? And from water we made all living things. Would they believe?

(83.13)      when our revelations are recited to him, he says, “Tales from the past!”

(88.21)      you shall remind, for your mission is to deliver this reminder (for you are reminder).

Note on Citations from the Quran

A number of Quran Ayahs have been cited in this Article. Each of the cited Ayahs is preceded by a numerical code within two brackets; for example: (9.36) refers to Ayah Number 36 in Surah number 9. Ideally, the readers who know Arabic would refer directly to the original Quran in Arabic. Quran translation to any other language has always been difficult, even though many attempts have already been made. In 1982-84, a Quran Complex was established by Saudi Arabia government, named after King Fahd. This Quran Complex outlines Quran translation difficulties into English, considers all translations to be translations to the “meanings” or “interpretations” of the Quran and denotes own Quran translations as “Translations of the Meanings of the Quran”.

By A Taha, PhD

London, United Kingdom

17 August 2016

Time

By A Taha, PhD

London, United Kingdom

15 August 2016

What is Time?

Philosophers and mathematicians like Zeno (490 – c. 430 BC), Plato (428 – 348 BC), Spinoza (1632 – 1677), Hegel (1770 – 1831), and about a century ago McTaggart (1866 – 1925) gave a radical answer to the question: What is time? They said it does not exist! That is to say we can see a clock, but we cannot see time.

1

One of the “Time Does Not Exist” arguments: If time doesn’t exist, then why do so many things constantly keep changing? [1]

Time is what we intend to measure with the clock; then what are we measuring? The most popular answer is that we are not measuring an object or substance. Thus some physicists argue that time is a “common currency”, making the world easier to describe but having no independent existence. Yet, everybody agrees that human life happens in this order: birth, school, work and death. No other order.

2

Typical Human Life Sequence: Birth, School, Work, Death [2]

The agreement on time order for so many events is part of the reason that most philosophers and scientists believe physical time is objective and they agree that time does exist and is real fundamentally. They just cannot agree on what it is.

Both Galileo (1564 –1642) and Isaac Newton (1642-1726) and many philosophers and scientists up until the 20th century thought that time is a parameter and it was the same for everyone everywhere. This is the basis for “timelines”. But, according to Albert Einstein (1879-1955) relativity theory, although time is global and occurs everywhere it is not universal; it isn’t the same for everybody.

2a

Earth Evolution Timeline [2a]

3

In classical physics time is same for everyone everywhere, yet we use the notion of time zones: time in USA is registered differently in clocks at the same time in different locations. The convenience of the use of time zones has no impact on the fundamental ”sameness” of time in classic physics [3]

Time “Relational” Theories define time in terms of relationships among objects, in particular their changes. These theories imply that at every time something is happening—such as the passage of differently shaped clouds or a tree leaf changing its colour. In short, no change implies no time.

4

Fall Leaves Change Color: The season of autumn which follows summer is also called “Fall”, because all the leaves change colors and eventually fall to the ground during the onset of winter [4]

Time “Substantive Theories, on the other hand, propose time exists independently to be substance-like; more like a medium pervading all of space-time and less like an external container. Also, some of these theories describe space-time as being like a container for events. The container exists with or without events in it. These theories allow “empty time” in which nothing changes.

5

Hermann Minkowski (1864 –1909) Space-Time Geometry: Minkowski Space-time is the mathematical construct where Albert Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity formulates its most clarity [5]

 Later, around 1915, Einstein’s general theory of relativity implied it is possible for space-time to exist while empty of events. The above mentioned “empty time” is permissible according to Einstein’s general theory of relativity which is not allowed by Time Relational Theories.

Time Many Definitions

There are, through human history and to date, many definitions for “time” ranging from “nothing”;” just an illusion” and “does not actually exist” to time is in everything being integral part of the universe’s “space-time” itself. Hereunder are brief sets of time definitions: In general and In physical science.

In general:

Time is indefinite, unlimited duration in which things are considered as happening in the past, present, or future; every moment there has ever been or ever will be.

Or time is the period between two events or during which something exists, happens, or acts; measured or measurable interval any period in the history of humanity or of the universe.

Or time is a precise instant, second, minute, hour, day, week, month, or year, determined by clock or calendar.

Other definitions include the “arrow of time” in which individuals remember the past but not the future, and the future being different from the past. That is to say unbroken eggs become omelettes but omelettes do not become unbroken eggs.

6

Past Simple Timeline [6]

All these practically one-way processes illustrate the arrow of time. The term “arrow of time” was coined in 1927 by the English physicist Arthur Eddington (1882-1944) who considered this arrow of time as universal in the sense that it is the same arrow for everyone, unlike time which can be different for everyone.

7

Arrow of Time: Some highlights of cosmic history are noted along this arrow of time, from the beginning of the Universe to the present, including several major epochs diagonally across the top [7]

In physical science:

Time is defined as a measurement, or as what the clock face reads and it is measured in units of seconds.

In classical, non-relativistic physics time is considered a fundamental quantity (like length, mass, and charge) which can be combined mathematically with other physical quantities to derive other concepts such as motion, kinetic energy and time-dependent fields.

8

Development of Physical Units [8]

 Einstein’s theory of relativity measures time as a function of the speed of light.

9

Time measurements as a function of the Speed of Light “c” [9]

Time Calendars

With such diversity of definitions for time, many philosophers and scientists take the position that it is therefore an arbitrary convention that there are twenty-four hours in a day instead of ten, that no week fails to contain a Thursday that a second lasts as long as it does. Humans chose the origin of our coordinate system for time to be associated with the birth of Jesus on Christian (solar) calendars or the beginning of the year when Prophet Muhammad emigrated from Mecca to Medina on Islamic (lunar) calendars.

10

Both Christian and Muslim calendars use 12 months for every year [10]

Quran specifies, in Ayah (9.36) – see approximate English translation under Citations from the Quran below –, the number of months as twelve. Both Christian and Muslim calendars use 12 months for every year.

a

Quran Ayah (9.36)

The Christian calendar year is longer by 10 days. Quran acknowledges both calendars (solar and lunar) and allows for the 10 days difference in Ayah (18.25) in which the 300 years stay in the cave was “increased by nine” lunar years. The lunar months were also used by the Arabs before Prophet Muhammad.

b

Quran Ayah (12.35)

Time Measurement Unit

Humans use the word time as a numerical representation of what point in a day it is. Time is displayed in hours, followed by minutes, and then seconds. In a single day there are 24 hours or 1,440 minutes or 86,400 seconds.

11

Words of wisdom on the gift of Time [11]

Today, time measurement unit is a “second”. One second is equal to 1/86,400 of a mean solar day. This is derived from the notion that there are 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour, and 24 hours in a mean solar day. This definition is limited in accuracy because of irregularities in the earth’s orbit around the sun.

12

The eccentricity of the earth’s orbit (orbit changing) has influence in the radiation received from the sun, as depicted in this figure [12]

To improve accuracy of measurement a “global atomic cloak” is used against which all other clocks and watches should be monitored.

13

The world’s first atomic clock, taken in 1949 [13]

Here one second is the time that elapses during 9,192,631,770 cycles of the radiation produced by the transition between two levels of the “cesium 133” atom. This is the Standard International (SI) unit of time.

14

Atomic Clock Wristwatch (The Bathys Cesium 133) claimed in 2014 to be accurate to 1 second in 1000 years [14]

The second is sub-divided: one second is made of 1000 milliseconds. In one millisecond an EM (Electro Magnetic) field propagates through a vacuum over distance of approximately 300 kilometers. The one second is also divided into 1,000,000 microseconds (1 millionth of a second) or 1,000,000,000 nanoseconds (1 billionth of a second) or 1,000,000,000,000 picoseconds (1 trillionth of a second).

Quran Ayahs (27.38-39) speaks of over 1,000 miles journey that took place in less than an eye blink (the average time it takes for a complete human eye blink is about 300 milliseconds) and the Quran also speaks of events that take much shorter time down to no time (t=0), see later below.

Past, Present, and Future

There are basically two views regarding the nature of time.

First, “Conventional View” is that in daily life we divide time into three parts: past, present, and future; reality is associated with the present moment and the past slipped out of existence whereas the future is still unformed.

15

Symbolic signage of “Past, Present and Future” [15]

Second, “Block Universe View” is that time is laid out in its entirety with all past and future events located together with no special moment as the present or any process that would systematically turn future events into the present, then past, events. British physicist Julian Barbour (born 1937) argued that there are individual moments, but they are not ordered; there is only a “heap of moments”. The moments exist; but the time that connects them does not. In short; time does not pass or flow.

16

Potential representation of “Heap of Moments” notion in this image titled: “A Time for Everything” [16]

Modern conception of time is based on Einstein‘s theory of relativity (1905), in which rates of time run differently depending on relative motion, and space and time are merged into “space-time”, where we live on a “world-line” rather than a “time-line”. The world-line of an object is the path of that object in 4-dimensional space-time, tracing the history of its location in space at each instant in time. In other words, the path on which every event in your lifetime is located, from birth to death. That is every particle in the universe, has own world-line which is their fixed, permanent path in space-time.

17

Special Relativity World Line: Two-dimensional space depicted in three-dimensional space-time. The past and future light cones are absolute; the present is a relative concept different for observers in relative motion [17]

Albert Einstein (1879-1955) concluded (in 1952) that the past, present, and future all exist simultaneously (Block Universe View). Einstein said “The distinction between the past, present and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion“.

Quran frequently calls mankind not to regard humanity past as merely “tales of the ancients” or as historical footnotes that are irrelevant, see for example Ayah (83.13);

c

Quran Ayah (83.13)

When the Quran speaks of Moses and Aaron, other previous prophets, men and women that have already walked the earth before us it raises their stories, as living truths, out of their historical time. This is expressed in the key word “remember” in many Ayahs, such as (7.69, 7.74, 7.205, 19.16, 19.51, 38.48, and 88.21). The Quran uses direct expressions that encourage the elimination of time past by pulling these events to the forefront for immediate attention in the present. And that these past events also remain valid and relevant in the future. In these Ayahs, the Quran seems to ask us to look at time, in-line with the Block Universe View, as heap of moments systematically organized and connected (by their virtues rather than by time).

d

Quran Ayah (88.21)

Quran also brings status from then future (which, say now; 20-21st century) to the Arabs present (in the 6th century) who were really not in a position to fully understand Ayah (21.30) as we may understand it now. This Ayah (21.30) (approximate translation “Do not the unbelievers see that the space and matter were joined together and we ripped them apart?”) appears to refer to the unbelievers of now (including the many atheists among astrophysics scientists who are enabled by God to see or comprehend what they currently research) and not the 6th century unbelievers.

e

Quran Ayah (21.30)

Time and the Big Bang

One popular theory of cosmology is called the Big Bang. According to the Big Bang theory, the universe was formed about 13.8 billion (or: 13,800,000,000) years ago, in what is called a “gravitational singularity“.

18

History of the Universe [18]

The singularity was small, dense, and very hot. According to this theory, all of the matter that we know today, including all galaxies, came out of this single point. This theory stipulates the universe once had an infinitesimal size and an almost infinite temperature and gravitational field strength. It has been expanding and cooling ever since. When it cooled below 10,000,000,000 degrees Kelvin, individual particles could form into atomic nuclei. When it cooled below 10,000 degrees Kelvin, individual electrons and atomic nuclei could form into atoms. Later, as the expansion continued, the atoms clumped into stars and galaxies, eventually producing the universe of today.

19

This diagram shows the progressives stages of the evolution of the universe: Particle Energy, Time, Temperature and Visible Matter Density are schematically given at stages [19]

 Stephen Hawking (born 1932) stated that time began with the Big Bang, and that questions about what happened before the Big Bang are meaningless. The Big Bang itself resulted from an extremely dense “singularity” event out of which matter, space and time came out intimately linked together.

20

A model representing the Inflationary Period before Standard Big Bang Theory: Such models suggest an extraordinary inflationary phase in the era 10^-36 seconds to 10^-32 seconds. More expansion is presumed to have occurred in this instant than in the entire period (14 billion years?) since. The inflationary epoch may have expanded the universe by 10^20 or 10^30 in this incredibly brief time [20]

The singularity from which our universe emerged is an event before matter, space and time. Hence, the Big Bang theory does not speak to what happened at or before the initial Big Bang event. It is a theory only of the aftermath of that event.

Scientists have come to some agreement on descriptions of events that happened 10^ -35 seconds after the Big Bang, but generally agree that descriptions about what happened before one Planck time (5 × 10^ -44 seconds) after the Big Bang will likely remain pure speculation. Current established physical theories are believed to fail at this Planck time.

Quran explain the creation of the universe accurately and in astounding precision. Quran address God creations in many Ayahs. The Arabic expression “kun fa yakun” in Ayahs (3.47 and 40.68) does not mention time at all because such God creation event is “beyond time”, that such event happens at t=0.

f

Quran Ayah (3.47)

 

g

Quran Ayah (40.68)

In the aftermath “matter and space” were joined as one and then were separated. This is accurately described in Quran Ayah (21.30).

The universe in its very early stages was still in the form of hot gases. This is also accurately described in Quran Ayah (41.11) in which rather than gas the word “smoke” is used which imply association with extreme heat.

 

h

Quran Ayah (41.11)

 The Six Days

Quran states that the universe was created in six days. The Quran refers to the six days in many Ayahs, such as (7.54, 10.3, 11.7, 25.59, 32.4, 50.38 and 57.4). In several Ayahs, such as (7.54 and 11.7) the six days are mentioned with God’s Throne and thus Muslims interpret the six days to be days at God’s Throne, not Earth days.

i

Quran Ayah (7.4)

Big Bang theory stipulates the universe age is about 13.8 billion years; that is Earth years. And, the energy at the Big Bang event slowed down the flow of time of up-to 10^12 (one million-million) times. A rough estimate would be one minute at Big Bang event corresponds to one million-million Earth minutes; or six days at Big Bang event corresponds to six million-million Earth days (or 16.427 billion Earth years).

Big Bang theory stipulates time to be continuously slowing down in proportion to the expansion of the universe; approximately described: ever since the Big Bang event the size of the universe doubles as the passage of time half. In other words, as the universe grows, the rate at which it doubles in size slows down. Hereunder is “refined” theoretically postulated sequence;

  • Throne Day 1 (6) corresponds to 8.00 billion Earth years.
  • Throne Day 2 (6) corresponds to 4.00 billion Earth years.
  • Throne Day 3 (6) corresponds to 2.00 billion Earth years.
  • Throne Day 4 (6) corresponds to 1.00 billion Earth years.
  • Throne Day 5 (6) corresponds to 0.50 billion Earth years.
  • Throne Day 6 (6) corresponds to 0.25 billion Earth years.

Total is 15 billion 750 million Earth years.

This figure is more than the famous estimate of 13.8 billion years which gives rise to a speculation: Could this figure mean the universe’s “time” as a constituency of space-time amounts to 15.75 billion years? That is to say the remainder of the universe time is only about 2 billion years (15.75 billion (total) – 13.80 billion (elapsed) = 1.95 billion years) remaining of the universe life. This speculation stems from the Arabic word “fee” as used in the Quran above mentioned Ayahs which means “in” and not “during” six days.

21

Past, present and potential scenarios of the universe future destiny and life span. This illustration shows three possible futures for the Universe, depending on the behavior of dark energy, by showing how the scale of the Universe may change with time [21]

Time and Earth Creation

Quran states that Earth was created in two days. Quran refers to the two days in Ayah (41.9). The two days represents 1/3 of the Universe’s six days in Ayahs (7.54 and 11.7) which makes it 4.6 billion Earth years (13.8/3 = 4.6); a figure that tally with most current estimates based on geological and other data.

22

A list of Important Dates in Earth History is provided that contains the dates of the events shown on a clock. This schematic shows if 4.6 billion years is pretended to be only 60 minutes then modern man has only lived on Earth for a tiny fraction of the last second, as shown on the top [22]

Ayah (41.10) that follows (41.9) is fascinating to say the least. This Ayah (41.10) says God ordained (or: calculated/measured/appointed) Earth provisions (or: means of sustenance) in four days which is twice Earth’s two days and 2/3 of the Universe’s six days. The four days correspond to 9.2 billion Earth years which is nearly twice the age of the Solar System itself. How can this be?

j

Quran Ayah (41.9)

k

Quran Ayah (41.10)

 

23

The surface of the Earth provides a place for the human beings, animals , plants to live as the life evolved from bacteria and virus 4 billion years ago [23

The nebular hypothesis (a theory originally developed by Immanuel Kan in 1755 and subsequently developed by a variety of scientific disciplines including astronomy, physics, geology, and planetary science) is the most widely accepted model in the field of cosmogony to explain the formation and evolution of the solar system. It suggests that the solar system formed from “nebulous material”. That is the formation of the solar system began much more than 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a “giant molecular cloud”. Most of the collapsing mass collected in the center, forming the Sun, while the rest flattened into a protoplanetary disk out of which Earth, the other planets, moons, asteroids, and other small Solar System bodies formed. In other words, previous generations of stars lived and died, injecting heavy elements into the interstellar medium out of which the solar system formed. The solar system could have been formed in “an Orion nebula” like star-forming region where the most massive stars are formed. After formation they then lived their lives, died, and exploded in supernova.

24

NASA Orion Nebula – Great Nebula in Orion [24]

That supernova triggered the formation of our solar system. This would mean that all matter that makes up our solar system and planets, including Earth, was once ejected by supernova explosions long time ago before the formation of Earth itself. This makes Quran Ayah (41.10) fascinatingly comprehensible and in harmony with Ayah (41.19).

Time and Solar System, Milky Way, other Galaxies

Our sun (800,000 miles in diameter), the nearest star, is a million times the size of Earth (8,000 miles in diameter).  It looks small because it is 93 million miles away from Earth. A 747 jet flies at about 600 miles per hour would take 17 years to fly from Earth to the sun. But, it only takes 8 minutes for the sun light to reach Earth.

It takes 5 light-hours (meaning the distance light travels in 5 hours) for light to get out to Pluto from Earth.  Much of the solar system is still unknown. Currently, the furthest known objects, such as Comet West have aphelia around 1.4 light years (meaning the distance light travels in 1.4 years) from the sun.

25

Artist’s impression of Earth’s solar system [25]

Our star, the sun, and its planets are just one small part of the Milky Way galaxy. The Milky Way galaxy is a huge disk of stars, so big that even at the speed of light; it would take 100,000 years to travel across it.

The location of RS Puppis within the Milky Way (artist’s impre

Artist’s impression of the Milky Way This artist’s impression shows the location of the Cepheid star RS Pup in our Galaxy. From ESO NTT observations of the echoes on several nebular features, the distance of RS Pup was found to be 6,500 light-years, with an uncertainty of 90 light-years. RS Pup is distant by about a quarter of the distance between the Sun and the Centre of the Milky Way. RS Pup is located within the Galactic plane, in a very populated region of our Galaxy [26] .

When astronomers look out into the universe, they notice that the objects they see are not distributed willy-nilly. Rather, the force of gravity tends to bring galaxies together into giant agglomerations such as clusters, superclusters, sheets, and walls.

27

NGC 4414, a typical spiral galaxy in the constellation Coma Berenices, is about 55,000 light-years in diameter and approximately 60 million light-years away from Earth [27]

Our home galaxy the “Milky Way” galaxy is part of a super-cluster named “Virgo Super cluster” which is made up of more than 1,300 galaxies.

The Coma Supercluster is another interesting supercluster to note because it sits at the center of the “Northern Great Wall”, a staggeringly enormous “filament of galaxies” 500 million light years across and 300 million light years wide.

28

Coma cluster [28]

The largest supercluster in our vicinity is the Horologium Supercluster, which stretches across half a billion light years.

29

Horologium Super-cluster [29]

Horologium supercluster [29]

Time Dilation

Einstein’s theory of relativity suggests the occurrence of time dilation under two conditions;

In conjunction with speed;

Einstein’s theory of “special relativity” says that time slows down or speeds up depending on how fast you move relative to something else. Example on this is a person inside a spaceship approaching the speed of light (say, at about 450 million miles per hour), would age much slower than his twin on Earth.

30

Time Dilation: moving clocks tick slower [30]

That is the faster a spacecraft moves the slower time ticks inside it. Fast moving aircraft have travelled few fractions of a second into the future thus confirming bodies moving at high velocities experience a time that ticks slower than the time measured at zero velocity.

31

Measurable time dilation is negligible on a train moving past a platform at 60 km/hr, but increases dramatically if that train acquires the capacity to approach the speed of light [31]

Also, the clock on International Space Station (ISS) travelling in orbit (at bout 400km altitude) around Earth at a speed of roughly 17,000 miles per hour ticks just a little bit slower than clocks on Earth do.

32

International Space Station [32]

33

International Space Station inside [33]

In conjunction with gravity,

Einstein’s theory of “general relativity” says time is slower in fields of greater gravitation. Example is a person living at the top of a skyscraper would have clocked more seconds of life than someone living at the bottom floor. This effect is minuscule but grows with increasing distances. This phenomenon is called “gravitational time dilation” and has also been confirmed through tests of general relativity. GPS satellites travelling in orbit (at about 20,000 km altitude which is 50 times higher than ISS) around Earth at a speed of roughly 9,000 miles per hour (about half ISS speed) ticks just a little bit faster than clocks on Earth do (an extra 38 microseconds each day compared to an object on the surface of the earth). The reason is influence of time dilation due to reduced gravity at higher altitude surpass influence of time contraction due to its speed which is slower than ISS speed.

34

GPS Satellite Constellation: BeiDou System is a global navigation satellite system developed and operated by the Chinese government [34]

Below are examples from the Quran on time relativity and dilations;

50,000 Earth years

Muslim physicists use Quran Ayah (70.4) to check Einstein’s theory of special relativity;

l

Quran Ayahs (70.4)

This theory postulates a relationship between two relative times and high speeds “outside gravitational fields” by the following formula;

t-speed formula

Relativity theory time-speed formula

Where v is the velocity of angels and c is constant (equals to speed of light). The substituting of ∆to = 1 day being the time experienced by angels and ∆t = 16.4 million days (or: more exactly 50,000 lunar years x12 lunar months/lunar year x 27.321661 days/lunar month) as the time as measured by humans in above formula gives the ratio v/c as 99.99999999999981%. In other words, according to theory of special relativity time is relative and the angles (and the spirit which many Muslims believe this is a reference to Gabriel) do indeed travel at or very close to speed of light (~ 300,000 km/s), and that time does dilate.

1,000 Earth years

Quran Ayahs (3.133, 57.21) imply the size of Paradise is as big as the universe. Muslims believe the size of Hell is also massive; far more massive than Earth. Quran Ayah (22.47) approximate translation is “They challenge you to bring retribution, and God never fails to fulfil His prophecy. A day of your Lord is like a thousand years of your count” which implies said one day is relevant to the place of retribution: Hell.

Muslim physicists say this Quran Ayah (22.47) also confirms time relativity, time dilation and it correlates with Einstein’s theory of general relativity which stipulates that time is slower in fields of greater gravitation;

m

Quran Ayah (22.47)

In this context, 1 day in Hell that is equivalent to 1,000 Earth years implies the enormous crushing power of Hell’s gravitation fields far beyond human imagination.

300 Earth years

Quran tells the story of “sleepers of the cave” which is about a group of pious youth. They fled the persecution by their people for their belief and, along with their dog, sought refuge inside a cave where sleep befalls them for 300 years after which God awaked them. They thought they must have slept a day or so.

n

Quran Ayah (18.19)

Quran Ayahs (18.19, 18.25) say they then sent out one of them to bring some fresh food. When he reaches town, he discovers the vast changes that have occurred (over the 300 years he is not aware of). His paper-money is found to be centuries old. The story implies their time in the cave slowed down while time marched on in the outside world, pointing to another type of gravitational time dilation.

100 Earth years

Quran tells the story of a man (possibly a prophet) who came to a hamlet in ruins where he wonders with the question of how God could possibly bring this place back to life after its death. Quran Ayah (2.259) says upon his question God make him die then resurrect him 100 years later.

o

Quran Ayah (2.259)

God then asks him how long he slept. He answers one day or so. God tells him you slept for 100 years and tells him to look at his food and drink being still as is with no decay while his donkey had been reduced to bones. Muslim physicists speculate that “the food and drink” were perhaps bubbled inside separate gravitational field the magnitude of gravitational force in it being much higher than that of the donkey thus greatly reduced the speed of its march forward in time.

Within a blink of an eye

Quran tells the story of Prophet Solomon when he asked his sub-ordinates to bring to him in Jerusalem the throne of queen Sheba of Yemen, a journey of over 1,000 miles away. Quran Ayahs (27.38-40) say it was transported to him within a blink of an eye. Muslim physicists say this story confirm two things: first; matter can be transported at very high speed or close to light speed and second; God has bestowed power to one of his creatures to be fast enough to achieve time dilation.

p

Quran Ayah (27. 40)

 

35

Over 1,000 miles Journey within an eye blink [35]

Time Travel

Some scientists say since “time dilation” is proven it should enable “time travel”. That is you could do a lap around the galaxy and return to Earth in the future.

As measured by an Earth-based clock, it takes 100,000 years for light to travel across our Milky Way galaxy, but if you took the same trip in a spaceship traveling at very near the speed of light, the trip might last only 25 years, as judged by your own clock in the spaceship.

36

Our solar system is located in the outer reaches of the Milky Way Galaxy, which is a spiral galaxy [36]

 The problem against such journey is, according to present-day laws of physics, nothing can travel as fast as the speed of light – let alone a spaceship. Scientists say even the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the strongest particle accelerator in the word, can’t make “protons” move that fast.

37

Large Hadron Collider: At 17 miles (27km) across, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest particle accelerator and the biggest machine in the world [37]

Physicists say the proposal of time travel is backed by scientific theory, but also agree that is not enough to make it realistically possible and thus not all scientists believe that time travel is possible.

Some scientists say any time travel attempt would be fatal to any human who chooses to undertake it, it is impossible no matter the travel method, humans cannot withstand time travel at all and traveling at nearly the speed of light would be lethal.

Using gravity would also be deadly. To experience time dilation, one could stand on a neutron star, but the forces a person would experience would rip him apart first.

38

Neutron Star: The currently popular analogy to describe the density of matter within a neutron star is that it’s like compressing the entire human population into a sugar cube [38]

 Furthermore, time travel that changes either the future or the past is generally considered to be impossible. You cannot use high speed travel in order to visit the future of the world after your death or to visit the past to kill your grandad to prevent your birth and thus renders your journey start impossible in the first place.

In 2010, Stephen Hawking (born 1942) gave a lecture titled “How to build a time machine”. He spoke of “weird and wonderful tools” and “methods” all of which are of course theoretical. He spoke of finding or building a “wormhole“. In 1935, Nathan Rosen and Einstein suggested the existence of wormholes which is still theoretical as no wormhole has ever been discovered.

39

Wormholes have never been proven to exist, these theoretical passageways through space-time are predicted by Einstein’s general theory of relativity [39]

Scientists say concepts like wormholes (and Closed Time-like Curves (CTC)) might be possible means of time travel. Theoretically wormholes exist within the “quantum foam” in the sub-atomic world. They are tiny tunnels (billion-trillion-trillionths of a centimetre across) acting as shortcuts through space and time constantly form, disappear, and reform within this quantum world and they link two separate places and two different times.

40

Closed Time-like Curves [40]

41

Time-Travel Wormhole: In physics, the concept of time travel has been often used to examine the consequences of physical theories such as special relativity, general relativity and quantum mechanics [41]

Some scientists think it may be possible to capture a wormhole and enlarge it many trillions of times to make it big enough for a human or even a spaceship to enter. But, such a wormhole won’t last long enough to be of any use as a time machine.

42

Artist’s depiction of a hypothetical Wormhole Induction Propelled Spacecraft, based loosely on the 1994 warp drive paper of Miguel Alcubierre [42]

43

A model of how Wormholes could work to facilitate time travel [43]

So, alternatively, given enough power and advanced technology, perhaps a giant wormhole could even be constructed in space such that one end could be here near Earth, and the other far, far away, near some distant planet!

44

An artist’s impression of a supermassive black hole devouring matter from an accretion disc [44]

Hawking conceded that black holes are more practical than wormholes, but , he says, it’s pretty dangerous as they are a long way away and it doesn’t even take us very far into the future.

45

This artist’s concept depicts a supermassive black hole at the centre of a galaxy [45]

 Quran confirms time dilation (see above). Quran Ayahs (70. 3-4) speaks of (maarej), which Muslim scientist say these are kin to the concept of wormholes, which angles may use in their travel.

q

Quran Ayahs (70.3)

Also, Quran Ayahs (15.14-15) refer to “doors” (or “gates”) in the universe (that contract interstellar distances into walking distances) which the unbelievers, if allowed to pass through it, would still unbelievers and say we have been subjected to magic spell.

s

Quran Ayahs (15.14)

t

Quran Ayahs (15.15)

Quran implies time travel expressively: Quran Ayah (5.110) says Prophet Jesus resurrects the dead by God permission; an action that defies the time travel paradox that says a person cannot be made to time-travel to the future to a time beyond his own death.

r

Quran Ayah (5.110)

Another theory, the “string theory” holds that the Universe is made up of vibrating, sub-atomic “superstrings” that exert a gravitational pull so strong they are capable of warping space-time.

46

String Theory of Space: These ‘strings’ are minute, vibrating structures that sit in these “ten-dimensions” of space-time, and make up all forms of matter and are the cause of the laws of physics as we know them [46]

Some Astrophysical scientists like Richard Gott (born 1947) of Princeton University say such cosmic strings would “warp” space-time around them such that the approach of two such strings parallel to each other will bend space-time so vigorously and in such a particular configuration that might make time travel possible – in theory. Richard Gott conceded the cosmic strings exist only in theory and admitted “This is a project a super civilisation might attempt”.

Quran implies the existence of invisible columns (or: invisible super strings) in the universe. Quran Ayah (13.2) says God raised the skies (the universe) “without columns which we are able see”; this implies the possibility of the existence of universal columns (or: universal super strings) which we cannot see.

u

Quran Ayah (13.2)

Multi-universe

Many philosophers and scientists consider most of the stories employing time travel in popular culture are logically incoherent. They argue one cannot “change” the past to be different from what it was, since the past (like the present and the future) only occurs once.

47

Actor Rod-Taylor in Time Machine 1960 film [47]

To overcome this difficulty some cosmologists believe there is more than one universe in existence and this allows for every possible version of an event to take place.  For example, a man who goes back in time to murder his own grandad can get away with it, because in the universe next door the granddad lives to have the son who becomes the murderer’s father.

48

Multiverse Theory Universe: On the surface of each layer are the galaxies and nebulae in each universe [48]

49

Wormhole is a theoretical ‘tunnel’ or shortcut, predicted by Einstein’s theory of relativity, that links two places in space-time where negative energy pulls space and time into the mouth of a tunnel, emerging in another universe. Wormholes are hypothetical, but have been used in several movies in 1980s and 1990s (From Stephen Hawking’s Article “How to build a time machine” on 27 April 2010 [49]

Newly discovered particles called “tachyons”, which occur in some nuclear reactions, are believed to travel faster than light and can never travel at the speed of light, only faster. This behaviour supports the idea of the speed of light being a barrier and hence “tachyons” behave in just the opposite way from matter. No one has actually observed a “tachyon” and this raises a speculation that they may exist in a different dimension of time-space.

Quran first Ayah (1.2) approximate translation is “All praise belongs to God, Lord of the Worlds “.  Science is gradually moving, currently through quantum physics, to an understanding called the “Many Worlds Theory”, which appears to be in line with this specific Ayah.

v

Quran Ayah (1.2)

Over 900 years ago, in his commentary on Quran Ayah (1.2), Muslim philosopher Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149 -1209) criticized the idea of the Earth’s centrality within the universe.  He raised the question of whether the term “worlds” in Quran Ayah (1.2) refers to “multiple worlds within this single universe or cosmos, or to many other universes or a multiverse beyond this known universe.”

Quran Ayahs (55.33 and 71.15) imply multiple universes and barriers that lie between them.

w

Quran Ayah (55.33)

 

x

Quran Ayah (71.15)

 

50

Depiction of a multiverse of seven “bubble” universes, which are separate space-time continua, each having different physical laws, physical constants, and perhaps even different numbers of dimensions or topologies [50]

51

Multiverse Theory Universe [51]

52

Another visualization concept of Multiverse Parallel Universe [52]

Once science comprehends multiverse is the true reality, then most of current scientific hypotheses on time travel are imminently realised to have become based on the false reality that existence is made of a single universe.

Quran and Science

The Quran is valid in all times and hence in harmony with science verifiable discoveries at every century.   None of these discoveries contradict the Quran. Muslim scientists study the Cosmos and advances in the fields of Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, Medicine, Astronomy and Biology. Historically, they made many impressive inventions like the magnetic compass, the astrolabe, and the clock pendulum and introduced Algebra, the Arabic numerals and the concept of Zero. Muslim scholars believe the study of the universe is among the highest forms of worship of God and whatever science discovers it only increases human’s knowledge of God creations. Before the Quran, the Arabs had virtually no contributions to science.

 Citations from the Quran

A number of Quran Ayahs have been cited in this Article. Each of the cited Ayahs is preceded by a numerical code within two brackets; for example: (9.36) refers to Ayah Number 36 in Surah number 9. Ideally, the readers who know Arabic would refer directly to the original Quran in Arabic. Quran translation to any other language has always been difficult, even though many attempts have already been made. In 1982-84, a Quran Complex was established by Saudi Arabia government, named after King Fahd. This Quran Complex outlines Quran translation difficulties into English, considers all translations to be translations to the “meanings” or “interpretations” of the Quran and denotes own Quran translations as “Translations of the Meanings of the Quran”. A list of well-known sources of other translations of the Quran is given at the bottom of this Article under Citations from the Quran.

There are several well-known Quran translations to English which can be found on the internet or published in the form of books such as the following 10 translations; (1) Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought, Amman, Jordan, 2008, (2) Quran Complex which was established in 1982-84 by the Saudi Arabia government, named after King Fahd, (3) Dr  Mohammad Ghali (born in 1920) who was a Professor of Linguistics and Islamic Studies, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt, (4) Mohammad Muhsin Khan (born in 1927). He is a contemporary author of Pashtun origin who completed this translation with Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali, (5) M H Shakir: There is controversy on the real identity of the translator who may be Egyptian judge Muhammad Habib Shakir (1866-1939) or likely Mohammedali Habib Shakir the son of Habib Esmail of The House of Habib in Pakistan, (6) Yusuf Ali (1872-1953) who was a British-Indian Islamic scholar. He died in London and is buried in England at the Muslim cemetery at Brookwood, Surrey (near Woking), not far from the burial place of Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall (1875 –1936) who was a Western Islamic scholar (a convert from Christianity) also noted for his translation of the Qur’an (1930) from Arabic to English, see below, (7) Muhammad Pickthall (1875-1936); he was a Western; a convert from Christianity, (8)       Sahih International; in 1989 three American converts to Islam joined together to form “Saheeh International” and published their translation in 1997, (9) Dr Rashad Khalifa (1935-1990), who promoted a strict monotheism and was a prominent Quranist. His translation is considered as simple with clear presentation and ease of use. But, he is also known for his controversial research claiming the Quran is mathematically and statistically coded to number 19. Some Quranic Muslims criticised Rashad Khalifa as grossly misinterpreted the sign of number 19 in the Quran: He came to the point of seeing number 19 everywhere and believing that every aspect of the Quran was coded with it. (10) Muhammad Asad (1900–1992); was a Jewish-born Austro-Hungarian journalist, traveller, linguist, diplomat and Islamic scholar.

Referenced Quran Ayahs

Approximate translations to English of Quran Ayahs cited in this Article;

(1.2)         Praise be to God, Lord of the Worlds.

(2.259)      consider the one who passed by a ghost town (fallen into utter ruin) and wondered (exclaimed), “How can God revive this after it had died?” God then put him to death for a hundred years, and then resurrected him. He said, “How long have you stayed here?” He said, “I have been here a day, or part of the day.” He said, “No! You have been here a hundred years. Yet, look at your food and drink; they did not spoil. Look at your donkey – we thus render you a lesson for the people. Now, note how we construct the bones, and then cover them with flesh.” When he realized what had happened, he said, “Now I know that God is Omnipotent.

(3.47)        She (Mary) said, “My Lord, how can I have a son, when no man has touched me?” He said, “God thus creates whatever He wills. To have anything done, He says to it: “Be and it is”.

(3.133)      you should eagerly race towards forgiveness from your Lord and a Paradise whose width encompasses the heavens and the earth; it awaits the righteous.

(5.110)      God will say: O Jesus, son of Mary, remember My blessings upon you and your mother. I supported you with the Holy Spirit, to enable you to speak to the people from the crib, as well as an adult. I taught you the scripture, wisdom, the Torah, and the Gospel. Recall that you created from clay the shape of a bird by My leave (permission), then blew into it, and it became a live bird by My leave (permission). You healed the blind and the leprous by My leave (permission), and revived the dead by My leave (permission). Recall that I protected you from the Children of Israel who wanted to hurt you, despite the profound miracles you had shown them. The disbelievers among them said, `This is obviously magic.’

(7.54)        Your Lord is the one God, who created the heavens and the earth in six days, then mounted He the Throne (assumed all authority). The night overtakes the day, as it pursues it persistently, and the sun, the moon, and the stars are committed to serve by His command. Absolutely, He controls all creation and all commands. Most Exalted is God, Lord of the Worlds.

(7.69)        is it too much of a wonder that a message should come to you from your Lord, through a man like you, to warn you? Recall (remember) that He made you inheritors after the people of Noah, and multiplied your number. Remember God’s blessings that you may succeed.

(7.74)        And remember (recall) that He made you inheritors after Aad, and established you on earth, building mansions (castles) in its valleys (plains), and carving homes from its mountains. You shall remember God’s blessings, and do not roam the earth corrupting.

(7.205)      You shall remember your Lord within yourself, publicly, privately, and quietly, day and night; do not be unaware (one of the neglectful).

(9.36)        The count of the months with God is twelve months by God’s ordinance in the day that He created the heavens and the earth. Four of them are sacred. This is the perfect religion; you shall not wrong your souls (by fighting) during the Sacred Months. However, you may declare all-out war against the idol worshipers (even during the Sacred Months), when they declare all-out war against you, and know that GOD is on the side of the righteous.

(10.3)        your Lord is God Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days, then He established Himself upon the Throne (then assumed all authority), directing all things. There is no intercessor (with Him) save after His permission. Such is God your Lord. You shall worship Him. Would you not take heed?

(11.7)       He is the One who created the heavens and the earth in six days – and His Throne was upon the water [and His (earthly) domain was completely covered with water] – in order to test you, to distinguish those among you who work righteousness. Yet, when you say, “You will be resurrected after death,” those who disbelieve would say, “This is clearly witchcraft.”

(13.2)        God is the One who raised the heavens without visible columns (pillars that you can see), then (then mounted the Throne) assumed all authority. He committed the sun and the moon, each running (in its orbit) for a predetermined period. He controls all things, and explains the revelations, that you may attain certainty about meeting your Lord.

(15.14)      And even if We opened unto them a gate into the sky and they kept mounting through it,

(15.15)      they would say “Our eyes have been deceived. We have been bewitched.”

(18.19)      when we resurrected (awakened) them, that they might question one another (they ask each other), “How long have you been here?” “We have been here one day or part of the day,” they answered. “Your Lord knows best how long we stayed here, so let us send one of us with this your paper-money to the city. Let him fetch the cleanest food, and buy some for us. Let him keep a low profile, and attract no attention (let no one know of you).

(18.25)      they stayed in their cave three hundred years, increased by nine.

(19.16)      Remember (Mention) in the scripture Mary. She isolated herself from her family, into an eastern location.

(19.51)      Remember (Mention) in the scripture Moses. He was devoted, and he was a messenger prophet.

(21.30)      Do the unbelievers not realize that the heaven and the earth used to be one solid mass that we parted them (exploded into existence)? And from water we made all living things. Would they believe?

(22.47)      they challenge you to bring retribution, and God never fails to fulfil His prophecy. A day of your Lord is like a thousand of your years.

(25.59)      He is the One who created the heavens and the earth, and everything between them, in six days, then He mounted the Throne (assumed all authority). The Most Gracious; ask about Him those who are well founded in knowledge.

(27.38)      He said: O chiefs! Which of you will bring me her throne before they come unto me, surrendering (arrive here as submitters?).

(27:39)      A stalwart of the jinn said: “I can bring it to you before you stand up. I am powerful enough to do this.”

(27:40)      the one who possessed knowledge from the book said, “I can bring it to you before your eye lid returns to you (in the blink of your eye). When he saw it settled in front of him, he said, “This is a blessing from my Lord, whereby He tests me, to show whether I am appreciative or unappreciative. Whoever is appreciative is appreciative for his own good, and if one turns unappreciative, then my Lord is in no need for him, Most Honorable.”

(32.4)        God is the One who created the heavens and the earth, and everything between them in six days, and then He mounted the Throne (assumed all authority). You have none beside Him as Lord, nor do you have an intercessor. Would you not take heed?

(38.48)      Remember: Ismail, Elisha and Thu-al-Kefl; among the most righteous.

(40.68)      He is the only One who controls life and death. To have anything done, He says to it “Be and it is”.

(41:9)        Say, “You disbelieve in the One who created the earth in two days, and you set up idols to rank with Him, though He is Lord of the universe.”

(41:10)      He placed on it stabilizers (mountains), made it productive, and He calculated its provisions in four days, to satisfy the needs of all its inhabitants.

(41:11)      Then He turned to the sky, when it was still smoke, and said to it, and to the earth, “Come into existence, willingly or unwillingly.” They said, “We come willingly.”

(50.38)      We have created the heavens and the earth, and everything between them in six days, and no fatigue touched us.

(55.33)      O you jinn and humans, if you can penetrate the outer limits of the heavens and the earth, go ahead and penetrate. You cannot penetrate without authorization (power).

(57.4)       He is the One who created the heavens and the earth in six days, then He mounted the Throne (assumed all authority). He knows everything that enters into the earth, and everything that comes out of it, and everything that comes down from the sky, and everything that climbs into it. He is with you wherever you may be. God is Seer of everything you do

(57.21)      Therefore, you shall race towards forgiveness from your Lord, and a Paradise whose width encompasses (whereof the breadth is as the breadth of) the heaven and the earth. It awaits those who believed in God and His messengers. Such is GOD’s grace that He bestows upon whomever He wills. God is Possessor of Infinite Grace

(70:3)        From God; Lord of the Ascending Pathways (Possessor of the highest Heights).

(70:4)        (Whereby) the angels (with their reports) and the Spirit ascend unto Him in a Day (climb to Him in a Day) that equals fifty thousand years.

(71.15)      Do you not realize that God created seven universes in layers?

(83.13)      when our revelations are recited to him, he says, “Tales from the past!”

(88.21)      you shall remind, for your mission is to deliver this reminder (for you are reminder).

Notes (on sources from Internet)

Quran Ayahs in Original Arabic

Quran Ayahs (1.2, 3.47, 9.36, 12.35, 15.14, 15.15, 21.30, 40.68, 41.9, 41.10, 55.33, 70.3, 70.4, 71.15, 83.13, 88.21): [sahih-bukhari.com]; Quran Ayahs (2.259, 7.4, 18.19, 22.47): [quran.com]; Quran Ayah (27. 40): [theonlyquran.com]; Quran Ayah (5.110): (sunnahstudent.com); and Quran Ayah (13.2): (speed-light.info).

Images, Illustrations and Diagrams

These are available in a diverse collection of internet web sites such as the following for each [1] (ifunny.com); [2] (httpkritterbox.com); [2a]

(maggiesscienceconnection.weebly.com); [3] (clipartbest.com); [4] (b-inet.com); [5] (ridiculousmind.com); [6] (englishexercises.org); [7] (cfa.harvard.edu); [8] (hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu); [9] (slideplayer.com (slide15)); [10] (printablecalendartemplates.com); [11] (uk.pinterest.com); [12] (homepage.ufp.pt); [13] (blog.onlineclock.net); [14] (hodinkee.com); [15] (aauw-wa.aauw.net); [16] (merrilewis.wordpress.com); [17] (en.wikipedia.org); [18] (kheper.net); [19] (alicematters.web.cern.ch) ; [20] (hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu); [21] (chandra.si.edu); [22] (uky.edu); [23] (wonderwhizkids.com); [24] (asterisk.apod.com); [2] (forums.arabsbook.com); [26] (cdn.spacetelescope.org); [27] (upload.wikimedia.org ); [28] (web.hallym.ac.kr); [29] (atlasoftheuniverse.com); [30] (blog.onlineclock.net); [31] (phys.org); [32] (spaceflightinsider.com); [33] (sliceofscifi.com); [34] (molexpn.com); [35] (imninalu.net); [36] (photos170.bloguez.com); [37] (dailymail.co.uk); [38] (universetoday.com); [39] (galacticconnection.com); [40] (nature.com); [41] (306physics.wikispaces.com); [42] (upload.wikimedia.org); [43] (forums.boxofficetheory.com); [44] (upload.wikimedia.org); [45] (phys.org); [46] (hellogiggles.com); [47] (timidmonster.com); [48] (sciencephoto.com); [49] (dailymail.co.uk); [50] (upload.wikimedia.org}; [51] (philosophy.talons43.ca); and [52] (blogs.discovermagazine.com).

Text

Large number of documents, essays, scientific papers and other publications has been consulted during the compilation of this Article. Many of these are also available on a host of web sites, such as but not limited to: andersoninstitute.com, ws5.com, simple.wikipedia.org, space.com, iep.utm.edu, techtarget.com, physics.nist.gov, physics.about.com, gizmodo.com, plato.stanford.edu, brianbosakwebsite.s3-website-us-west-2.amazonaws.com, dailymail.co.uk, theweek.co.uk, nasa.gov, wired.com, mic.com, speed-light.info, miraclesofthequran.com, quora.com, mustaqim.co.uk, islamicity.org, al-furqan.blogspot.co.uk, quran-islam.org, missionislam.com, islamfrominside.com, answering-christianity.com, timetravelaccordingtoislam.blogspot.co.uk, convergencestride.com, en.wikipedia.org, islam.about.com, islam1.org, bbc.co.uk, irfi.org, and izquotes.com.

 

By A Taha, PhD

London, United Kingdom

15 August 2016

Time in Philosophy, Physics and the Quran

By A Taha, PhD

London, United Kingdom

11 August 2016

What is Time?

Philosophers and mathematicians like Zeno (490 – c. 430 BC), Plato (428 – 348 BC), Spinoza (1632 – 1677), Hegel (1770 – 1831), and about a century ago McTaggart (1866 – 1925) gave a radical answer to the question: What is time? They said it does not exist! That is to say we can see a clock, but we cannot see time.

1

One of the “Time Does Not Exist” arguments: If time doesn’t exist, then why do so many things constantly keep changing? [1]

Time is what we intend to measure with the clock; then what are we measuring? The most popular answer is that we are not measuring an object or substance. Thus some physicists argue that time is a “common currency”, making the world easier to describe but having no independent existence. Yet, everybody agrees that human life happens in this order: birth, school, work and death. No other order.

2

Typical Human Life Sequence: Birth, School, Work, Death [2]

The agreement on time order for so many events is part of the reason that most philosophers and scientists believe physical time is objective and they agree that time does exist and is real fundamentally. They just cannot agree on what it is.

Both Galileo (1564 –1642) and Isaac Newton (1642-1726) and many philosophers and scientists up until the 20th century thought that time is a parameter and it was the same for everyone everywhere. This is the basis for “timelines”. But, according to Albert Einstein (1879-1955) relativity theory, although time is global and occurs everywhere it is not universal; it isn’t the same for everybody.

2a

Earth Evolution Timeline [2a]

3

In classical physics time is same for everyone everywhere, yet we use the notion of time zones: time in USA is registered differently in clocks at the same time in different locations. The convenience of the use of time zones has no impact on the fundamental ”sameness” of time in classic physics [3]

Time “Relational” Theories define time in terms of relationships among objects, in particular their changes. These theories imply that at every time something is happening—such as the passage of differently shaped clouds or a tree leaf changing its colour. In short, no change implies no time.

4

Fall Leaves Change Color: The season of autumn which follows summer is also called “Fall”, because all the leaves change colors and eventually fall to the ground during the onset of winter [4]

Time “Substantive Theories, on the other hand, propose time exists independently to be substance-like; more like a medium pervading all of space-time and less like an external container. Also, some of these theories describe space-time as being like a container for events. The container exists with or without events in it. These theories allow “empty time” in which nothing changes.

5

Hermann Minkowski (1864 –1909) Space-Time Geometry: Minkowski Space-time is the mathematical construct where Albert Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity formulates its most clarity [5]

 Later, around 1915, Einstein’s general theory of relativity implied it is possible for space-time to exist while empty of events. The above mentioned “empty time” is permissible according to Einstein’s general theory of relativity which is not allowed by Time Relational Theories.

Time Many Definitions

There are, through human history and to date, many definitions for “time” ranging from “nothing”;” just an illusion” and “does not actually exist” to time is in everything being integral part of the universe’s “space-time” itself. Hereunder are brief sets of time definitions: In general and In physical science.

In general:

Time is indefinite, unlimited duration in which things are considered as happening in the past, present, or future; every moment there has ever been or ever will be.

Or time is the period between two events or during which something exists, happens, or acts; measured or measurable interval any period in the history of humanity or of the universe.

Or time is a precise instant, second, minute, hour, day, week, month, or year, determined by clock or calendar.

Other definitions include the “arrow of time” in which individuals remember the past but not the future, and the future being different from the past. That is to say unbroken eggs become omelettes but omelettes do not become unbroken eggs.

6

Past Simple Timeline [6]

All these practically one-way processes illustrate the arrow of time. The term “arrow of time” was coined in 1927 by the English physicist Arthur Eddington (1882-1944) who considered this arrow of time as universal in the sense that it is the same arrow for everyone, unlike time which can be different for everyone.

7

Arrow of Time: Some highlights of cosmic history are noted along this arrow of time, from the beginning of the Universe to the present, including several major epochs diagonally across the top [7]

In physical science:

Time is defined as a measurement, or as what the clock face reads and it is measured in units of seconds.

In classical, non-relativistic physics time is considered a fundamental quantity (like length, mass, and charge) which can be combined mathematically with other physical quantities to derive other concepts such as motion, kinetic energy and time-dependent fields.

8

Development of Physical Units [8]

 Einstein’s theory of relativity measures time as a function of the speed of light.

9

Time measurements as a function of the Speed of Light “c” [9]

Time Calendars

With such diversity of definitions for time, many philosophers and scientists take the position that it is therefore an arbitrary convention that there are twenty-four hours in a day instead of ten, that no week fails to contain a Thursday that a second lasts as long as it does. Humans chose the origin of our coordinate system for time to be associated with the birth of Jesus on Christian (solar) calendars or the beginning of the year when Prophet Muhammad emigrated from Mecca to Medina on Islamic (lunar) calendars.

10

Both Christian and Muslim calendars use 12 months for every year [10]

Quran specifies, in Ayah (9.36) – see approximate English translation under Citations from the Quran below –, the number of months as twelve. Both Christian and Muslim calendars use 12 months for every year.

a

Quran Ayah (9.36)

The Christian calendar year is longer by 10 days. Quran acknowledges both calendars (solar and lunar) and allows for the 10 days difference in Ayah (18.25) in which the 300 years stay in the cave was “increased by nine” lunar years. The lunar months were also used by the Arabs before Prophet Muhammad.

b

Quran Ayah (12.35)

Time Measurement Unit

Humans use the word time as a numerical representation of what point in a day it is. Time is displayed in hours, followed by minutes, and then seconds. In a single day there are 24 hours or 1,440 minutes or 86,400 seconds.

11

Words of wisdom on the gift of Time [11]

Today, time measurement unit is a “second”. One second is equal to 1/86,400 of a mean solar day. This is derived from the notion that there are 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour, and 24 hours in a mean solar day. This definition is limited in accuracy because of irregularities in the earth’s orbit around the sun.

12

The eccentricity of the earth’s orbit (orbit changing) has influence in the radiation received from the sun, as depicted in this figure [12]

To improve accuracy of measurement a “global atomic cloak” is used against which all other clocks and watches should be monitored.

13

The world’s first atomic clock, taken in 1949 [13]

Here one second is the time that elapses during 9,192,631,770 cycles of the radiation produced by the transition between two levels of the “cesium 133” atom. This is the Standard International (SI) unit of time.

14

Atomic Clock Wristwatch (The Bathys Cesium 133) claimed in 2014 to be accurate to 1 second in 1000 years [14]

The second is sub-divided: one second is made of 1000 milliseconds. In one millisecond an EM (Electro Magnetic) field propagates through a vacuum over distance of approximately 300 kilometers. The one second is also divided into 1,000,000 microseconds (1 millionth of a second) or 1,000,000,000 nanoseconds (1 billionth of a second) or 1,000,000,000,000 picoseconds (1 trillionth of a second).

Quran Ayahs (27.38-39) speaks of over 1,000 miles journey that took place in less than an eye blink (the average time it takes for a complete human eye blink is about 300 milliseconds) and the Quran also speaks of events that take much shorter time down to no time (t=0), see later below.

Past, Present, and Future

There are basically two views regarding the nature of time.

First, “Conventional View” is that in daily life we divide time into three parts: past, present, and future; reality is associated with the present moment and the past slipped out of existence whereas the future is still unformed.

15

Symbolic signage of “Past, Present and Future” [15]

Second, “Block Universe View” is that time is laid out in its entirety with all past and future events located together with no special moment as the present or any process that would systematically turn future events into the present, then past, events. British physicist Julian Barbour (born 1937) argued that there are individual moments, but they are not ordered; there is only a “heap of moments”. The moments exist; but the time that connects them does not. In short; time does not pass or flow.

16

Potential representation of “Heap of Moments” notion in this image titled: “A Time for Everything” [16]

Modern conception of time is based on Einstein‘s theory of relativity (1905), in which rates of time run differently depending on relative motion, and space and time are merged into “space-time”, where we live on a “world-line” rather than a “time-line”. The world-line of an object is the path of that object in 4-dimensional space-time, tracing the history of its location in space at each instant in time. In other words, the path on which every event in your lifetime is located, from birth to death. That is every particle in the universe, has own world-line which is their fixed, permanent path in space-time.

17

Special Relativity World Line: Two-dimensional space depicted in three-dimensional space-time. The past and future light cones are absolute; the present is a relative concept different for observers in relative motion [17]

Albert Einstein (1879-1955) concluded (in 1952) that the past, present, and future all exist simultaneously (Block Universe View). Einstein said “The distinction between the past, present and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion“.

Quran frequently calls mankind not to regard humanity past as merely “tales of the ancients” or as historical footnotes that are irrelevant, see for example Ayah (83.13);

c

Quran Ayah (83.13)

When the Quran speaks of Moses and Aaron, other previous prophets, men and women that have already walked the earth before us it raises their stories, as living truths, out of their historical time. This is expressed in the key word “remember” in many Ayahs, such as (7.69, 7.74, 7.205, 19.16, 19.51, 38.48, and 88.21). The Quran uses direct expressions that encourage the elimination of time past by pulling these events to the forefront for immediate attention in the present. And that these past events also remain valid and relevant in the future. In these Ayahs, the Quran seems to ask us to look at time, in-line with the Block Universe View, as heap of moments systematically organized and connected (by their virtues rather than by time).

d

Quran Ayah (88.21)

Quran also brings status from then future (which, say now; 20-21st century) to the Arabs present (in the 6th century) who were really not in a position to fully understand Ayah (21.30) as we may understand it now. This Ayah (21.30) (approximate translation “Do not the unbelievers see that the space and matter were joined together and we ripped them apart?”) appears to refer to the unbelievers of now (including the many atheists among astrophysics scientists who are enabled by God to see or comprehend what they currently research) and not the 6th century unbelievers.

e

Quran Ayah (21.30)

Time and the Big Bang

One popular theory of cosmology is called the Big Bang. According to the Big Bang theory, the universe was formed about 13.8 billion (or: 13,800,000,000) years ago, in what is called a “gravitational singularity“.

18

History of the Universe [18]

The singularity was small, dense, and very hot. According to this theory, all of the matter that we know today, including all galaxies, came out of this single point. This theory stipulates the universe once had an infinitesimal size and an almost infinite temperature and gravitational field strength. It has been expanding and cooling ever since. When it cooled below 10,000,000,000 degrees Kelvin, individual particles could form into atomic nuclei. When it cooled below 10,000 degrees Kelvin, individual electrons and atomic nuclei could form into atoms. Later, as the expansion continued, the atoms clumped into stars and galaxies, eventually producing the universe of today.

19

This diagram shows the progressives stages of the evolution of the universe: Particle Energy, Time, Temperature and Visible Matter Density are schematically given at stages [19]

 Stephen Hawking (born 1932) stated that time began with the Big Bang, and that questions about what happened before the Big Bang are meaningless. The Big Bang itself resulted from an extremely dense “singularity” event out of which matter, space and time came out intimately linked together.

20

A model representing the Inflationary Period before Standard Big Bang Theory: Such models suggest an extraordinary inflationary phase in the era 10^-36 seconds to 10^-32 seconds. More expansion is presumed to have occurred in this instant than in the entire period (14 billion years?) since. The inflationary epoch may have expanded the universe by 10^20 or 10^30 in this incredibly brief time [20]

The singularity from which our universe emerged is an event before matter, space and time. Hence, the Big Bang theory does not speak to what happened at or before the initial Big Bang event. It is a theory only of the aftermath of that event.

Scientists have come to some agreement on descriptions of events that happened 10^ -35 seconds after the Big Bang, but generally agree that descriptions about what happened before one Planck time (5 × 10^ -44 seconds) after the Big Bang will likely remain pure speculation. Current established physical theories are believed to fail at this Planck time.

Quran explain the creation of the universe accurately and in astounding precision. Quran address God creations in many Ayahs. The Arabic expression “kun fa yakun” in Ayahs (3.47 and 40.68) does not mention time at all because such God creation event is “beyond time”, that such event happens at t=0.

f

Quran Ayah (3.47)

 

g

Quran Ayah (40.68)

In the aftermath “matter and space” were joined as one and then were separated. This is accurately described in Quran Ayah (21.30).

The universe in its very early stages was still in the form of hot gases. This is also accurately described in Quran Ayah (41.11) in which rather than gas the word “smoke” is used which imply association with extreme heat.

 

h

Quran Ayah (41.11)

 The Six Days

Quran states that the universe was created in six days. The Quran refers to the six days in many Ayahs, such as (7.54, 10.3, 11.7, 25.59, 32.4, 50.38 and 57.4). In several Ayahs, such as (7.54 and 11.7) the six days are mentioned with God’s Throne and thus Muslims interpret the six days to be days at God’s Throne, not Earth days.

i

Quran Ayah (7.4)

Big Bang theory stipulates the universe age is about 13.8 billion years; that is Earth years. And, the energy at the Big Bang event slowed down the flow of time of up-to 10^12 (one million-million) times. A rough estimate would be one minute at Big Bang event corresponds to one million-million Earth minutes; or six days at Big Bang event corresponds to six million-million Earth days (or 16.427 billion Earth years).

Big Bang theory stipulates time to be continuously slowing down in proportion to the expansion of the universe; approximately described: ever since the Big Bang event the size of the universe doubles as the passage of time half. In other words, as the universe grows, the rate at which it doubles in size slows down. Hereunder is “refined” theoretically postulated sequence;

  • Throne Day 1 (6) corresponds to 8.00 billion Earth years.
  • Throne Day 2 (6) corresponds to 4.00 billion Earth years.
  • Throne Day 3 (6) corresponds to 2.00 billion Earth years.
  • Throne Day 4 (6) corresponds to 1.00 billion Earth years.
  • Throne Day 5 (6) corresponds to 0.50 billion Earth years.
  • Throne Day 6 (6) corresponds to 0.25 billion Earth years.

Total is 15 billion 750 million Earth years.

This figure is more than the famous estimate of 13.8 billion years which gives rise to a speculation: Could this figure mean the universe’s “time” as a constituency of space-time amounts to 15.75 billion years? That is to say the remainder of the universe time is only about 2 billion years (15.75 billion (total) – 13.80 billion (elapsed) = 1.95 billion years) remaining of the universe life. This speculation stems from the Arabic word “fee” as used in the Quran above mentioned Ayahs which means “in” and not “during” six days.

21

Past, present and potential scenarios of the universe future destiny and life span. This illustration shows three possible futures for the Universe, depending on the behavior of dark energy, by showing how the scale of the Universe may change with time [21]

Time and Earth Creation

Quran states that Earth was created in two days. Quran refers to the two days in Ayah (41.9). The two days represents 1/3 of the Universe’s six days in Ayahs (7.54 and 11.7) which makes it 4.6 billion Earth years (13.8/3 = 4.6); a figure that tally with most current estimates based on geological and other data.

22

A list of Important Dates in Earth History is provided that contains the dates of the events shown on a clock. This schematic shows if 4.6 billion years is pretended to be only 60 minutes then modern man has only lived on Earth for a tiny fraction of the last second, as shown on the top [22]

Ayah (41.10) that follows (41.9) is fascinating to say the least. This Ayah (41.10) says God ordained (or: calculated/measured/appointed) Earth provisions (or: means of sustenance) in four days which is twice Earth’s two days and 2/3 of the Universe’s six days. The four days correspond to 9.2 billion Earth years which is nearly twice the age of the Solar System itself. How can this be?

j

Quran Ayah (41.9)

k

Quran Ayah (41.10)

 

23

The surface of the Earth provides a place for the human beings, animals , plants to live as the life evolved from bacteria and virus 4 billion years ago [23

The nebular hypothesis (a theory originally developed by Immanuel Kan in 1755 and subsequently developed by a variety of scientific disciplines including astronomy, physics, geology, and planetary science) is the most widely accepted model in the field of cosmogony to explain the formation and evolution of the solar system. It suggests that the solar system formed from “nebulous material”. That is the formation of the solar system began much more than 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a “giant molecular cloud”. Most of the collapsing mass collected in the center, forming the Sun, while the rest flattened into a protoplanetary disk out of which Earth, the other planets, moons, asteroids, and other small Solar System bodies formed. In other words, previous generations of stars lived and died, injecting heavy elements into the interstellar medium out of which the solar system formed. The solar system could have been formed in “an Orion nebula” like star-forming region where the most massive stars are formed. After formation they then lived their lives, died, and exploded in supernova.

24

NASA Orion Nebula – Great Nebula in Orion [24]

That supernova triggered the formation of our solar system. This would mean that all matter that makes up our solar system and planets, including Earth, was once ejected by supernova explosions long time ago before the formation of Earth itself. This makes Quran Ayah (41.10) fascinatingly comprehensible and in harmony with Ayah (41.19).

Time and Solar System, Milky Way, other Galaxies

Our sun (800,000 miles in diameter), the nearest star, is a million times the size of Earth (8,000 miles in diameter).  It looks small because it is 93 million miles away from Earth. A 747 jet flies at about 600 miles per hour would take 17 years to fly from Earth to the sun. But, it only takes 8 minutes for the sun light to reach Earth.

It takes 5 light-hours (meaning the distance light travels in 5 hours) for light to get out to Pluto from Earth.  Much of the solar system is still unknown. Currently, the furthest known objects, such as Comet West have aphelia around 1.4 light years (meaning the distance light travels in 1.4 years) from the sun.

25

Artist’s impression of Earth’s solar system [25]

Our star, the sun, and its planets are just one small part of the Milky Way galaxy. The Milky Way galaxy is a huge disk of stars, so big that even at the speed of light; it would take 100,000 years to travel across it.

The location of RS Puppis within the Milky Way (artist’s impre

Artist’s impression of the Milky Way This artist’s impression shows the location of the Cepheid star RS Pup in our Galaxy. From ESO NTT observations of the echoes on several nebular features, the distance of RS Pup was found to be 6,500 light-years, with an uncertainty of 90 light-years. RS Pup is distant by about a quarter of the distance between the Sun and the Centre of the Milky Way. RS Pup is located within the Galactic plane, in a very populated region of our Galaxy [26] .

When astronomers look out into the universe, they notice that the objects they see are not distributed willy-nilly. Rather, the force of gravity tends to bring galaxies together into giant agglomerations such as clusters, superclusters, sheets, and walls.

27

NGC 4414, a typical spiral galaxy in the constellation Coma Berenices, is about 55,000 light-years in diameter and approximately 60 million light-years away from Earth [27]

Our home galaxy the “Milky Way” galaxy is part of a super-cluster named “Virgo Super cluster” which is made up of more than 1,300 galaxies.

The Coma Supercluster is another interesting supercluster to note because it sits at the center of the “Northern Great Wall”, a staggeringly enormous “filament of galaxies” 500 million light years across and 300 million light years wide.

28

Coma cluster [28]

The largest supercluster in our vicinity is the Horologium Supercluster, which stretches across half a billion light years.

29

Horologium Super-cluster [29]

Horologium supercluster [29]

Time Dilation

Einstein’s theory of relativity suggests the occurrence of time dilation under two conditions;

In conjunction with speed;

Einstein’s theory of “special relativity” says that time slows down or speeds up depending on how fast you move relative to something else. Example on this is a person inside a spaceship approaching the speed of light (say, at about 450 million miles per hour), would age much slower than his twin on Earth.

30

Time Dilation: moving clocks tick slower [30]

That is the faster a spacecraft moves the slower time ticks inside it. Fast moving aircraft have travelled few fractions of a second into the future thus confirming bodies moving at high velocities experience a time that ticks slower than the time measured at zero velocity.

31

Measurable time dilation is negligible on a train moving past a platform at 60 km/hr, but increases dramatically if that train acquires the capacity to approach the speed of light [31]

Also, the clock on International Space Station (ISS) travelling in orbit (at bout 400km altitude) around Earth at a speed of roughly 17,000 miles per hour ticks just a little bit slower than clocks on Earth do.

32

International Space Station [32]

33

International Space Station inside [33]

In conjunction with gravity,

Einstein’s theory of “general relativity” says time is slower in fields of greater gravitation. Example is a person living at the top of a skyscraper would have clocked more seconds of life than someone living at the bottom floor. This effect is minuscule but grows with increasing distances. This phenomenon is called “gravitational time dilation” and has also been confirmed through tests of general relativity. GPS satellites travelling in orbit (at about 20,000 km altitude which is 50 times higher than ISS) around Earth at a speed of roughly 9,000 miles per hour (about half ISS speed) ticks just a little bit faster than clocks on Earth do (an extra 38 microseconds each day compared to an object on the surface of the earth). The reason is influence of time dilation due to reduced gravity at higher altitude surpass influence of time contraction due to its speed which is slower than ISS speed.

34

GPS Satellite Constellation: BeiDou System is a global navigation satellite system developed and operated by the Chinese government [34]

Below are examples from the Quran on time relativity and dilations;

50,000 Earth years

Muslim physicists use Quran Ayah (70.4) to check Einstein’s theory of special relativity;

l

Quran Ayahs (70.4)

This theory postulates a relationship between two relative times and high speeds “outside gravitational fields” by the following formula;

t-speed formula

Relativity theory time-speed formula

Where v is the velocity of angels and c is constant (equals to speed of light). The substituting of ∆to = 1 day being the time experienced by angels and ∆t = 16.4 million days (or: more exactly 50,000 lunar years x12 lunar months/lunar year x 27.321661 days/lunar month) as the time as measured by humans in above formula gives the ratio v/c as 99.99999999999981%. In other words, according to theory of special relativity time is relative and the angles (and the spirit which many Muslims believe this is a reference to Gabriel) do indeed travel at or very close to speed of light (~ 300,000 km/s), and that time does dilate.

1,000 Earth years

Quran Ayahs (3.133, 57.21) imply the size of Paradise is as big as the universe. Muslims believe the size of Hell is also massive; far more massive than Earth. Quran Ayah (22.47) approximate translation is “They challenge you to bring retribution, and God never fails to fulfil His prophecy. A day of your Lord is like a thousand years of your count” which implies said one day is relevant to the place of retribution: Hell.

Muslim physicists say this Quran Ayah (22.47) also confirms time relativity, time dilation and it correlates with Einstein’s theory of general relativity which stipulates that time is slower in fields of greater gravitation;

m

Quran Ayah (22.47)

In this context, 1 day in Hell that is equivalent to 1,000 Earth years implies the enormous crushing power of Hell’s gravitation fields far beyond human imagination.

300 Earth years

Quran tells the story of “sleepers of the cave” which is about a group of pious youth. They fled the persecution by their people for their belief and, along with their dog, sought refuge inside a cave where sleep befalls them for 300 years after which God awaked them. They thought they must have slept a day or so.

n

Quran Ayah (18.19)

Quran Ayahs (18.19, 18.25) say they then sent out one of them to bring some fresh food. When he reaches town, he discovers the vast changes that have occurred (over the 300 years he is not aware of). His paper-money is found to be centuries old. The story implies their time in the cave slowed down while time marched on in the outside world, pointing to another type of gravitational time dilation.

100 Earth years

Quran tells the story of a man (possibly a prophet) who came to a hamlet in ruins where he wonders with the question of how God could possibly bring this place back to life after its death. Quran Ayah (2.259) says upon his question God make him die then resurrect him 100 years later.

o

Quran Ayah (2.259)

God then asks him how long he slept. He answers one day or so. God tells him you slept for 100 years and tells him to look at his food and drink being still as is with no decay while his donkey had been reduced to bones. Muslim physicists speculate that “the food and drink” were perhaps bubbled inside separate gravitational field the magnitude of gravitational force in it being much higher than that of the donkey thus greatly reduced the speed of its march forward in time.

Within a blink of an eye

Quran tells the story of Prophet Solomon when he asked his sub-ordinates to bring to him in Jerusalem the throne of queen Sheba of Yemen, a journey of over 1,000 miles away. Quran Ayahs (27.38-40) say it was transported to him within a blink of an eye. Muslim physicists say this story confirm two things: first; matter can be transported at very high speed or close to light speed and second; God has bestowed power to one of his creatures to be fast enough to achieve time dilation.

p

Quran Ayah (27. 40)

 

35

Over 1,000 miles Journey within an eye blink [35]

Time Travel

Some scientists say since “time dilation” is proven it should enable “time travel”. That is you could do a lap around the galaxy and return to Earth in the future.

As measured by an Earth-based clock, it takes 100,000 years for light to travel across our Milky Way galaxy, but if you took the same trip in a spaceship traveling at very near the speed of light, the trip might last only 25 years, as judged by your own clock in the spaceship.

36

Our solar system is located in the outer reaches of the Milky Way Galaxy, which is a spiral galaxy [36]

 The problem against such journey is, according to present-day laws of physics, nothing can travel as fast as the speed of light – let alone a spaceship. Scientists say even the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the strongest particle accelerator in the word, can’t make “protons” move that fast.

37

Large Hadron Collider: At 17 miles (27km) across, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest particle accelerator and the biggest machine in the world [37]

Physicists say the proposal of time travel is backed by scientific theory, but also agree that is not enough to make it realistically possible and thus not all scientists believe that time travel is possible.

Some scientists say any time travel attempt would be fatal to any human who chooses to undertake it, it is impossible no matter the travel method, humans cannot withstand time travel at all and traveling at nearly the speed of light would be lethal.

Using gravity would also be deadly. To experience time dilation, one could stand on a neutron star, but the forces a person would experience would rip him apart first.

38

Neutron Star: The currently popular analogy to describe the density of matter within a neutron star is that it’s like compressing the entire human population into a sugar cube [38]

 Furthermore, time travel that changes either the future or the past is generally considered to be impossible. You cannot use high speed travel in order to visit the future of the world after your death or to visit the past to kill your grandad to prevent your birth and thus renders your journey start impossible in the first place.

In 2010, Stephen Hawking (born 1942) gave a lecture titled “How to build a time machine”. He spoke of “weird and wonderful tools” and “methods” all of which are of course theoretical. He spoke of finding or building a “wormhole“. In 1935, Nathan Rosen and Einstein suggested the existence of wormholes which is still theoretical as no wormhole has ever been discovered.

39

Wormholes have never been proven to exist, these theoretical passageways through space-time are predicted by Einstein’s general theory of relativity [39]

Scientists say concepts like wormholes (and Closed Time-like Curves (CTC)) might be possible means of time travel. Theoretically wormholes exist within the “quantum foam” in the sub-atomic world. They are tiny tunnels (billion-trillion-trillionths of a centimetre across) acting as shortcuts through space and time constantly form, disappear, and reform within this quantum world and they link two separate places and two different times.

40

Closed Time-like Curves [40]

41

Time-Travel Wormhole: In physics, the concept of time travel has been often used to examine the consequences of physical theories such as special relativity, general relativity and quantum mechanics [41]

Some scientists think it may be possible to capture a wormhole and enlarge it many trillions of times to make it big enough for a human or even a spaceship to enter. But, such a wormhole won’t last long enough to be of any use as a time machine.

42

Artist’s depiction of a hypothetical Wormhole Induction Propelled Spacecraft, based loosely on the 1994 warp drive paper of Miguel Alcubierre [42]

43

A model of how Wormholes could work to facilitate time travel [43]

So, alternatively, given enough power and advanced technology, perhaps a giant wormhole could even be constructed in space such that one end could be here near Earth, and the other far, far away, near some distant planet!

44

An artist’s impression of a supermassive black hole devouring matter from an accretion disc [44]

Hawking conceded that black holes are more practical than wormholes, but , he says, it’s pretty dangerous as they are a long way away and it doesn’t even take us very far into the future.

45

This artist’s concept depicts a supermassive black hole at the centre of a galaxy [45]

 Quran confirms time dilation (see above). Quran Ayahs (70. 3-4) speaks of (maarej), which Muslim scientist say these are kin to the concept of wormholes, which angles may use in their travel.

q

Quran Ayahs (70.3)

Also, Quran Ayahs (15.14-15) refer to “doors” (or “gates”) in the universe (that contract interstellar distances into walking distances) which the unbelievers, if allowed to pass through it, would still unbelievers and say we have been subjected to magic spell.

s

Quran Ayahs (15.14)

t

Quran Ayahs (15.15)

Quran implies time travel expressively: Quran Ayah (5.110) says Prophet Jesus resurrects the dead by God permission; an action that defies the time travel paradox that says a person cannot be made to time-travel to the future to a time beyond his own death.

r

Quran Ayah (5.110)

Another theory, the “string theory” holds that the Universe is made up of vibrating, sub-atomic “superstrings” that exert a gravitational pull so strong they are capable of warping space-time.

46

String Theory of Space: These ‘strings’ are minute, vibrating structures that sit in these “ten-dimensions” of space-time, and make up all forms of matter and are the cause of the laws of physics as we know them [46]

Some Astrophysical scientists like Richard Gott (born 1947) of Princeton University say such cosmic strings would “warp” space-time around them such that the approach of two such strings parallel to each other will bend space-time so vigorously and in such a particular configuration that might make time travel possible – in theory. Richard Gott conceded the cosmic strings exist only in theory and admitted “This is a project a super civilisation might attempt”.

Quran implies the existence of invisible columns (or: invisible super strings) in the universe. Quran Ayah (13.2) says God raised the skies (the universe) “without columns which we are able see”; this implies the possibility of the existence of universal columns (or: universal super strings) which we cannot see.

u

Quran Ayah (13.2)

Multi-universe

Many philosophers and scientists consider most of the stories employing time travel in popular culture are logically incoherent. They argue one cannot “change” the past to be different from what it was, since the past (like the present and the future) only occurs once.

47

Actor Rod-Taylor in Time Machine 1960 film [47]

To overcome this difficulty some cosmologists believe there is more than one universe in existence and this allows for every possible version of an event to take place.  For example, a man who goes back in time to murder his own grandad can get away with it, because in the universe next door the granddad lives to have the son who becomes the murderer’s father.

48

Multiverse Theory Universe: On the surface of each layer are the galaxies and nebulae in each universe [48]

49

Wormhole is a theoretical ‘tunnel’ or shortcut, predicted by Einstein’s theory of relativity, that links two places in space-time where negative energy pulls space and time into the mouth of a tunnel, emerging in another universe. Wormholes are hypothetical, but have been used in several movies in 1980s and 1990s (From Stephen Hawking’s Article “How to build a time machine” on 27 April 2010 [49]

Newly discovered particles called “tachyons”, which occur in some nuclear reactions, are believed to travel faster than light and can never travel at the speed of light, only faster. This behaviour supports the idea of the speed of light being a barrier and hence “tachyons” behave in just the opposite way from matter. No one has actually observed a “tachyon” and this raises a speculation that they may exist in a different dimension of time-space.

Quran first Ayah (1.2) approximate translation is “All praise belongs to God, Lord of the Worlds “.  Science is gradually moving, currently through quantum physics, to an understanding called the “Many Worlds Theory”, which appears to be in line with this specific Ayah.

v

Quran Ayah (1.2)

Over 900 years ago, in his commentary on Quran Ayah (1.2), Muslim philosopher Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149 -1209) criticized the idea of the Earth’s centrality within the universe.  He raised the question of whether the term “worlds” in Quran Ayah (1.2) refers to “multiple worlds within this single universe or cosmos, or to many other universes or a multiverse beyond this known universe.”

Quran Ayahs (55.33 and 71.15) imply multiple universes and barriers that lie between them.

w

Quran Ayah (55.33)

 

x

Quran Ayah (71.15)

 

50

Depiction of a multiverse of seven “bubble” universes, which are separate space-time continua, each having different physical laws, physical constants, and perhaps even different numbers of dimensions or topologies [50]

51

Multiverse Theory Universe [51]

52

Another visualization concept of Multiverse Parallel Universe [52]

Once science comprehends multiverse is the true reality, then most of current scientific hypotheses on time travel are imminently realised to have become based on the false reality that existence is made of a single universe.

Quran and Science

The Quran is valid in all times and hence in harmony with science verifiable discoveries at every century.   None of these discoveries contradict the Quran. Muslim scientists study the Cosmos and advances in the fields of Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, Medicine, Astronomy and Biology. Historically, they made many impressive inventions like the magnetic compass, the astrolabe, and the clock pendulum and introduced Algebra, the Arabic numerals and the concept of Zero. Muslim scholars believe the study of the universe is among the highest forms of worship of God and whatever science discovers it only increases human’s knowledge of God creations. Before the Quran, the Arabs had virtually no contributions to science.

 Citations from the Quran

A number of Quran Ayahs have been cited in this Article. Each of the cited Ayahs is preceded by a numerical code within two brackets; for example: (9.36) refers to Ayah Number 36 in Surah number 9. Ideally, the readers who know Arabic would refer directly to the original Quran in Arabic. Quran translation to any other language has always been difficult, even though many attempts have already been made. In 1982-84, a Quran Complex was established by Saudi Arabia government, named after King Fahd. This Quran Complex outlines Quran translation difficulties into English, considers all translations to be translations to the “meanings” or “interpretations” of the Quran and denotes own Quran translations as “Translations of the Meanings of the Quran”. A list of well-known sources of other translations of the Quran is given at the bottom of this Article under Citations from the Quran.

There are several well-known Quran translations to English which can be found on the internet or published in the form of books such as the following 10 translations; (1) Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought, Amman, Jordan, 2008, (2) Quran Complex which was established in 1982-84 by the Saudi Arabia government, named after King Fahd, (3) Dr  Mohammad Ghali (born in 1920) who was a Professor of Linguistics and Islamic Studies, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt, (4) Mohammad Muhsin Khan (born in 1927). He is a contemporary author of Pashtun origin who completed this translation with Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali, (5) M H Shakir: There is controversy on the real identity of the translator who may be Egyptian judge Muhammad Habib Shakir (1866-1939) or likely Mohammedali Habib Shakir the son of Habib Esmail of The House of Habib in Pakistan, (6) Yusuf Ali (1872-1953) who was a British-Indian Islamic scholar. He died in London and is buried in England at the Muslim cemetery at Brookwood, Surrey (near Woking), not far from the burial place of Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall (1875 –1936) who was a Western Islamic scholar (a convert from Christianity) also noted for his translation of the Qur’an (1930) from Arabic to English, see below, (7) Muhammad Pickthall (1875-1936); he was a Western; a convert from Christianity, (8)       Sahih International; in 1989 three American converts to Islam joined together to form “Saheeh International” and published their translation in 1997, (9) Dr Rashad Khalifa (1935-1990), who promoted a strict monotheism and was a prominent Quranist. His translation is considered as simple with clear presentation and ease of use. But, he is also known for his controversial research claiming the Quran is mathematically and statistically coded to number 19. Some Quranic Muslims criticised Rashad Khalifa as grossly misinterpreted the sign of number 19 in the Quran: He came to the point of seeing number 19 everywhere and believing that every aspect of the Quran was coded with it. (10) Muhammad Asad (1900–1992); was a Jewish-born Austro-Hungarian journalist, traveller, linguist, diplomat and Islamic scholar.

Referenced Quran Ayahs

Approximate translations to English of Quran Ayahs cited in this Article;

(1.2)         Praise be to God, Lord of the Worlds.

(2.259)      consider the one who passed by a ghost town (fallen into utter ruin) and wondered (exclaimed), “How can God revive this after it had died?” God then put him to death for a hundred years, and then resurrected him. He said, “How long have you stayed here?” He said, “I have been here a day, or part of the day.” He said, “No! You have been here a hundred years. Yet, look at your food and drink; they did not spoil. Look at your donkey – we thus render you a lesson for the people. Now, note how we construct the bones, and then cover them with flesh.” When he realized what had happened, he said, “Now I know that God is Omnipotent.

(3.47)        She (Mary) said, “My Lord, how can I have a son, when no man has touched me?” He said, “God thus creates whatever He wills. To have anything done, He says to it: “Be and it is”.

(3.133)      you should eagerly race towards forgiveness from your Lord and a Paradise whose width encompasses the heavens and the earth; it awaits the righteous.

(5.110)      God will say: O Jesus, son of Mary, remember My blessings upon you and your mother. I supported you with the Holy Spirit, to enable you to speak to the people from the crib, as well as an adult. I taught you the scripture, wisdom, the Torah, and the Gospel. Recall that you created from clay the shape of a bird by My leave (permission), then blew into it, and it became a live bird by My leave (permission). You healed the blind and the leprous by My leave (permission), and revived the dead by My leave (permission). Recall that I protected you from the Children of Israel who wanted to hurt you, despite the profound miracles you had shown them. The disbelievers among them said, `This is obviously magic.’

(7.54)        Your Lord is the one God, who created the heavens and the earth in six days, then mounted He the Throne (assumed all authority). The night overtakes the day, as it pursues it persistently, and the sun, the moon, and the stars are committed to serve by His command. Absolutely, He controls all creation and all commands. Most Exalted is God, Lord of the Worlds.

(7.69)        is it too much of a wonder that a message should come to you from your Lord, through a man like you, to warn you? Recall (remember) that He made you inheritors after the people of Noah, and multiplied your number. Remember God’s blessings that you may succeed.

(7.74)        And remember (recall) that He made you inheritors after Aad, and established you on earth, building mansions (castles) in its valleys (plains), and carving homes from its mountains. You shall remember God’s blessings, and do not roam the earth corrupting.

(7.205)      You shall remember your Lord within yourself, publicly, privately, and quietly, day and night; do not be unaware (one of the neglectful).

(9.36)        The count of the months with God is twelve months by God’s ordinance in the day that He created the heavens and the earth. Four of them are sacred. This is the perfect religion; you shall not wrong your souls (by fighting) during the Sacred Months. However, you may declare all-out war against the idol worshipers (even during the Sacred Months), when they declare all-out war against you, and know that GOD is on the side of the righteous.

(10.3)        your Lord is God Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days, then He established Himself upon the Throne (then assumed all authority), directing all things. There is no intercessor (with Him) save after His permission. Such is God your Lord. You shall worship Him. Would you not take heed?

(11.7)       He is the One who created the heavens and the earth in six days – and His Throne was upon the water [and His (earthly) domain was completely covered with water] – in order to test you, to distinguish those among you who work righteousness. Yet, when you say, “You will be resurrected after death,” those who disbelieve would say, “This is clearly witchcraft.”

(13.2)        God is the One who raised the heavens without visible columns (pillars that you can see), then (then mounted the Throne) assumed all authority. He committed the sun and the moon, each running (in its orbit) for a predetermined period. He controls all things, and explains the revelations, that you may attain certainty about meeting your Lord.

(15.14)      And even if We opened unto them a gate into the sky and they kept mounting through it,

(15.15)      they would say “Our eyes have been deceived. We have been bewitched.”

(18.19)      when we resurrected (awakened) them, that they might question one another (they ask each other), “How long have you been here?” “We have been here one day or part of the day,” they answered. “Your Lord knows best how long we stayed here, so let us send one of us with this your paper-money to the city. Let him fetch the cleanest food, and buy some for us. Let him keep a low profile, and attract no attention (let no one know of you).

(18.25)      they stayed in their cave three hundred years, increased by nine.

(19.16)      Remember (Mention) in the scripture Mary. She isolated herself from her family, into an eastern location.

(19.51)      Remember (Mention) in the scripture Moses. He was devoted, and he was a messenger prophet.

(21.30)      Do the unbelievers not realize that the heaven and the earth used to be one solid mass that we parted them (exploded into existence)? And from water we made all living things. Would they believe?

(22.47)      they challenge you to bring retribution, and God never fails to fulfil His prophecy. A day of your Lord is like a thousand of your years.

(25.59)      He is the One who created the heavens and the earth, and everything between them, in six days, then He mounted the Throne (assumed all authority). The Most Gracious; ask about Him those who are well founded in knowledge.

(27.38)      He said: O chiefs! Which of you will bring me her throne before they come unto me, surrendering (arrive here as submitters?).

(27:39)      A stalwart of the jinn said: “I can bring it to you before you stand up. I am powerful enough to do this.”

(27:40)      the one who possessed knowledge from the book said, “I can bring it to you before your eye lid returns to you (in the blink of your eye). When he saw it settled in front of him, he said, “This is a blessing from my Lord, whereby He tests me, to show whether I am appreciative or unappreciative. Whoever is appreciative is appreciative for his own good, and if one turns unappreciative, then my Lord is in no need for him, Most Honorable.”

(32.4)        God is the One who created the heavens and the earth, and everything between them in six days, and then He mounted the Throne (assumed all authority). You have none beside Him as Lord, nor do you have an intercessor. Would you not take heed?

(38.48)      Remember: Ismail, Elisha and Thu-al-Kefl; among the most righteous.

(40.68)      He is the only One who controls life and death. To have anything done, He says to it “Be and it is”.

(41:9)        Say, “You disbelieve in the One who created the earth in two days, and you set up idols to rank with Him, though He is Lord of the universe.”

(41:10)      He placed on it stabilizers (mountains), made it productive, and He calculated its provisions in four days, to satisfy the needs of all its inhabitants.

(41:11)      Then He turned to the sky, when it was still smoke, and said to it, and to the earth, “Come into existence, willingly or unwillingly.” They said, “We come willingly.”

(50.38)      We have created the heavens and the earth, and everything between them in six days, and no fatigue touched us.

(55.33)      O you jinn and humans, if you can penetrate the outer limits of the heavens and the earth, go ahead and penetrate. You cannot penetrate without authorization (power).

(57.4)       He is the One who created the heavens and the earth in six days, then He mounted the Throne (assumed all authority). He knows everything that enters into the earth, and everything that comes out of it, and everything that comes down from the sky, and everything that climbs into it. He is with you wherever you may be. God is Seer of everything you do

(57.21)      Therefore, you shall race towards forgiveness from your Lord, and a Paradise whose width encompasses (whereof the breadth is as the breadth of) the heaven and the earth. It awaits those who believed in God and His messengers. Such is GOD’s grace that He bestows upon whomever He wills. God is Possessor of Infinite Grace

(70:3)        From God; Lord of the Ascending Pathways (Possessor of the highest Heights).

(70:4)        (Whereby) the angels (with their reports) and the Spirit ascend unto Him in a Day (climb to Him in a Day) that equals fifty thousand years.

(71.15)      Do you not realize that God created seven universes in layers?

(83.13)      when our revelations are recited to him, he says, “Tales from the past!”

(88.21)      you shall remind, for your mission is to deliver this reminder (for you are reminder).

Notes (on sources from Internet)

Quran Ayahs in Original Arabic

Quran Ayahs (1.2, 3.47, 9.36, 12.35, 15.14, 15.15, 21.30, 40.68, 41.9, 41.10, 55.33, 70.3, 70.4, 71.15, 83.13, 88.21): [sahih-bukhari.com]; Quran Ayahs (2.259, 7.4, 18.19, 22.47): [quran.com]; Quran Ayah (27. 40): [theonlyquran.com]; Quran Ayah (5.110): (sunnahstudent.com); and Quran Ayah (13.2): (speed-light.info).

Images, Illustrations and Diagrams

These are available in a diverse collection of internet web sites such as the following for each [1] (ifunny.com); [2] (httpkritterbox.com); [2a]

(maggiesscienceconnection.weebly.com); [3] (clipartbest.com); [4] (b-inet.com); [5] (ridiculousmind.com); [6] (englishexercises.org); [7] (cfa.harvard.edu); [8] (hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu); [9] (slideplayer.com (slide15)); [10] (printablecalendartemplates.com); [11] (uk.pinterest.com); [12] (homepage.ufp.pt); [13] (blog.onlineclock.net); [14] (hodinkee.com); [15] (aauw-wa.aauw.net); [16] (merrilewis.wordpress.com); [17] (en.wikipedia.org); [18] (kheper.net); [19] (alicematters.web.cern.ch) ; [20] (hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu); [21] (chandra.si.edu); [22] (uky.edu); [23] (wonderwhizkids.com); [24] (asterisk.apod.com); [2] (forums.arabsbook.com); [26] (cdn.spacetelescope.org); [27] (upload.wikimedia.org ); [28] (web.hallym.ac.kr); [29] (atlasoftheuniverse.com); [30] (blog.onlineclock.net); [31] (phys.org); [32] (spaceflightinsider.com); [33] (sliceofscifi.com); [34] (molexpn.com); [35] (imninalu.net); [36] (photos170.bloguez.com); [37] (dailymail.co.uk); [38] (universetoday.com); [39] (galacticconnection.com); [40] (nature.com); [41] (306physics.wikispaces.com); [42] (upload.wikimedia.org); [43] (forums.boxofficetheory.com); [44] (upload.wikimedia.org); [45] (phys.org); [46] (hellogiggles.com); [47] (timidmonster.com); [48] (sciencephoto.com); [49] (dailymail.co.uk); [50] (upload.wikimedia.org}; [51] (philosophy.talons43.ca); and [52] (blogs.discovermagazine.com).

Text

Large number of documents, essays, scientific papers and other publications has been consulted during the compilation of this Article. Many of these are also available on a host of web sites, such as but not limited to: andersoninstitute.com, ws5.com, simple.wikipedia.org, space.com, iep.utm.edu, techtarget.com, physics.nist.gov, physics.about.com, gizmodo.com, plato.stanford.edu, brianbosakwebsite.s3-website-us-west-2.amazonaws.com, dailymail.co.uk, theweek.co.uk, nasa.gov, wired.com, mic.com, speed-light.info, miraclesofthequran.com, quora.com, mustaqim.co.uk, islamicity.org, al-furqan.blogspot.co.uk, quran-islam.org, missionislam.com, islamfrominside.com, answering-christianity.com, timetravelaccordingtoislam.blogspot.co.uk, convergencestride.com, en.wikipedia.org, islam.about.com, islam1.org, bbc.co.uk, irfi.org, and izquotes.com.

 

By A Taha, PhD

London, United Kingdom

11 August 2016

Debate on the Hadith

By A Taha, London, United Kingdom

14 December 2015

Debate on the Hadith is historically ancient;  it has  now become one of the current war of words on the World Wide Web. Hadith is the documentation of Prophet Mohammad statements, acts and traditions.

The Muwaṭṭa is one of the the earliest written collection of hadith by Mālik ibn Anas ibn Mālik ibn Abī 'Āmir al-Asbahī commonly known as "Imam Malik (93–179 AH/711–795). It is reported that Imam Malik selected only about 1% of hadiths for inclusion into the Muwatta, from the corpus of 100,000 narrations that were available to him.

The Muwaṭṭa is one of the the earliest written collection of hadith by Mālik ibn Anas ibn Mālik ibn Abī ‘Āmir al-Asbahī commonly known as “Imam Malik (93–179 AH/711–795). It is reported that Imam Malik selected only about 1% of hadiths for inclusion into the Muwatta, from the corpus of 100,000 narrations that were available to him.

A search on the internet brings about a host of web sites belonging to two distinct camps of Muslim intellectuals; the “Traditional Muslims” who take the position that the Quran can only be understood with Hadith and the “Quranic Muslims” who take the position that the Quran stands alone. The Quranic Muslims point to Ayahs in the Quran which they believe supports their view that all necessary instruction can be found within the Quran, without reference to Hadith.

This Debate is passionate and the stakes are high. The way of life of the followers of one camp can be drastically different from the way of life of those who follow the other camp. According to Pew Research projections, number of Muslims in the world is expected to increase from 23% in 2010 to 30% by 2050.

In 2011, the world’s population grew to 7 billion (7,000 million people) and is projected to reach 8.5 billion by 2030 and 9.7 billion by 2050. Decades from now, Christians and Muslims may account for two-thirds of the global population—suggesting that not all societies are becoming more secular.

The vast majority of the remainder third of the world population Hindus, Buddhists, and other religions also believe in God. Debate on the Hadith is of direct concern to Muslims, but it is also of interest to those who believe in God and make up the vast majority of the 7,000 million humans currently living on Planet Earth.

Background

The two sides of the Debate

Traditional Muslims

On this side of the debate is a group of Muslim scholars and intellectuals from the main stream of sects. In 2009, Pew Research Center estimated global Muslim population is made of two prime sects, namely Sunni (87-90%) and Shia (10-13%) and thus 1-3% of other sects.

Musnad by Aḥmad bin Muḥammad bin Ḥanbal Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Shaybānī, commonly known as Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780–855 CE / 164–241 AH) is a collection of Hadith. It is said that Ibn Hanbal was a strong spokesman for the usage of hadiths.

Musnad by Aḥmad bin Muḥammad bin Ḥanbal Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Shaybānī, commonly known as Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780–855 CE / 164–241 AH) is a collection of Hadith. It is said that Ibn Hanbal was a strong spokesman for the usage of hadiths.

Within these two prime sects, there are several sub-sects in terms of Islamic jurisprudence. In 2005, an Islamic convention, called Amman Message (it was held in Jordan who brought 200 Muslim scholars from over 50 countries together), announced   “Whosoever is an adherent to one of the four Sunni schools (Mathahib) of Islamic jurisprudence (Hanafi, Maliki, Shafia and Hanbali), the two Shia schools of Islamic jurisprudence (Jaafari and Zaydi) and the Ibadi school of Islamic jurisprudence and the Thahiri school of Islamic jurisprudence, is a Muslim”. According to the above 2005 Amman Message conference, the said 8 sects; 5 Sunni (including Thahiri), 2 Shia and 1 Ibadi cover some 97% of all living Muslims.

Quranic Muslims

On the other side of the debate is a group of Muslim scholars and intellectuals who were from the main stream of sects but withdrew from it.

Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī is one of the six major hadith collections. These hadiths were collected by Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘īl ibn Ibrāhīm ibn al-Mughīrah ibn Bardizbah al-Ju‘fī al-Bukhārī, commonly known Bukhārī (810 – 870). It is said that al-Bukhari collected over 300,000 hadith and included only 2,602, other reports indicate he collected 600, 000 hadiths and accepted about 7,000 (including repeats). It is also said that this collection is one of the three most trusted collections of hadith along with Sahih Muslim and Muwatta of Imam Malik.

Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī is one of the six major hadith collections. These hadiths were collected by Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘īl ibn Ibrāhīm ibn al-Mughīrah ibn Bardizbah al-Ju‘fī al-Bukhārī, commonly known Bukhārī (810 – 870). It is said that al-Bukhari collected over 300,000 hadith and included only 2,602, other reports indicate he collected 600, 000 hadiths and accepted about 7,000 (including repeats). It is also said that this collection is one of the three most trusted collections of hadith along with Sahih Muslim and Muwatta of Imam Malik.

Therefore, they are a minority in terms of numbers but vocal.  They are not a new group. The Arabic term “ahl lam” appears in books by Al-Shafii (767-820/ 150-204 AH) and Ibn Qutayba (828-885/ 213-276 AH) in reference to groups including those who were against the proponents of Hadith. The Arabic phrase “al-kalam” means “the speech” and the “ahl Al-kalam” may be in reference to those who took the position of being proponents of only “the speech” (al-kalam) of God, the Quran, thus opposing the proponents of the words or stories (al-hadith) of the Prophet. This would mark the origin of the potential historical predecessors of those on this side of the debate, called mutazila , ahl al-kalam and khwarij ,to the same Islamic era as that of the sects’ inception over 1,200 years ago.

The group on this side of the debate believes Hadith has divided Muslims into sects and that Muslims were a single nation (Umma) during the Prophet’s time and up to some two centuries after his death.

Muhammad Tawfiq Sidqi (1881-1920) of Egypt wrote “what is obligatory for man does not go beyond God’s Book. … If anything other than the Quran had been necessary for religion the Prophet would have commanded its registration in writing, and God would have guaranteed its preservation.”

Hadith Meaning

The term “Hadith” has been used in the Quran 23 times. Some Traditional Muslims consider the following three categories are the most notable usages.

These volumes are of the book titled (Fath ul-Bari fi Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari) is said to be the most celebrated among some 70 Sunni commentaries of Sahih al-Bukhari, written by Al-Haafidh Shihabuddin Abu'l-Fadl Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Muhammad, better known as Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (1372 – 1449/ 852 AH). He was Shafiite Sunni scholar. It is said that he represents the entire realm of the Sunni world in the field of Hadith and has authored some 50 works on hadith, history, biography, tafsir, poetry, and Shafi'ite jurisprudence. This book seems to comprise further explanations, explorations and elaborations on Al Buhari Hadith collection.

These volumes are of the book titled (Fath ul-Bari fi Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari) is said to be the most celebrated among some 70 Sunni commentaries of Sahih al-Bukhari, written by Al-Haafidh Shihabuddin Abu’l-Fadl Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Muhammad, better known as Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (1372 – 1449/ 852 AH). He was Shafiite Sunni scholar. It is said that he represents the entire realm of the Sunni world in the field of Hadith and has authored some 50 works on hadith, history, biography, tafsir, poetry, and Shafi’ite jurisprudence. This book seems to comprise further explanations, explorations and elaborations on Al Buhari Hadith collection.

It has been used in the Quran to mean (a) The Quran itself in Ayah [68.44, see “Citations from the Quran” at the bottom of this Article], (b) A historical story as in the story of Moses [20.9] and (c) A general conversation when the Prophet confided to one of his wives [66.3]. The word “Hadith” is also used in the Quran in other Ayahs, such as [7.185, 31.6, 39.23, 45.6, 52.34, and 77.50].

The term “Hadith” has also been used in the prophetic traditions according to all of its linguistic meanings.  Among the hadith scholars the term “Hadith” means whatever is transmitted from the Prophet of his actions, sayings, tacit approvals, or physical characteristics.

Typical literal translation of the Arabic word “Hadith” to English is “an utterance”, but in the Islamic world it has become a reference to that body of literature which deals with Prophet Muhammad. It reports what he said and did. It includes his words, deeds, what he was like or was thought of by his contemporaries, before or after he was commissioned as a Prophet. It includes his resolve to do things, as well as what received his tacit approval. That is, what took place in his presence, or was brought to his notice, when he did not make a comment, allowing his silence to accord them approval. In short, anything that involves the Prophet, directly or indirectly, is Hadith.

The six Hadith books

Various reports indicate a number of Hadith books had appeared during the first century AH after the Prophet death and that these books were increased to at least forty Hadith books during the second century AH. But, one of the most serious efforts in that era was some 200 years after the Prophet’s death and that was the book by Ahmed Ibn Hanbal (164AH-241AH) entitled “Al-Musnad” which contained 30,000-40,000 hadiths.

Sahih Muslim is one of the six major hadith collections. It was collected by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj (204 AH -261 AH /817-874). Out of 300,000 hadith which he evaluated, approximately 4,000 were extracted for inclusion into his collection based on his acceptance criteria. It is said this collection is the second most authentic hadith collection after Sahih al-Bukhari.

Sahih Muslim is one of the six major hadith collections. It was collected by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj (204 AH -261 AH /817-874). Out of 300,000 hadith which he evaluated, approximately 4,000 were extracted for inclusion into his collection based on his acceptance criteria. It is said this collection is the second most authentic hadith collection after Sahih al-Bukhari.

Ahmed Ibn Hanbal’s book arrived after the book by Malik Ibn Anas (93AH-179AH) entitled “Al-Muwattaa” which had about 500 hadiths. Shortly afterwards the famous six books of hadiths appeared: (1) Sahih Bukhari (194 AH-256 AH), (2) Sahih Moslem (204 AH-261 AH), (3) Sunan Abu Daoud (202 AH-275 AH), (4) Sunan Al-Termithi (209AH –279 AH), (5) Sunan Al-Nesai (214 AH-303 AH), and (6) Sunan Ibn Majah (209AH-273AH). All of the six scholars are contemporaries. Most of them knew each other personally; for example Al-Termithi was Al- Bukhari student. The above six books are used by many scholars these days, most of whom consider the first one, Sahih Al-Bukhari, as the most authentic.

Al-Bukhari collected about 600,000 hadiths; but accepted only 7,275, about half of which were repeats, and thus considered some 593,000 to be un-proven (according his own criteria), that is almost 99% of what he collected. Likewise, each of the above collectors also set his own criteria to filter his own collection; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal discarded 94% of his collection and Moslem discarded 99% of his. The Quranic Muslims claim that despite such rigorous filtering, a significant percentage of the filtered Hadiths listed in above books, including Sahih Al-Bukhari, are “unacceptable” because they present contradictions with the Quran or contain insults to Prophet Mohammad, Muslims and women. Some are deemed illogical and or contradict other listed Hadiths even in the same book.

Number of authentic Hadiths

About 12,000 Hadiths have been reported by the prime 11 collectors (Malik bin Anas, Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Al-Bukari, Moslem, Abu Dawud, Al-Termithi, Al-Nasai, Ibn Majah, Al Shawkani, Al-Daequtni, and A-Tabarani).

As-Sunan as-Sughra , also known as Sunan an-Nasa'i , is one of the six major hadith books. It was collected by, Aḥmad ibn Shu`ayb ibn Alī ibn Sīnān Abū `Abd ar-Raḥmān al-Nasā'ī Al-Nasai, commonly known as Al-Nasā'ī (214 – 303 AH/ 829 – 915). It is said this collection is the third most authentic hadith collection after Sahih al-Bukhari.

As-Sunan as-Sughra , also known as Sunan an-Nasa’i , is one of the six major hadith books. It was collected by, Aḥmad ibn Shu`ayb ibn Alī ibn Sīnān Abū `Abd ar-Raḥmān al-Nasā’ī Al-Nasai, commonly known as Al-Nasā’ī (214 – 303 AH/ 829 – 915). It is said this collection is the third most authentic hadith collection after Sahih al-Bukhari.

The 12,000 number is not the grand total of all Hadiths in the books of above mentioned collectors, because of repetitions within each book and repetitions in-between books. For example; there are 14,145 Hadiths in the following four books alone: Al-Muwtta by Malik Ibn Anas (732), Sunan Al Soghra by Abu Abdel Rahman Al-Nasai (5,352), Sunan Abu Dawud (4,326), and Al-Termithi (3,735).

Many scholars, including some of the authors of above six Hadith books, seem to have agreed that the total number of “authentic” Hadiths is in the order of 4,000-4,400. In other words, about a third of the reported 12,000, being an average of 4,200 Hadiths, is considered by scholars to be authentic and the remaining two-thirds, about 7,800 Hadiths not so. Scholars then graded each of the Hadiths in the two-thirds at several levels of reliability ranging from “mildly weak” down to outright “fabrication”. One of the overall grading systems is as flows: A Hadith can be categorized with regards to its authenticity into 5 types, 1) Sahih (authentic), 2) Hasan (sound), 3) Dha’eef (weak), 4) Dha’eef Jiddan (very weak), and 5) Mawdhoo (fabricated).

General theme of the Debate

Traditional Muslims

Most of the Traditional Muslim scholars take the position that Hadiths were primarily based on revelation from God and, as such, must be considered a fundamental source of guidance second only to the Quran [53.34].

Sunan Abu Dawud is one of the six major hadiths, collected by Abu Dawud Sulaymān ibn al-Ashʿath al-Azdi as-Sijistani commonly known simply as Abu Dawud (died 889 in Basra). Abu Dawud collected 500,000 hadith, but included only 4,800 in this collection. It is said this collection is the fourth most authentic hadith collection, after Sahih al-Bukhar of the six major hadith collections.

Sunan Abu Dawud is one of the six major hadiths, collected by Abu Dawud Sulaymān ibn al-Ashʿath al-Azdi as-Sijistani commonly known simply as Abu Dawud (died 889 in Basra). Abu Dawud collected 500,000 hadith, but included only 4,800 in this collection. It is said this collection is the fourth most authentic hadith collection, after Sahih al-Bukhar of the six major hadith collections.

The preservation of the Quran was not restricted to protecting its wording from change. Was that the case, its meanings could be manipulated according to human desires, while maintaining its wording. God protected its essential meanings from change by entrusting the explanation of the meanings of the Quran to the Prophet himself [16.44]. Therefore, if one is to understand the meanings of the Quran, he or she must consider what the Prophet said or did regarding it. The Prophet ‘s judgments were all based on revelation and must be considered a primary source of principles by which judgments are carried out in an Islamic State. Hadiths are essential for the smooth running of the law courts in an Islamic State. Also, the daily life of the Prophet as recorded in hadith represents an ideal code of good conduct [33.21].

Quranic Muslims

Most of Quranic Muslim scholars object to what they consider a rigidly held notion by Traditional Muslims that, while God is in charge of maintaining Quran “wordings”, its essential “meanings” must be protected, by Hadith books, from change (through manipulations emanating from human desires).

Jami at-Tirmidhi is one of the six major hadith collections. It was collected by Abu `Isa Muhammad ibn `Isa at-Tirmidhi. He began compiling it after 250 A.H. (865) and completed it 270 A.H. (884). It contains 3,956 hadiths, and has been divided into fifty chapters. . It is said this collection is the fifth most authentic hadith collection, after Sahih al-Bukhar of the six major hadith collections.

Jami at-Tirmidhi is one of the six major hadith collections. It was collected by Abu `Isa Muhammad ibn `Isa at-Tirmidhi. He began compiling it after 250 A.H. (865) and completed it 270 A.H. (884). It contains 3,956 hadiths, and has been divided into fifty chapters. . It is said this collection is the fifth most authentic hadith collection, after Sahih al-Bukhar of the six major hadith collections.

They insist this notion must not be acceptable to true believers in God. They argue all Muslims are aware of the fact that God has taken the responsibility of protecting the Quran in the well-known Ayah [15.9]. But, one must not overlook the fact that God has also taken the responsibility of the Quran “collection”, “recitation” and “explanation” as He says in Ayahs [75.17-19]. Also, God calls upon mankind to reflect on the Quran and take note, by them, that if it had been from any other than God, they would have found within it much contradiction [4.82]. They indicate whilst there are no contradictions in the Quran, there are contradictions in the Hadith books, because these are a type of historical records written by humans and historical books are inherently not reliable.

Therefore, fixing the “meanings” of the Quran to 1,200 years old historical Hadith books is regarded as illogical by Quranic Muslim scholars. For example, over the centuries, some Ayahs have been “explained” simplistically, in various historical “Tafsir” books, due to absence of recent scientific knowledge. Modern colorations of those same Ayahs with many recent scientific discoveries are now demonstrably more plausible and meaningful than previous historical explanations, such as Human embryonic development, mountains and other discoveries in the Universe.

Sunan Ibn Mājah is one the six major hadiths, collected by Abū ʻAbdillāh Muḥammad ibn Yazīd Ibn Mājah al-Rabʻī al-Qazwīnī commonly known as Ibn Mājah (209 -273 AH/824-887). It contains over 4,000 hadiths in 32 books. It is said this collection is the sixth most authentic hadith collection after Sahih al-Bukhari.

Sunan Ibn Mājah is one the six major hadiths, collected by Abū ʻAbdillāh Muḥammad ibn Yazīd Ibn Mājah al-Rabʻī al-Qazwīnī commonly known as Ibn Mājah (209 -273 AH/824-887). It contains over 4,000 hadiths in 32 books. It is said this collection is the sixth most authentic hadith collection after Sahih al-Bukhari.

One of the poignant arguments on this side of the debate is regarding a young man, 28 years old Abd ar-Raḥmān ibn Ṣakhr ad-Dawsī al-Azdī (603-681 AD), nick-named “Abu Hurairah”, who came from Yemen and lived in the Prophet’s  neighbourhood in Medina for 20-30 months prior to the Prophet’s  death in 632 AD. The six books of Hadith reported some 5,700 Hadiths, of which over 1,000 Hadiths are listed in Sahih Al-Bukhari’s  book alone, all narrated by this specific man.

These 5,700 Hadiths from Abu Hurairah are almost half of all of the Hadiths reported in all of prime Hadith books (about 12,000). The consequence of this is that virtually half of the Sharia law and legal Islamic jurisprudence (Fiqh) in the Islamic world has been based on Hadiths narrated to this specific man.

Prophet ban on Hadith documentation

Traditional Muslims

Most of Traditional Muslims acknowledge that the Prophet has banned writing Hadith in his life time (citing a hadith by Abi Sa’eed Al Khudary in Sahih Al-Bukhari). But, they also say this is because it was feared that confusion between the Quran and the Hadith might occur if they were both written simultaneously.

Traditional Muslim scholars claim there are historical accounts regarding the existence at the time of the Prophet of written scripts of Hadith by companions, such as Abu Hurairah, Abdullâh ibn Amr, Anas bin Malik, Ali bin Abi Talib, Jaber ibn Abullah and Abdullah ibn Abbas (Prophet cousin), Abu Bakr, Abu Musa Al-Ashari, Zayd bin Thabit, and several others possessed their personal collections of Hadith. They also claim Ibn Abbas wrote many books, mostly containing Hadith and that Bara’ bin Azib used to dictate Hadith.

Ghulam Ahmad Parwez (1903–1985) was a scholar from pre-Independence India and later Pakistan. He argued that the Quran places such strong emphasis on individual freedom that it almost overrides all forms of authority. He opposed slavery, claiming that it had no justifiable basis according to the Quran. He distinguished between “deen” (a complete code of life) versus "madhab", which he equated with the prevailing definition of "religion". Parwez has been called a "quranist" by journalist Nadeem F. Paracha (born 1967) as Parwez rejected some hadith.

Ghulam Ahmad Parwez (1903–1985) was a scholar from pre-Independence India and later Pakistan. He argued that the Quran places such strong emphasis on individual freedom that it almost overrides all forms of authority. He opposed slavery, claiming that it had no justifiable basis according to the Quran. He distinguished between “deen” (a complete code of life) versus “madhab”, which he equated with the prevailing definition of “religion”. Parwez has been called a “quranist” by journalist Nadeem F. Paracha (born 1967) as Parwez rejected some hadith.

This side of the debate stipulates the notion that a group of companions and followers regarded it as disliked (Arabic: Makrooh) to write down the Hadith and they regarded it as liked (Arabic: Mustahabb) to learn it from them by heart, as they had learned it. But, they insist that when people were no longer able to strive so hard (in memorizing) and the scholars feared that knowledge might be lost, they compiled it in books.

Quranic Muslims

Quranic Muslims say the responsibility of “collecting” the Quran is that of God Himself because He says so in [75.17] and that this responsibility is beyond mortal humans. They strongly argue the collection of the Quran must not and could not possibly be associated or confused with the responsibilities of human activities. Muhammad Tawfiq Sidqi (1881-1920) said “no mortal soul could ever produce anything like the Quran. Confusion is impossible between Quranic verse and anything else”.

Quranic Muslims indicate there are many hadiths narrated to companions confirming the Prophet’s  ban on recording hadith and recall many examples in:  (1) Al-Bakhari book narrated to Abi Sa’eed Al Khudary,  (2) Ahmad bin Hanbal book narrated to Zayed Ibn Thabet (the Prophet’s closest revelation writer) and another hadith narrated to Abdullah Ibn Omar, (3) Ibn Al Salah book narrated to Abu Hurairah, (4) Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdadi book (Taq-yeed Al –Alm) narrated to Abu Saeed Al-Khudry and another hadith to Abu Hurairah, and (5) The final sermon in the farewell Pilgrimage of the Prophet, which was witnessed by thousands of Muslims, there is this sentence “I left for you what if you hold up to, you will never be misguided, the Book of God “. This sentence was recorded in three notable Hadith books by; Muslim 15/19, nu 1218; Ibn Majah 25/84 and Abu Dawud 11/56.

At the same time, Quranic Muslims acknowledge the fact that Hadith books also contain other hadiths claiming the Prophet has ordered the recording of Hadith and thus conclude the Hadith literature does not have a sure and solid historical foundation.  They use these very discrepancies to indicate Hadith stands on no sound ground to claim authenticity and authority, and as such it loses significance as reliable guidance. Ghulam Ahmed Pervez (1903-1985) wrote “No steps were taken by the Prophet or by his immediate followers to preserve the integrity of Hadith”.

Guided Khalifas ban on Hadith documentation

Traditional Muslims

Most scholars of Traditional Muslims do not deny the four guided Khalifas after the Prophet’s death have maintained the ban on Hadith recording. But, they also say the second guided Khalifa Umar was not against the relating of Traditions; he was only against collecting them into book form. They insist reliance upon “oral” transmission of Hadith continued through the times of guided Khalifas (Abu Bakr, Omar, Othman, and Ali) and continued afterwards through the times of the first seven consecutive Ummayad rulers (Mou’awyya, his son Yazeed, Abdullah Ibn Az’Zubayr, Marwan Ibn Al Hakam, Abdulma’lik Ibn Marwan, Al Waleed Ibn Abdulma’lik, and Sulayman Ibn Abdulma’lik).

They point out the Prophet’s companions themselves were living models of his practice and treasure-houses of his sayings and that the Arabs had strong memories such that they would easily memorize hundreds of lines of their poetry. Many of them knew by heart detailed pedigrees of not only themselves, but also of their horses and camels. Of the Prophet’s  companions, Aisha (his wife) and Abu Hurairah lived up to between 50 and 60 AH, Abdullah bin Abbas and Abdullah bin Umar to around 70 AH, Abu Said Khudri to between 70 and 80 AH and Anas bin Malik to 90 AH. Traditional Muslim scholars use this status to say that in the second half of the first century of Hijrah it was still possible to hear a great store of Hadith from those who had seen or heard them directly from the Prophet himself and that these companions and others spread over huge areas (to Iraq, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and Khorasan) and were surrounded by eager pupils both Arab and non-Arab, thirsting to hear about the Prophet from those who had seen and lived with him. Traditional Muslims on this side of the debate recall various historical records to indicate that some of these pupils, who are known as the “Followers of the Companions” (in Arabic: Tabeen), became renowned for their learning, reporting and understanding of Hadith and point out that  among the Followers who wrote books of Hadith in the first century AH were Hasan Al-Basri (21-110 AH), the associate of the companions Imran bin Hussain and Anas bin Malik in Basra, and also Muhammad al-Baqir (56-114 AH). They claim most of the Followers lived up to dates between 90 AH and 120 AH which is around the time when Hadith collections in books started to appear.

Traditional Muslims indicate the 8th Ummayad ruler Omar Ibn Abdulaziz (died 99 AH) formally ordered mayor of Medina, Abu Bakr Ibn Amro, to gather the Hadith and Al Bukhari reported this command from Omar Ibn Abdulaziz as being the first official order to collect the Hadith

Quranic Muslims

Quranic Muslims insist the core issue in this matter is that there is no verifiable evidence that the Prophet himself has given his directive to document Hadith.  They point to other historical accounts, including several in the Hadith books themselves, that some of the companions have had their own private collections of Hadith but opted to destroy them, including Abu Bakr, and that Omar Ibn Al-Khattab insisted on destroying the Hadiths collected by his son Abdullah. They claim Umer restrained four of the Prophet’s companions because of their insistence on telling Hadiths, these were Ibn Masoud, Abu Al-Dardaa, Abu Masoud Al-Anssary and Abu Tharr Al-Ghaffary .

Muhammad Husayn Haykal (1888 –1956) was an Egyptian writer, journalist, politician and Minister of Education in Egypt. He obtained a B.A. in Law in 1909 and a PhD from the Sorbonne University in Paris in 1912. In 1937, he was appointed as Minister of State for the Interior Ministry. Then he was appointed as a Minister of Education where he introduced several reforms, including decentralization. He wrote several books, including The Life of The Noble Prophet Muhammad (1933), In the House of Revelation (1939), Sayyidina Al Farouq Omar (1944) and “Sayyidina Othman Ibn Affan”, published in 1968.

Muhammad Husayn Haykal (1888 –1956) was an Egyptian writer, journalist, politician and Minister of Education in Egypt. He obtained a B.A. in Law in 1909 and a PhD from the Sorbonne University in Paris in 1912. In 1937, he was appointed as Minister of State for the Interior Ministry. Then he was appointed as a Minister of Education where he introduced several reforms, including decentralization. He wrote several books, including The Life of The Noble Prophet Muhammad (1933), In the House of Revelation (1939), Sayyidina Al Farouq Omar (1944) and “Sayyidina Othman Ibn Affan”, published in 1968.

Many scholars on the Quranic Muslims side claim the fabrication of hadith was a result of political and social tensions and dissensions erupting immediately after the death of the Prophet and were carried into modern times. Here is how biographer Muhammad Haykal (1888-1956) explains the phenomenon after the Prophet’s death “the Muslims differed, and they fabricated thousands of hadiths and reports to support their various causes. From the day Abu Lu’lu’ah, the servant of al Mughirah, killed Umar ibn al Khattab and Uthman ibn Affan assumed the caliphate, the old pre-Islamic enmity of Banu Hashim and Banu Umayyah reappeared. When, upon the murder of Uthman, civil war broke out between the Muslims, Aisha fought against Ali and Ali’s supporters consolidated themselves into a party, the fabrication of ahadith spread to the point where Ali ibn Abu Talib himself had to reject the practice and warn against it. He reportedly said “We have no book and no writing to read to you except the Quran and this sheet which I have received from the Prophet of God in which he specified the duties prescribed by charity.” Apparently, this exhortation did not stop the hadith narrators from fabricating their stories either in support of a cause they advocated, or of a virtue or practice to which they exhorted the Muslims and which they thought would have more appeal if vested with prophetic authority”. (Haykal, lxxxiii).

They also point to a report in the book “Sunan Al-Daramy “that Ali Ibn Abu Talib, the fourth Khalifa in one of his speeches said, “I urge all those who have writing taken from the messenger of God to go home and erase it. The people before you were annihilated because they followed the Hadiths of their scholars and left the book of their Lord”. Quranic Muslims say by the time 8th Ummayad ruler Omar Ibn Abdulaziz came to power, the fabricated Hadiths were widespread and the people looked for more Hadiths instead of keeping their focus on the Quran and that this situation prompted him to issue an order to permit the “formal” writing of Hadiths hoping that he would put an end to the situation he was facing at the time. But, they point out, in his ruling he disregarded the Prophet’s ban that was in effect for decades during his predecessor’s time. This led to floods of Hadith books upon which much of the law practices in courts and acts of worship have subsequently become based.

Suspicious Hadiths

Traditional Muslims

Traditional Muslims claim Al-Bukhari’s acceptance of about 7,000 out of 600,000 (he discarded about 99%) is indicative of the levels of scrutiny he applied. Furthermore they claim this is one reason for the large number of repetitions. They cite the famous Hadith reported by Umar “actions are judged by intentions” as being related from 700 different authorities. They say in the terminology of “Hadith Science”, these are counted as 700 Hadiths. They also claim criticism and scrutiny of Hadith was practiced from the very beginning, even in the time of the companions and their followers, and that there had always been a central core of unquestionable true Hadiths with the earnest, sincere and pious scholars.

At the same time, Traditional Muslims point to three sources of inventing, distorting and fabricating Hadiths during the latter part of guided Khulafas era, (1) Appearance of Kharijis and the dynastic clashes of  Banu Umayyah, Banu Al-Abbas and Banu Hashim, and particularly after the martyrdom of the Prophet’s grandson Al-Husaain and his family at Karbala. Some partisans had recourse to distorting or inventing Hadith to justify their claims, (2) the emergence of public preachers and story-tellers with questionable aims and objectives.  (3) Human weaknesses such as forgetting, confusing, exaggerating, ascribing statements of the Companions to the Prophet himself and so on. Traditional Muslims insist the immense research by the renowned Hadith scholars exposed the input from these three sources and enormous efforts were put by them to identify, classify and filter-out fraudulent Hadiths. They say not every narrator commanded equal respect; Hadith collectors prided on certain chain of narrators. For instance, a chain of narrators consisting of “Malik, he from Nafi , he from Ibn Umar” was considered to be of the highest class, regardless of the text it contained.

Quranic Muslims

Quranic Muslims believe accepting Hadiths on the bases of chain of narrators quality regardless of the text it contained is, by definition, a major source of corruption. They take the positon that the sources of weaknesses has to be acknowledged, and how could they be not so whilst they are integral to the being of mankind. Scholars have claimed that up to 99% of Hadiths that were in circulation, some 200 years after the Prophet’s death, have been filtered out by the six Hadith books. Yet, according to Quranic Muslim scholars, a substantial number of Hadiths remain to this day in these books. They regard them as being highly questionable and likely to have served various human and political agendas during those events of 1,200 years ago. Quranic Muslim scholars persistently remind Muslims the Quran was, is and will always be the best source.

Here is an example of seven Hadiths many of Quranic Muslim scholars find questionable or unacceptable

  1. Anas bin Malik said, “The Prophet used to visit all his wives in a round, during the day and night and they were eleven in number.” I asked Anas, “Had the Prophet the strength for it?” Anas replied, “We used to say that the Prophet was given the strength of thirty (men).” And Sa`id said on the authority of Qatada that Anas had told him about nine wives only (not eleven). The Quranic Muslims consider this Hadith an insult to the Prophet. This 30-men strength claim is not a hadith attributed to the Prophet but hearsay or gossip which has inexplicably found its way into Sahih Al- Bukari’s book.
  2. “Evil omen is in three things: The horse, the woman and the house.” The Quranic Muslims say this hadith is illogical because it is, in effect, a call for mankind to abandon women and houses. It is not likely to be a call by a messenger of God.
  3. “The Khawarij are the dogs of Hell” . The Quranic Muslims argue that, historically, the Khwarij (a group of Muslims sect) emerged at the first Islamic civil war (fitna) having serious disagreement with other Muslims at the time of 4th guided Khalifa Ali ibn Abi Talib (in 657 AD). The Prophet died in 632 AD, some 25 years before the Khawarij appearance. They argue this hadith has the mark of political motivation at the time of historical inception of sectarianism among Muslims.
Kassim Ahmad (born 1933) is a Malay Muslim scholar and activist. He was former Malay Studies lecturer at the University of London’s School of Oriental and African Studies. He lamented that people in Malaysia were losing their freedom to think and voice their views, and that the authorities were becoming more narrow-minded. He had apparently accused some ulama (religious scholars) in Malaysia of imitating the "priesthood caste" system. He questioned the use of hadith to interpret the Quran.

Kassim Ahmad (born 1933) is a Malay Muslim scholar and activist. He was former Malay Studies lecturer at the University of London’s School of Oriental and African Studies. He lamented that people in Malaysia were losing their freedom to think and voice their views, and that the authorities were becoming more narrow-minded. He had apparently accused some ulama (religious scholars) in Malaysia of imitating the “priesthood caste” system. He questioned the use of hadith to interpret the Quran.

  1. “Were it not for Bani Israel, meat would not decay; and were it not for Eve; no woman would ever betray her husband.” Hadiths of this kind are not a rarity and must be questioned.
  2. “A people who make a woman their ruler will never be successful.” What about queen of Yemen who successfully became a Muslim with Prophet Suleiman [27.44]?
  3. The Prophet said “I looked at Paradise and found poor people forming the majority of its inhabitants; and I looked at Hell and saw that the majority of its inhabitants were women.” This hadith is a source of fear for the wealthy and women.
  4. “Fatima bint Qais reported: My husband divorced me with three pronouncements and Allah’s Messenger made no provision for lodging and maintenance allowance”. This ruling is not compatible with the Quran Ayahs [2.231, 2.233, and 65.1] that forbid expulsion of divorced women from their homes and requires provision of expenses to them particularly to those who are still breast feeding infants.
Ghulam Ahmad Parvez (1903 -1985), the scholar from pre-Independence India and later Pakistan, expressed three concerns (1) The Quran contains no ruling saying that hadith must be followed. The word “hikma” in Ayah [2.129] could have been meant in the general sense of “wisdom”, (2) Ayah [59.7] “Whatever the messenger gives you, take; whatever he forbids you, give over” referred to the distribution of loot after battle, and (3) Hadith reports occasionally contradict the Quran; for example the punishment for adultery is 100 lashes in the Quran but stoning in the hadith [27.28].  Also, Kassim Ahmad (born 1933), of Malaysia, wrote two books titled “Hadith: Answers to Critics”  and “Hadith: A Re-evaluation “, through it he presented  three questions, (1) Did the Prophet bring one or two books?, (2) Why did the hadith take 250-350 years to be compiled, and (3) why do Sunnis have different collections from Shiites?

Are there Specific roles for Hadith to understand Islam?

Some Traditional Muslims advocate three basic propositions, (1) Hadith serves to define the details of general injections in the Quran, (2) The Quran and Hadith are not placed against each other to be mutually exclusive, and (3) The Hadith is the Quran’s indispensable complementary companion. Others refer to classical hadith specialists, such as the author of famous commentary book titled “Fath al-Bari fi Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari “ Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (1372-1449) who says that the intended meaning of hadith in religious tradition is something attributed to Muhammad but not found in the Quran. On the other hand, Quranic Muslims do not accept these propositions and argue that although the claim, by Traditional Muslims, that the hadith contains many details that are not to be found in the Quran is quite true, the absence of these details from the Quran is not because the Quran is not fully detailed, but because these details were never decreed by God. They insist the Quran contains all the details that are sanctioned by God and for which Muslims will be held accountable to. Some of the specific detailed differences between Traditional Muslims and Quranic Muslims are outlined below;

Prayers (Salah)

Traditional Muslims

While the Quran gives the general commandment to pray the obligatory prayers, the details of when and how to perform them are only obtained in the Hadith. Each of the Hadith six books listed numerous Hadiths on Prayer; see for example the 112 Hadiths in the “Ablution” book and the 171 Hadiths in the “Prayers” book both of which in Sahih Al-Bukhari. Additionally, there are 873 Hadiths in 15 books on rites related to the obligatory prayers and to other prayers in Sahih Al-Bukhari.

In general, Traditional Muslims pray five obligatory prayers per day, optional prayers such as those prayed by the Prophet (sunnah and nafl salat) may be offered. Sunni Muslims touch their heads directly to the floor (in contrast to Shias) in prostration and fold their arms while standing in prayer. Menstruating women should not pray.

Quranic Muslims

Quranic Muslim scholars advocating the ablution for Salah as well as Salah characteristics, numbers and times should all be as directed by the Quran. The Quran gives three positions to be observed during the Salah: Standing, Bowing and Prostrating. The Salah starts in the standing position. The Ayahs [2.238, 3.39, and 4.102] indicate the standing position. Ayah [4.102] in particular indicates that the Salah starts in the standing position and ends with prostration. Submission to God should be declared physically and symbolically by first bowing down and prostrating [22.26, 48.29]. The greater majority of Quranic Ayah speaks of bowing and prostrating in that order. Quran Ayahs [17.46, 20.14, 29:45] together indicate that the words of the Salah must be from the Quran alone. Quran also provide indication on specific Quranic phrases are to be spoken during the Salah [2.185, 3.18, 16.98, 17.111, 56.74, 87.1, and 50.40]. The Salah’s mentioned by name in the Quran are three: Fajr, at dawn [24.58], Isha, at night [24.58] and Wausta, at the middle [2.238]. The traditional five Salah’s include two not mentioned in the Quran, being the result of manipulations of certain words in [24.58, 103.1].

Some of the Quranic Muslims indicate the Quran describes the practice of three mandatory ritual prayers, and one optional during the night and that the Quran provides all details of Salah, including the number of daily rak’ahs, which, they say, is always two, except in case of danger, where it can be reduced to one instead and remind Muslims that God is the one who teaches Salâh [2:239].

This side of the debate claims there are several innovations, through fabricated Hadiths, in the Salah of Traditional Muslims that are not called for in the Quran, such as (1) Ignoring the four simple Quranic steps for ablution [5.6] and following a non Quranic ablution (9 or 10 steps), (2) Imposing two extra non-Quranic prayers in the day (Zohar and Maghreb), (3) Imposing specific number of Rakes’ (Bowings) for the prayers, and (4) Deterring believers from praying during some hours of the day.

In general, Quranic Muslims fall into a few categories (a) those who combine the five prayers into three prayers (b) those who pray five times a day like Sunnis (c) those who pray two times a day (dawn and dusk to include the times of night closest to these) because the Quran only mentions two prayers by name, and (d) fringe groups who redefine the Arabic term used for prayer (Salah) as something other than prayer. Menstruating women can pray according to many Quranic Muslims.

Zakat (Islamic tax and charity)

 Traditional Muslims

God orders Muslims to give Zakat in the Quran, but the many details of which have been prescribed in the Hadith. Each of the Hadith six books listed numerous Hadiths on Zakat; see for example the 117 Hadiths in the Obligatory Charity Tax (Zakat) book in Sahih Al-Bukhari.

In general, Traditional Muslims provide 2.5% of their wealth in a prescribed manner with formulas based on Hadith

Quranic Muslims

The Quranic Muslims take the position that the 2.5% rate, which is followed by Muslims around the world, is not found in the Quran. The Quran defines the Zakat payment from ‘Al-AFW’ [2.219], which is what a person is able to give away without incurring any great hardship [17.26-29]. This amount will differ from person to another depending on each person income. The payment of the Zakat is a “fard” (obligation) on all believers who receive an income. It must be distributed according to [17.26] and must be paid as soon as the income is received.

Some Quranic Muslims consider the Zakat to be paid is as per following principles (1) On the surplus [2:219], (2) A surplus needs to be carefully set aside [7:199], (3) The Zakat is a specific rate [70:24, 51:19, 6:141], (4) It is a rate of 20%, (5) It has to be paid on the day of harvest [6:141], and (6) The believers need to pay the Zakat bearing in mind that God recommends an order of preference: Both parents, The close relatives, The orphans, The needy, stranded travellers, or travellers in difficulty. In general, some Quranic Muslims give the “excess” that they have according to what the Quran state.

Jihad

 Traditional Muslims

 Some Traditional Muslims believe jihad can be understood as an offensive “holy war” against non-Muslims

Quranic Muslims

 Some Quranic Muslims scholars believe jihad is defensive warfare. Others believe it is to strive in the cause of God, live one’s life in the cause of God.

Slavery

 Traditional Muslims

Some Sunni and Shia scholars believe that slavery is permissible if the slaves are non-Muslim and they are treated kindly.

Quranic Muslims

Quranic Muslims believe that slavery is never permissible and that it should be immediately abolished where it exists. They believe that the abolition of slavery where it exists is not a mere suggestion (as some Sunni and Shia believe), but a divine imperative. They believe the master-slave relationship is a form of polytheism and violates Islam’s strict monotheism.

Other Issues

A brief summary of comparison on some other issues is as follows;

Theft:

Some Traditional Muslims point out the Arabic word corresponding to “cut” the hand of thief in Ayah [5.38] have several meanings; (1) cu- off or to-cut in the sense of making a mark or a wound (2) it could be metaphorical (3) cutting off the resources of the thief, or (4) severing his hand, and hence only Hadith is authorised to tell the type of robbery that justifies the cutting.  Some Quranic Muslims take the position that all the above interpretations could be correct. In a court of law, the Judge must consider the full evidence and look in each case separately and carefully. For example, a gang of armed robbers who seek to live a life of luxury and idleness is different from a poor hungry person who steals a small amount of food to eat. There are several questionable Hadiths calling for cutting the hand of a person who steals an egg.

Abrogation (Naskh):

Many Traditional scholars believe that there a few certain Ayahs in the Quran that abrogate certain other Ayahs in the Quran. Quranic Muslim scholars disagree, and they point to Ayahs that say that the Quran can’t be abrogated. Several publications examined the arguments between scholars on this matter.

Adultery:

Some Traditional scholars believe that married adulterers should be stoned to death. Quranic Muslims believe that Ayah [24.2] prescribes a punishment of 100 lashes for adultery.

Dress:

Some Traditional scholars emphasize covering of all body including the face in public whereas some scholars exclude the face from hijab. Quranic Muslims position is that a person should dress modestly as stated in Ayahs [24:30–31]; hijabs or beards are not necessary. They also question the headscarf worn by Muslim women, saying that “the hair is not part of the aura”.

Inter-religious marriages:

Traditional Muslims generally consider marriages between a Muslim man and a Christian or Jewish woman acceptable but discouraged, and completely forbid Muslim women to marry Christian or Jewish men; others consider marriages between Muslims and non-Muslims, regardless of gender, totally unacceptable. Quranic Muslims give both Muslim men and women the right to marry Christian, Jewish or others, as long as they are believers [60.10] and are not idol worshipers [2:221].

Evolution:

Some Traditional scholars have argued against evolution. Modern Quranic Muslims scholars have argued in favour of evolution, many researchers studied Evolution and the Quran concept of it.  

God commands to obey the Prophet

Traditional Muslims

Traditional Muslims stipulate the Quran confirms the Prophet was sent to explain to people what is sent to them [3.164, 4.59, 4.65, 7.157, 16.44, and 24.51]. Therefore, rejection of Hadith is rejection of the Quran. The injunction to follow the guidance of the Prophet, which is embodied in the Hadith, is in the following Ayahs [3.32, 3.132, 4.80, 8.1, 8.20, 8.46, 24.54. 24.56, 24.63, 47.33, 53.3-4, 59.7].

Quranic Muslims

Quranic Muslims do not recognize such confirmation. Take for example Ayah [59.7], they explain it is clear that the portion “take what the messenger gives you and abstain from what he forbids you” is referring to the booty of war recovered which the messenger will distribute to those in need.  Quranic Muslims claim some Traditional scholars take this portion of the Ayah and quote it, out of context, in an attempt to allege that the messenger has forbidden more things not found in the Quran. Quranic Muslims also point out that God cautions believers  in [3.178] with regard to these sorts who take portions of God’s Ayahs, then deliberately hide or twist their meanings for vain gains. One of the concluding arguments by Quranic Muslims is embedded in the answer to this question: How can the Quran claim to be complete and detailed and yet, it refers to a source outside of itself? They say the answer for this entire issue is found in the Quran itself [4.80]: “Whoever obeys the messenger has obeyed God; and whoever turns away, We have not sent you as a guardian over them “which the Traditionalists often refers to it, without careful thought. In this Ayah [4.80], we are told in no uncertain terms that whoever has “obeyed the messenger” has automatically met the requirement of “obeying God” (i.e. the two commands are one in the same). The Quran was never revealed to us by God directly, but was done through His inspiration to His messenger. There is no external text to be sought; no Hadiths…There is only the words that the messenger delivered while being inspired by God. There is only one element which was delivered by God through His messenger. Is that one element the Quran? Or is that one element the Hadith? The answer could not be clearer than those in Ayahs [6.19, 10.5] wherein God confirms the messenger delivered the Quran and nothing but the Quran. Thus, they reiterate their call to remain true to the commands of God by obeying His messenger in that which he delivered, and not be like those who turned away and will be denied by the messenger himself on the day of days: “And the messenger said: ‘My Lord, my people have deserted this Quran.’” [25.30].

Practical Case Study: Hajj

Traditional Muslims

Traditional Muslims maintain that God orders  Muslims who are able to perform Hajj to do so, God indicates  in the Quran the fundamental rites for Hajj and Hadiths explain how to do these rites and provide specific details throughout the Hajj days.

Quranic Ayah 3.97 on Hajj

Quranic Ayah 3.97 on Hajj

They say each of the Hadith six books listed numerous Hadiths on Hajj and Umrah; for example, in Sahih Al-Bukhari, there are 258 Hadiths in Hajj book, 3 Hadiths in Umrah book, 14 Hadiths in Pilgrims Prevented from Completing the Pilgrimage book and 45 Hadiths in Penalty of Hunting while on Pilgrimage book .

In line with Traditional Muslim scholars stipulations Hajj is permitted to occur once a year and is done over a period of five to six days in Makkah starting on the 8th day of Dhu Al Hija month of the Islamic Hijra calendar in accordance with the Hajj rites as briefly listed below;

Photo from Hajj 2015

Photo from Hajj 2015

First Day (8th)

  1. Intention and Talbiya (Perform Ihram at Miqat).
  2. Perform Tawaf Al-Qudum (circumvolution of the Kaaba ); 7 tours around Kaaba and perform Sai, 7 repeat walks, between the hills of Safa and Marwa (420 m covered walkway). Then drink Zamzam water, leave Haram and arrive in Mina, 4 km away from Makkah.
Second Day (9th), Day of Arafat
3. Go from Mina and arrive at Mount Arafah, 20 km from Mina.
4.Stand on Mount Arafat then leave it at sunset to Mozdalefah.
Tawaf is one of the Hajj rituals of pilgrimage. During the Hajj and Umrah, Muslims are to circumambulate the Kaaba (most sacred site in Islam) seven times, in a counter clockwise direction. The circling is believed to demonstrate the unity of the believers in the worship of the One God, as they move in harmony together around the Kaaba, while supplicating to God. At the end of the circling, Muslims go to the Station of Ibrahim to pray two nafl prayer rak'ahs, before proceeding to the next ritual of the Hajj, the Sa'yee. Muslims are generally advised to "make ṭawāf" at least twice – once as part of the Hajj, and again as their final activity before leaving Makkah.

Tawaf is one of the Hajj rituals of pilgrimage. During the Hajj and Umrah, Muslims are to circumambulate the Kaaba (most sacred site in Islam) seven times, in a counter clockwise direction. The circling is believed to demonstrate the unity of the believers in the worship of the One God, as they move in harmony together around the Kaaba, while supplicating to God. At the end of the circling, Muslims go to the Station of Ibrahim to pray two nafl prayer rak’ahs, before proceeding to the next ritual of the Hajj, the Sa’yee. Muslims are generally advised to “make ṭawāf” at least twice – once as part of the Hajj, and again as their final activity before leaving Makkah.

Third Day (10th), Day of Sacrifice
5. Collect 49 pebbles then go from Mozdalfah back to Mina, stone Jamarat Al-Aqaba, with 7 pebbles
6. Offer sacrifice, and then have a hair-cut or full shave.
7. Go from Mina to Haram, perform Tawaf Al-Efadha; and
8. Perform Sai , then return from Haram back to Mina.
Fourth and Fifth Days (11th, 12th)
9. Stay in Mina and perform, each day, 3 successive stoning, 7 pebbles each, in 3 locations on walk of some 300m.
10. Shave or cut head hair.
11. Leave Mina to Haram; perform Tawaf Al-Wadha, then leave Mekkah.
Traditional Muslim scholars take the position that within the above activities; there are items classified as “essential” (in Arabic: Fardh or Rukn); the performance of which is imperative otherwise Hajj will be invalid. But, there is no absolute agreement among scholars on the exact number of these items.
The prevailing alternative views are as follows;
  • Three Items: (1), (4) and (7).
  • Four Items: (1), (4), (7), and (8).
  • Five Items: (1), (4), (7), (8) and (10).

Three essential items [(1), (4) and (7)] are agreed upon by the majority of scholars and schools of thought. The differences are on whether item 8 or item 8 together with item 10 should be also included as part of the “essential” (Fard or Rukn) activities. Other than “essential” (Fard or Rukn) activities, the scholars graded the remaining activities at different levels ranging from “duty” to “desirable”. Traditional Muslims argue this elaborate establishment of Hajj rites is not possible without Hadith.

The Kaaba

The Kaaba

Quranic Muslims

This side of the debate insist that God stresses in the Quran that the only purpose of Hajj is to commemorate the name of God. Therefore, every hour and day of the Hajj should be spent in commemorating the name of God alone [22.27-28. 2.203, 2.198, 2.200, 6.162].

They say the Quran provides detailed information with regards to Hajj rituals [2:125; 2:158; 2:189; 2:196-203; 3:96-97; 22:26-37; 48:27], as listed below;

Sa'yee (or Sai): Al-Safa and Al-Marwah (or Safa and Marwah)  are two small hills now located in the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca,  between which Muslims walk back and forth seven times during the ritual pilgrimages of Hajj and Umrah. The Masjid al-Haram houses the Kaaba, the focal point of prayer for all Muslims. Safa — from which the ritual walking begins — is located approximately 100 m (330 ft) from the Kaaba. Marwah is located about 350 m (1,150 ft) from the Kaaba. The distance between Safa and Marwah is approximately 300 m (980 ft), so that seven trips amount to roughly 2.1 km (1.3 mi). The two points and the path between them are now inside a long gallery that forms part of the Masjid.

Sa’yee (or Sai): Al-Safa and Al-Marwah (or Safa and Marwah) are two small hills now located in the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, between which Muslims walk back and forth seven times during the ritual pilgrimages of Hajj and Umrah. The Masjid al-Haram houses the Kaaba, the focal point of prayer for all Muslims. Safa — from which the ritual walking begins — is located approximately 100 m (330 ft) from the Kaaba. Marwah is located about 350 m (1,150 ft) from the Kaaba. The distance between Safa and Marwah is approximately 300 m (980 ft), so that seven trips amount to roughly 2.1 km (1.3 mi). The two points and the path between them are now inside a long gallery that forms part of the Masjid.

  1. Ihram (Abstentions) Hunting is prohibited during Hajj [5.1-2, 5.95]. All warfare is prohibited in the Hurrum months except for self-defence [2.217]. Sexual intercourse, misconduct and arguments are not permitted during Hajj [2.107]. Cutting of the hair is not permitted during Hajj and may only be done after the offering has reached its destination [2.196].
  2. Visit Kaaba [22.29].
  3. Sai (between Safa and Marwa) [2.158].
  4. Day of Arafat [2.198].
  5. Hadi (animal offering) [5.97, 22.36-37].
  6. Convenient offering [2.196], for those who progress from Umrah to Hajj (money, clothes or food and so on).

Quranic Muslims claim rituals other than those above are not required by the Quran or violate the Quran, such as;

Times of Hajj:

Today, Muslims are restricted to perform Hajj only during the first 10 days of the month of Zhu Al-Hijjah, based on Hadith and that Hajj has been permitted to occur once a year, as per Hadith. The focal point of Hajj “Day of Arafat” occurs on the 9th of the lunar month of Dhu Al Hija. This restriction is also based Hadith. The Prophet performed only one Hajj a few months before his death. In it he stood on mount Arafat on the 9th of Dhu Al Hija. He did not live to do another Hajj and there is no credible record of an order by the Prophet that restricts Hajj to be only once a year or only during the first 10 days of the month of Zhu Al-Hijjah.
Mount Arafat (or Mount Arafah) is a granite hill east of Mecca in the plain of Arafat. Arafat is a plain about 20 km Southeast of Mecca. Mount Arafat reaches about 70 m in height and also known as the Mount of Mercy. The hill is the place where the Prophet stood and delivered the Farewell Sermon to the Muslims who had accompanied him for the Hajj towards the end of his life. The level area surrounding the hill is called the Plain of Arafat. The pilgrims spend the day on Arafah, being the most important part of the Hajj, supplicating to God to forgive their sins and praying for personal strength in the future. Failure to be present in the plain of Arafat invalidates the pilgrimage.

Mount Arafat (or Mount Arafah) is a granite hill east of Mecca in the plain of Arafat. Arafat is a plain about 20 km Southeast of Mecca. Mount Arafat reaches about 70 m in height and also known as the Mount of Mercy. The hill is the place where the Prophet stood and delivered the Farewell Sermon to the Muslims who had accompanied him for the Hajj towards the end of his life. The level area surrounding the hill is called the Plain of Arafat. The pilgrims spend the day on Arafah, being the most important part of the Hajj, supplicating to God to forgive their sins and praying for personal strength in the future. Failure to be present in the plain of Arafat invalidates the pilgrimage.

On the other hand, God allocates the “Hurrum” months for Hajj [2.197]. The number of “Hurrum” months is 4 out of 12 in each year [9.36]. Quranic Muslims claim the first sighting of the crescent in the month of Zhu Al-Hijja signals the beginning of Hajj [2.189] months, as in the case of sighting of the first crescent in the month of Ramadan signals the beginning of the fasting month and that the Arabic word “Hurrum” comes from the word “Ihram” which means abstention, as in item (1) above .
Kissing (or waiving to) the Black stone:
Quranic Muslims stipulate Abraham destroyed all the stones that his people were worshipping [21.66] and that God orders Muslims not to worship any person or thing beside God [5.76, 10.18, and 25.55]. Therefore, Quranic Muslims do not accept this ritual and classify it as unacceptable innovation that comes from Hadith.
Zamzam water:

Drinking water from Zamzam aquifer as part of Hajj ritual. Again, Quranic Muslims insist that idolizing and holding sacred any object, whether it is the water of ‘Zamzam’ or the ‘black stone’, thinking that either could benefit a Muslim in any way is in direct violation of the Quran [5.76, 21.66 and other Ayahs].

stonning

Stoning of the Devil comprises the throwing pebbles at three walls (formerly pillars), called jamarāt, in the city of Mina just east of Mecca during Hajj. It is said it is a symbolic re-enactment of Abraham’s hajj, where he was thought to have stoned three pillars representing the temptation to disobey God and preserve Ishmael. Pilgrims strike only one of the large jamrah with seven pebbles in the first day of this ritual. On each of the following two days, they hit each of the three walls with seven pebbles, going in order from east to west. Thus at least 49 pebbles are needed for the ritual, more if some throws miss. Some pilgrims stay at Mina for an additional day, in which case they again stone each wall seven times. The stoning of the devil ritual is the most dangerous part of the pilgrimage because of the huge crowds, particularly as they cross the massive multilayer Jamarat Bridge that affords access to the pillars.

Stoning of Satan:
Quranic Muslims claim this ritual innovation also comes from Hadith and take the position that no human has the power or ability to see the devil or to be able to inflict him with any harm [7.27]. They point out God prescribed in the Quran the only way to deal with the devil is to seek refuge in God [23.97-98], and hence not in throwing stones on a concrete pillar built by human contractors.
Hajj Garment (wearing two seamless white wrappings):Quranic Muslims claim no dress code is required of any ritual or form of worship and that instead God stresses the fact that He will judge people by what is in their hearts and not by what they wear [26.89].
Mihrim:Quranic Muslims indicate there is no command in the Quran preventing women to perform Hajj without the company of a Mihrim (a male who is not allowed to marry her). In general, many Quranic Muslims object to touching the black stone of the Kaaba during hajj or umrah, however all Quranic Muslims agree that it is not to be accorded any sort of special veneration or respect apart from the rest of the Ka’bah. Hajj according to some Quranic Muslims is a four month long season as stated above

What next?

Some Quranic Muslims argue  that among the biggest differences between Quranic Muslims state and Traditional Muslims state come in the form of the state’s authority over the masses. It is this, they argue, more than anything else that separates the Quran from the Hadiths (and the Sunnah). Some Quranic Muslims allege the Traditional Muslims brought, through “fabricated” Hadiths, the divine authority from God to Prophet, then Prophet to Caliph (companions), then consequently to rulers of dynasties (Umayyads, Abbasids and Ottomanies) and now that authority is seemingly in the hands of a number of contemporary leaders and politicians of the states that make the current Islamic world today. Sayyid Qutb (1906-1966) took the extreme position that “the leaders of these so-called Muslim states had to be viewed as apostates; there rule, even if legitimated by corrupt Muslim scholars, was illegitimate.”

Numbers Hajj pilgrims

Numbers Hajj pilgrims

It would seem to be highly constructive if a new Islamic convention, similar to that above mentioned “2005 Amman Message in Jordan” is sponsored by the political rulers to bridge some of the wide gaps of this critical debate.  A new convention that would bring representatives of both parties of this debate around the table would responsibly bring the debate from cyber space to real space. It would be of great logistical and economic benefits to the government of Saudi Arabia and the Muslims world at large if such convention agrees on the following practical twin points of dispute on Hajj, namely

  1. Hajj Times: Allowing Muslims to do Hajj over four months in every year , including current Traditional Hajj during the first ten days of Dhu Al-Hija (which is one of these four Hajj months), will solve major problems. This would instantly allow the Saudi government to approve the 20 million visa applications currently being declined every year for Hajj. These visas are understandably declined yearly simply because there is not enough physical space for more than 3 million people to stand together at the same time on mount Arafat, and the same situation at and around Kaaba. The spiritual and economic gains will be enormous.
  2. Devil Stoning: Cancellation of symbolic devil stoning alone would cut Hajj duration by 50%, from about 6 days down to 3 days, with the bonus of avoiding deadly stampedes.

According to Quranic Muslim scholars in this debate both of the above rites are not based on the Quran but only on Hadith, as is the case of the rite of kissing the Black Stone of Kaaba.  Furthermore, they point out that these Hadiths, on these specific issues, are not in the form of confirmed reliable statements by the Prophet himself that give explicit instructions to do these rites. Instead they comprise notes, observations and reports by other people. In September 2015, the British international magazine “The Economist” reported “In recent years the (Saudi Arabia) kingdom has modified several sites, which has altered the rituals themselves… The faithful need not kiss the black stone on its eastern corner, as is traditionally required, but can point to it instead”.

This decision was obviously taken after it became evident that kissing the stone was impossible  due to extreme crowding. The above two points could likewise be positively addressed for the benefit of Saudi Arabia and the Islamic world.

Citations from the Quran

A total of about 130 Quran Ayahs have been cited in this Article. Each of the cited Ayahs is preceded by a numerical code within two brackets; for example: [4.3] refers to Ayah Number 3 in Surah number 4. Ideally, the readers who know Arabic would refer directly to the original Quran in Arabic. [[Quran translations]] to other languages have always been difficult, even though many attempts have already been made. Recently (1982-84), a Quran Complex was established by the  Saudi Arabian government, named after King Fahd. This Quran Complex outlines Quran translation difficulties into English, and considers all translations to be translations to the “meanings” or “interpretations” of the Quran. This Quranic Complex denotes own Quran translations as “Translations of the Meanings of the Quran”.  There are several well-known Quran translations to English which can be found on the internet or published in the form of books such as the following 10 translations by;

  1. Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought, Amman, Jordan, 2008
  2. Quran Complex which was established in 1982-84 by the Saudi Arabia government, named after King Fahd.
  3. Dr.  Mohammad Ghali (born in 1920) who was a Professor of Linguistics and Islamic Studies, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.
  4. Mohammad Muhsin Khan (born in 1927). He is a contemporary author of Pashtun origin who completed this translation with Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali.
  5. M H Shakir: There is controversy on the real identity of the translator who may be Egyptian judge Muhammad Habib Shakir (1866-1939) or likely Mohammedali Habib Shakir the son of Habib Esmail of The House of Habib in Pakistan.
  6. Yusuf Ali (1872-1953) who was a British-Indian Islamic scholar. He died in London and is buried in England at the Muslim cemetery at Brookwood, Surrey (near Woking), not far from the burial place of Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall (1875 –1936) who was a Western Islamic scholar (a convert from Christianity) also noted for his translation of the Qur’an (1930) from Arabic to English, see below
  7. Muhammad Pickthall (1875-1936); he was a Western; a convert from Christianity.
  8. Sahih International; in 1989 three American converts to Islam joined together to form “Saheeh International” and published their translation in 1997.
  9. Dr. Rashad Khalifa (1935-1990) who promoted a strict monotheism and was a prominent Quranist. His translation is considered as simple with clear presentation and ease of use. But, he is also known for his controversial research claiming the Quran is mathematically and statistically coded to number 19. Some Quranic Muslims criticised Rashad Khalifa as grossly misinterpreted the sign of number 19 in the Quran: He came to the point of seeing number 19 everywhere and believing that every aspect of the Quran was coded with it. Muhammad Asad (1900–1992) who was a Jewish-born Austro-Hungarian journalist, traveller, linguist, diplomat and Islamic scholar .
  10. Muhammad Asad (1900–1992) who was a Jewish-born Austro-Hungarian journalist, traveller, linguist, diplomat and Islamic scholar,

ممارسة الجنس في الإسلام

ا. طه، لندن، المملكة المتحدة
تحديث في 10 نوفمبر 2015

ملاحضه : هذا المقال مترجم من الانكليزىه الي العربيه -عذرا عن بعض الصعؤبات النحويه و الاملائيه٠المقال الاصلي بالانكليزيه موجود في هذا الموقع
من الأفضل فهم الجنس في الإسلام في مختلف جوانب ووجهات النظر من خلال، في المقام الأول، الاستشهادات من القرآن الكريم. هناك أعداد كافية من الآيات (الآيات) في القرآن التي هي واضحة ومباشرة صراحة على كل القضايا الحيوية  
    يؤكد القرآن الكريم ان النبي محمد (570-632)   أول قدوة لكل مسلم، انظر  الآيات [6،162 حتي 163] سلوكه في حياته وما قاله هو نموذج مثالي لمتابعة مدى الحياة المباركة، بما في ذلك الزواج السعيد. هناك العديد من كتب الحديث   ، وعدد كبير من المنشورات الضخمة التي تراكمت على مدى قرون من أعمال العلماء البارزين في العديد من المدارس الفكرية. ومع ذلك فإنه لا يزال  واجبا حيويا على كل مسلم {رجل وامرأة }  ، بغض النظر عن الطائفة   الاستماع بعناية إلى  الآيات القرآنية عن  الجنس والنشاط الجنسي والسلوك الجنسي.
قبل كل شيء، الكلمة الرئيسية في القرآن على هذا الأمر هي” نكاح ”  والتي تعني حرفيا “الجماع.
  أن المشاكل العملية والمحلية، بما في ذلك الزواج القسري، وسفاح المحارم، والحياة الجنسية المختلة وظيفيا، جرائم الشرف، السحاق وصمة العار وختان الإناث يتم تخفيفها بنجاح، وربما حتى لا تنشأ إذا واحد يشير إلى وفهم والامتثال حقا مع ما هو مبين بوضوح في القرآن الكريم
القرآن
أن القرآن هو كلام الخالق، الله ، وليس وثيقة من تأليف إنسان (أو البشر)
The Quran Muslims believe the Quran is the words of The Creator, God (in Arabic: Allah), and not a document authored by a human (or humans) or angles or any other than The Creator Himself (God). The Quran was read by The Creator’s Angel messenger (Gabriel) directly to The Creator’s human messenger (Prophet Muhammad) over a period of 23 years nearly 14 centuries ago. Since then people memorize the Quran; generation after generation. In today’s printed form on paper the Quran is normally contained in a single book of around 600 pages widely available in recorded voice, video, paper and on the internet. The Quran contains 114 Surah each constitutes a number of Ayahs .

The Quran
Muslims believe the Quran is the words of The Creator, God (in Arabic: Allah), and not a document authored by a human (or humans) or angles or any other than The Creator Himself (God). The Quran was read by The Creator’s Angel messenger (Gabriel) directly to The Creator’s human messenger (Prophet Muhammad) over a period of 23 years nearly 14 centuries ago. Since then people memorize the Quran; generation after generation. In today’s printed form on paper the Quran is normally contained in a single book of around 600 pages widely available in recorded voice, video, paper and on the internet. The Quran contains 114 Surah each constitutes a number of Ayahs .

قرأ القرآن من قبل الملاك رسول من الخالق (جبرائيل) مباشرة إلى رسول البشرية (النبي محمد) على مدى 23 عاما قبل نحو 14 قرنا. ومنذ ذلك الحين الناس تحفظ القرآن؛ جيلا بعد جيل. في شكله اليوم المطبوع على الورق يرد القرآن عادة في كتاب واحد من حوالي 600 صفحة وايضا على نطاق واسع في تسجيل الصوت والفيديو  وعلى شبكة الانترنت. يحتوي على القرآن الكريم 114 سورة.
كل واحده من الآيات المذكورة، يسبقه الرمز العددي داخل قوسين. على سبيل المثال: [4.3] يشير إلى الآية رقم 3 في سورة رقم .4.
الجهل والمعرفة
كان عهد “الجهل” قبل ظهور الإسلام في الجزيرة العربية. وفي هذه الحقبة من الجهل، كان الزواج “حالة” بدلا من “عقد” عادل.
! الرجل من شأنه أن يرث زوجات والده ويمكن ان يبيع أو يدفن ابنتة حديثه الولادة على قيد الحياة ألغيت جميع هذه الممارسات  بصول الإسلام.
الإسلام هو “أسلوب حياة
معنى الكلمة العربية “الدين” هي “أسلوب الحياة” و طريقة الفرد للحياة في الخضوع لإرادة الله تشمل عبارة ” دين الإسلام”.
يوم الحساب
يؤمن المسلمون “بالمسؤولية الشخصية” و لا يؤمنون “بالتكفير بالانابه”.
في المسيحية، يشير التكفير إلى مسامحة أو العفو عن الخطيئة  من خلال “موت وقيامة” السيد المسيح. ، وان الانسان هو خاطىء ولا يمكن التكفير عن نفسه. على مر القرون، المسيحيون اإعطو تفسيرات متفاوتة للتعبير عن كيفية عمل التكفير.
في المقابل، يؤكد القرآن مرارا وتكرارا على رسالة للبشرية أن “كل شخص” هو المسؤول عن  نفسه وسيتم احياء  الجميع وسيكون لكل إنسان  الإجابة مباشرة الى الله لكل كلمة    و   فكر و  فعل.
الجهاد
                هذه الكلمة  وردت كثيرا في القرآن، تعني “الكفاح” أو “النضال” و لا تعني “الحرب المقدسة” . عبارة  “الحرب المقدسة”  غير موجودة في القرآن.
هذه الكلمة “الجهاد” تشير إلى ثلاثة صراعات أساسية:
• نضال الفرد الداخلي لتقديم إرادته لإرادة الله.
• الصراع المادي ضد الاضطهاد والقمع،
• النضال لبناء مجتمع   قوي خالي من الفساد .
الجنس هو بطبيعة الحال عنصرا في كل من هذه الصراعات الثلاثة، وبالتالي فهم شامل وعميق  للافعال الجنسية، والمبادئ التوجيهية  أمر بالغ الأهمية لكل رجل وامرأة من المسلمين.
اهميه الزواج
ويؤكد القرآن أن الأنبياء السابقين (بدءا من آدم) قد تزوج وأنتج الأطفال [2.35، 13.38].
افتراء
حذر الله مرارا وتكرارا المسلمين في القرآن من انتشار الفجور وكذلك  من  انتشار اتهامات كاذبة  بالفجور.
Charles le Gai Eaton (1921 – 2010) was a British diplomat, writer and Islamic scholar. Eaton was educated at Cambridge, where he studied history. Later he became consultant to the Islamic Cultural Centre at Regent's Park Mosque in London for over two decades. He recalled the story of slander against Aisha (Prophet Mohammad wife) in his book “Islam and the Destiny of Man “, first published in 1985, ISBN 0-04-297047-4, pages 85-86.

Charles le Gai Eaton (1921 – 2010) was a British diplomat, writer and Islamic scholar. Eaton was educated at Cambridge, where he studied history. Later he became consultant to the Islamic Cultural Centre at Regent’s Park Mosque in London for over two decades. He recalled the story of slander against Aisha (Prophet Mohammad wife) in his book “Islam and the Destiny of Man “, first published in 1985, ISBN 0-04-297047-4, pages 85-86.

 دبلوماسي بريطاني، كاتب ومفكر إسلامي – تشارلز لو جاي إيتون (2010 1921). تلقى تعليمه في جامعة كامبريدج، حيث درس التاريخ. وفي وقت لاحق أصبح مستشارا للمركز الثقافي الإسلامي في مسجد ريجنت بارك في لندن لأكثر من عقدين من الزمن. وأشار إلى قصة تشهير ضد عائشة (زوجة النبي محمد) في كتابه “الإسلام ومصير الإنسان”، نشرت لأول مرة في عام 1985، ISBN 0-04-297047-4،صفحات 85-86.

عائشة، زوجة النبي، بحثت عن  قلادة  لها مفقودة في حين قافلة جيشهم أوقفت لفترة وجيزة في الصحراء ثم انتقلت دونها من قبل الخطأ. شاب  في الخلفية حارس اكتشفها نائمة  على الرمال.  اصطحب وإعادها للقافلة. مهزوز الألسنة وأولئك الذين استاء لها أو لوالدها سارعوا للتعبير عن شكوكهم. مر شهر، كان الوضع رهيبا لعائشة كما لم تتمكن من اثبات العكس . تدخل الله في المسألة، وبرأها [24،11 حتي 20  ] مع هذا جاءت الآيات من التشريعات المتعلقة باتهامات بالزنا التي ظلت سارية المفعول .
العفة والزواج
يدعو الله   المسلمين الى العفة [24.33 (33.35)]. وضرب مثلا  العفة في شخص مريم العذراء  [3.42، 19،20 حتي 21].
اختار نبي الله يوسف   السجن بدلا من ينتهك عفته حتى في ظل الضغوط الشديدة [12،32 حتي 33)].
يدعو الله الرجال على الزواج من نساء المؤمنين بما في ذلك  (العبيد) [4.25]
لاحظ أن الآية [24.32]  تدعو   لعدم   الامتناع عن الزواج حتى في الفقر؛
وفي الوقت نفسه، استنكر الافتراءات والاتهامات الباطلة ضد النساء المؤمنات العفيفات بقوة [24،11 حتي 20].
الله يقدم مبادئ توجيهية شاملة وقواعد الإعداد لبيت المسلم. انظر على سبيل المثال (4،19-22)، (4،34-35)، (4،128 حتي 130).  الزواج في الإسلام هو عقد يسمى “نكاح”، التي تعني “الجماع” ، وإنما هو دلالة من رحمة الله لإحلال السلام والهدوء  والسكينه  للزوج والزوجة [30.21].
الزواج عن طريق عقد نكاح يتضمن
 

• اختيار الزوج؛ اقتراح من رجل (أو امرأة) والقبول من قبل المرأة (أو الرجل)

[2.221، 2.235، 4.3، (4،6)، (4،22-24)، (24.3)، (24.26)].  [24: 32-33] .

• إذن من أولياء المرأة، انظر [4.25] .
• دفع المهر من رجل إلى امرأة [4،4].

أيضا، يجب أن كلا الطرفين تأكيد إعلان الامتثال للقرآن،  الرجل والمرأة كل  له الحق في أن يعلن الظروف الخاصة  (إن وجدت) وبعد ذلك يتم كتابة عقد النكاح في وجود اثنين على الاقل من شهود العيان.  الزواج في الإسلام هو عقد فريد من نوعه. الله يشير إلى ذلك في القرآن الكريم باستخدام عبارات قوية وكلمات مثل “اميثاق غليض” أن يكون لها عواقب وخيمة في حال تجاهل [4.21].
لاحظ أن الله يستخدم نفس العبارة عن الاتفاق الذي تم بين الله والأنبياء قبل منحهم مسؤولية النبوه [33.7].
يقول القرآن أن الملائكة تمجيد ومدح الله، ويؤمنون به، وطلبوا الصفح عن الذين آمنوا والتوبة [40.7]. ونداء الى الله من اجل دخولهم الجنة والصالحين بين آبائهم وأزواجهم، والأطفال [40.8].  المفلحون [43.69] سيقال لدخول الجنة، جنبا إلى جنب مع أزواجهم،[43.70].

الله يذكر باستمرار حقوق المرأة، إلى حماية المرأة ويسلط الضوء على حقيقة أن بعض من أنبل بين البشر هم من النساء. في القرآن الكريم، بالإضافة إلى سورة اسمه المرأة [4] وآخر يدعى الطلاق [65] هناك تسمية سورة مريم [19] و  المجادلة (يشتكي ل الله عن زوجها) [58].

يتناول القرآن الكريم مريم بالاسم،  بين جميع النساء [3.42] ويذكر أيضا، كتلك بين أنبل بين البشر الأم  ويلقي موسى الرضيع في النهر دون الحزن أو الخوف) [(28.7)] وزوجة فرعون  [(66،11)] وزوجة عمران (أم مريم) [(3،35-37)] وملكة اليمن  مع النبي سليمان [(27،44)] وحتى زوجة العزيز الذي حاول إغواء النبي يوسف وتاب [(12،32 حتي 33)، (12،52 حتي 53)].
أفضل زوج
قام النبي محمد بالأعمال المنزلية.  الطبخ، وتنظيف المنزل. قال النبي محمد: “إن أفضل  الرجال من هم جيد لزوجاتهم” (ويستشهد هذا الحديث في العديد من مصادر الحديث).
الله يعطي الإذن للرجل ممارسة الجنس مع زوجته في رمضان (ليلا بعد الإفطار)، ولكن ليس في المساجد [2،187].
ولكن، يدعو الله  أزواج للفصل من زوجاتهم أثناء الحيض واستئناف ممارسة الجنس بعد أن يتم تطهيرها  منه [2،222].
و للزوج المسلم  تقبيل زوجته قبل الخروج للصلاة (دون تكرار الوضوء) أو حتى للصائم كما أفيد أن النبي محمد فعل ذلك.
حول عقد نكاح
تاريخيا، واصل بعض المسلمين تعديلات على عقد النكاح لأسباب وأهداف مختلفة بما في ذلك الحصول على الجنس والرفقة. هذه التعديلات غالبا ما تركز على اتفاق متبادل بين الرجل والمرأة كالتنازل عن بعض حقوقها الزوجية . يمارس الآن في عصرنا تحت عناوين مختلفة.
*  الزواج (المسيار)  في الغالب  في دول الخليج. من خلاله يستسلم الزوج حقه بشكل منتظم ( الزوجين لا يعيشون عادة معا) وزوجة يستسلم حقها في السكن والنفقات  والتقسيم المتساوي الليالي بين الزوجات في حالات تعدد الزوجات.
Several reports in the Media indicate Egypt's Grand (from 2003-2013) Mufti Dr. Ali Gomaa announced that

Several reports in the Media indicate Egypt’s Grand (from 2003-2013) Mufti Dr. Ali Gomaa announced that “travellers marriages,” known in Arabic as “Nikah Mesyar “, are legitimate unless banned by the state. However, it was also reported Saudi Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan (b. 1933) advised against it whilst Saudi Sheikh Adel Salim Al Kelbani approved a version of it.

وتشير العديد من التقارير في وسائل الإعلام أعلن المفتي  في مصر (2003-2013) الدكتور علي جمعة أن “الزواج المسافرين”،  مشروعة إلا إذا منعت من قبل الدولة. ومع ذلك، أفيد أيضا السعودي الشيخ صالح آل فوزان  نصح ضده بينما السعودي الشيخ عادل بن سالم  وافق على نسخة من ذلك.

* زواج المتعة   يمارس في الغالب في إيران (كما في لبنان، المملكة المتحدة، ودول أخرى)؛ له حد زمني    استسلم بعض الحقوق مثل زوجين لا ترث من بعضهم البعض، والرجل عادة ليس مسؤول عن تحقيق الرفاه الاقتصادي للمرأة وأنها قد تترك منزلها.
Ali al-Sistani (b. 1930), prominent Shia ceric in Iraq, wrote on his web site guidelines on Mutah Marriage (Temporary Marriage).

Ali al-Sistani (b. 1930), prominent Shia ceric in Iraq, wrote on his web site guidelines on Mutah Marriage (Temporary Marriage).

علي السيستاني (ولد في 1930)  الشيعي البارز في العراق، كتب على موقعه على شبكة الإنترنت على إرشادات الزواج المؤقت

*  الزواج (‘العرفي) يأخذ في الغالب مكان في مصر، في كثير من الأحيان سرا، دون موافقة  من ولي أمر العروس، على الرغم من أن العقد رسميا من قبل رجل الدين وأحيانا من قبل ممثل الدولة.
ومن بين النتائج الإيجابية تتمثل في الحصول على الجنس والأمومة، والرفقة والهروب من العنوسة. ومن بين الآثار السلبية على الأطفال اليتيم والتشرد المفاجئ للمرأة المعنية. وقد ناقش العلماء هذه التعديلات لسنوات عديدة، وهناك بعض العلماء المعروفين في كلا الجانبين من النقاش (مع أو ضد).
 العمر
ومن الأهمية بمكان أن نلاحظ أن سورة 65 في القرآن هي حول الطلاق وآية [65.4]  لا تتكلم عن الفتيات الذين لم يبلغوا بعد سن البلوغ حيث أن بعض العلماء قد اقترح ذالك، ولكن المطلقات  في سن الإنجاب الذين لا تحيض؛
هذا هو حالة طبية تعرف باسم  انقطاع الطمث الذي يعرف بأنه “عدم وجود فترة الحيض في امرأة في سن الإنجاب”. الفتيان والفتيات قبل سن البلوغ ليسو بعد في سن الإنجاب.
الله يربط الحد الأدنى لسن الزواج (للذكور والإناث) للوصول إلى البلوغ، في سورة 4 في القرآن وعدم الوصول إلى عدد معين من سنوات من العمر البلوغ  تختلف من فرد إلى آخر.
[4،6].
الله لا يحدد سن محدد لزواج رجل أو امرأة؛    الله يعرف هذا العصر كما الفتيان و الفتيات الحصول على صفة “نكاح” (أو سن البلوغ).
ويعرف البلوغ باسم “عملية التغيرات الجسدية التي من خلالها جسم الطفل  نضج إلى هيئة الكبار قادرة على التكاثر الجنسي لتمكين التخصيب”. وبعبارة أخرى، ينبغي للرجل لا يتمم الزواج مع عروسه الشابه حتى أنها جسديا قادرة على تحمل الجماع (وقادرة على الحمل).
سن الزواج وبطبيعة الحال يختلف من عصر  ومكان وبيئة إلى أخرى. ولكن، في كل الحالات، العصور والبيئات  يجب أن تصل إلى حالة “نكاح” لتكون متزوجة. القرآن لا يحتوي على السن  المحدد للزواج، لكنه  جعل من الواضح أن الرجال والنساء يجب أن يكون كلا ناضجة جسديا والحكم السليم من أجل الزواج
تعدد الزوجات
وقد مارست تعدد الزوجات من قبل البشر منذ العصور القديمة ودراسة حديثة (2003) نشرت في
USA-NCBI،
اختتمت
“كان البشر متعدد الزوجات أساسا خلال الكثير من تاريخهم”.
 في الهند كانت نسبة الزيجات بين عامي 1951 و 1961 بين الهندوس (5.06٪) أكثر من بين المسلمين (4.31٪) رغم إئه غير قانوني (من قبل الدولة) عند الهندوس أن يكون  لهم   تعدد الزوجات .
الله في القرآن [4.3،] يسمح تعدد الزوجات (الزواج من رجل واحد لأكثر من امرأة واحدة)، مع اشتراط أن الرجل قادر ومستعد لتقسيم وقته والثروة بصورة عادلة بين الزوجات .
حت هذه الآية [4،3]. الجنس ينبغي أن يتم في إطار عقد نكاح التي يمكن أن تمتد أيضا إلى أشكال أخرى من العلاقة التعاقدية (مثل تلك التي بين الزوج وامرأة أو أكثر مأسورة في الحرب أو رقيق النساء في الأيام التي كانت تمارس ويبرر).
سرد تاريخي في “صحيح البخاري” ينص نزلت هذه الآية [4.3] بعد غزوة أحد. والكثير من الرجال المسلمين الذين قتلوا  وترك الأرامل والأيتام، وبالتالي كان  إذن تعدد الزوجات أيضا في الوقت المناسب.
Muhammad Al-Bukhari (810-870) collected and compiled several thousand Hadiths in a volume known as “Sahih Al-Bukari”. He finished this work around 846 and its authenticity seems to have been accepted by other scholars of that era such as Ahmad ibn Hanbal (855), Yahya ibn Ma'in (847), and Ali ibn al-Madini (848). The “Sahih Al-Bukhari” ranks as the most authentic of the Kutub al-Sittah, the six books containing collections of hadith (sayings or acts of the prophet Muhammad).The next one is “Sahih Muslim”, collected by Muslim bin al-Hajjaj (d. 875 ).

Muhammad Al-Bukhari (810-870) collected and compiled several thousand Hadiths in a volume known as “Sahih Al-Bukari”. He finished this work around 846 and its authenticity seems to have been accepted by other scholars of that era such as Ahmad ibn Hanbal (855), Yahya ibn Ma’in (847), and Ali ibn al-Madini (848). The “Sahih Al-Bukhari” ranks as the most authentic of the Kutub al-Sittah, the six books containing collections of hadith (sayings or acts of the prophet Muhammad).The next one is “Sahih Muslim”, collected by Muslim bin al-Hajjaj (d. 875 ).

محمد البخاري (810-870) جمع  عدة آلاف من الأحاديث باسم “صحيح آلبخاري”. أنهى هذا العمل حوالي 846 ويبدو تم قبولها من قبل علماء آخرين في تلك الحقبة مثل أحمد بن حنبل (855)، يحيى بن معين (847)، وعلي بن المديني (848). “صحيح البخاري” تصنف باعتبارها الأكثر أصالة من الكتب الستة التي تحتوي على مجموعات من الحديث (أقوال أو أفعال النبي محمد). والمرحلة التالية هي “صحيح مسلم”، التي جمعها مسلم بن

-Hajjaj (د. 875).

،فوائد تعدد الزوجات لا يمكن إنكاره في العديد من الحالات الأخرى، على سبيل المثال إذا كانت الزوجة قاحلة أو مرضت بشكل خطير. الله لا يجعل تعدد الزوجات إلزاميا ولكن اختيار (للرجل) مع التحدي والحذر التي تتطلب عدالة الزوج إلى كل من زوجاته [4،129].
Recently, several campaigns have been launched by scholars , as well as unmarried women, calling upon married men to marry more than one wife. Marriage costs have become beyond the reach of young men leaving a lot of young women facing the prospects of staying spinsters.

Recently, several campaigns have been launched by scholars , as well as unmarried women, calling upon married men to marry more than one wife. Marriage costs have become beyond the reach of young men leaving a lot of young women facing the prospects of staying spinsters.

مؤخرا، تم إطلاق العديد من الحملات في الشرق الأوسط من قبل العلماء، وكذلك النساء غير المتزوجات، داعيا الرجال المتزوجين على الزواج بأكثر من زوجة واحدة. أصبحت تكاليف الزواج ليست في متناول الشباب وترك الكثير من الشابات  تواجه احتمالات البقاء عوانس.

في الإسلام، لا يجوز تعدد الأزواج (زواج امرأة واحدة لأكثر من رجل ).
الطلاق
الطلاق في الإسلام تم تناولها بدقة في القرآن الكريم. وينبغي النظر في الطلاق كملاذ أخير بعد محاولات من الوقت والمصالحة [2،226] جهود الانتظار، (وأيضا بعد وساطة [4.35)؛.
عندما  يحدث [2،227]. ثم مصالح الرجل [(2،228)] ومصالح النساء [2،229]  [(65،1 حتي 2)].
لاحظ أن الردع وضع للرجل  قبل أن يعلن أخيرا عن “تصريح الطلاق الثالث” [2،230].
ثم تصبح أمرين في غاية الأهمية ويجب أن تحضر بشكل عادل. وهي حماية الأطفال [2،233]. ومصالح النساء المطلقات [2،241].
رؤية المزيد من التفاصيل في الآيات الأخرى، مثل [2،231 حتي 232 و235-237  (33.49)، (65،1 حتي 2)].
وبالمثل مصالح النساء الأرامل يجب أن تكون محمية [(2،234، 2،240 حتي 241)].

الزنا

الله يحرم الزنا [17،32، 24،2 حتي 10، (24.26)  ,( 25.68)].

إذا أدين، فإن الرجل المسلم أو المرأة  تخضع لعقوبة 100 جلدة لكل منهما على النحو المنصوص عليه في
[24.2   ].
إذا لم تتم إدانتهم،  متهميهم (الذين يفشلون في توفير أربعة شهود) سيكون موضوع 80 جلدة على النحو المنصوص عليه في
[24.4].
 القربى
الله يحرم زواج المحارم ويحدد صراحة على قائمة شاملة من النساء بين الأقارب والمقربين معه ممنوع الجنس
[4،23-24].
  نلاحظ أن رجل مسلم  يتزوج الفتاة التي هي ابنة عمه الأولى ، ولكن لا يمكن أن تتزوج أي فتاة رضعت معه الثدي من امرأة (حتى لو هذه المرأة ليست أمه) عندما كانوا رضع.
أيضا، يمكن للرجل المسلم الزواج من مطلقة ابنه بالتبني [(33،37)] إلا أن تكون واحدة من تلك المدرجة في [4،23-24] أعلاه.
و رجل لا يمكن أن  تزوج أي المرأة كانت متزوجة سابقا إلى والده
[4.22،].
 الانفتاح على المتع الجنسية
الله يذكر المسلمين ومن آياته أن خلق البشر والحيوان والنبات أزواج جنسية [(4.1)، 16.72 (25.54)، (30.21)، (36.36)، (49.13)، (51.49)، و53،45-46].
الجنس هو جزء من الغرائز الطبيعية البشرية. و يشجع بشدة ويجب عدم قمعه
.الإسلام نهج منفتح لمرحة الجنس طالما أنها في إطار الزواج، وخالية من الفسق والزنا، انظر [2.187، 4.3، 4.23، 4.25، 24.26، 24.32]  و[2.223، 3.14، 5.87 و 25.74} ؛
اليوم، المسلمين (رجالا ونساء) لديهم ميل إلى نخجل من المناقشات الجنسية الصريحة. وصول الإسلام شجع النقاش حول الجنس  ، المتعة الجنسية خاصة للمرأة. وقد خسر هذا الانفتاح على مر الزمن، وأصبح  ذكر الجنس من المحرمات.
في كثير من المجتمعات،  الجنس موضوعا صعب الحديث  علنا بين المسلمين. ويشق هذا الموضوع دائما جانبا وعدم التعامل مع بطريقة صادقة.
 يتم الخلط بين الشباب المسلم من التناقض يظهر تجاه الجنس من قبل والديهم  يخرجون في العالم حيث أقرانهم منخراط في الجنس ويتحدث عن الجنس ولكن بعد ذلك يعودون إلى مجتمعاتهم الإسلامية فقط لتجد أن كبار السن ليسوا على استعداد لإشراك الموضوع بطريقة  ذات الصلة والأخلاقية.
أبو حامد الغزالي (1058-1111) ا     قدم المشورة   على الأزواج  الانخراط في الأعمال التي تمكن المرأة من تحقيق النشوة أولا.
وقال الغزالي في المادة 10 (من أصل 12) في المادة 3 من كتابه الشهير” إحياء علوم الدين “، أن الزوج المسلم لا ينبغي “التعايش مع زوجته دون التحدث معها أو دون تقبيلها وأو بدون أن
يكون قادر على كبح جماح القذف من السائل المنوي له قبل ذلك من السائل المنوي من زوجته “.
وقد استشهد أيضا أن ابن عمر قال (واحد من أهل العلم رفيق النبي}   ليفطر مع الجماع قبل الأكل وبعد وفاة فاطمة، تزوج زوجها علي في سبعة أيام.
Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali (1058-1111), the teacher at Baghdad’s Nizamia College and the most influential thinker of that Classical era, abruptly left his position and spent a decade in or between Damascus, Makka, Madina, and Jerusalem. During this period, he wrote his master-piece “Revivification of the Religious (Deen) Learnings” (in Arabic: Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Din), a grand work of forty books (including one on marriage), then returned to teaching. He left a legacy of works in jurisprudence, philosophy, theology, and Sufism.

Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali (1058-1111), the teacher at Baghdad’s Nizamia College and the most influential thinker of that Classical era, abruptly left his position and spent a decade in or between Damascus, Makka, Madina, and Jerusalem. During this period, he wrote his master-piece “Revivification of the Religious (Deen) Learnings” (in Arabic: Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Din), a grand work of forty books (including one on marriage), then returned to teaching. He left a legacy of works in jurisprudence, philosophy, theology, and Sufism.

أبو حامد الغزالي (1058-1111)، والمعلم في  كلية بغداد والمفكر الأكثر نفوذا في تلك الحقبة الكلاسيكية، غادر فجأة موقفه وقضى عشر سنوات في أو بين دمشق ومكة والمدينة المنورة والقدس. خلال هذه الفترة،  كتب   ( إحياء علوم الدين )، وهو عمل ضخم من أربعين كتابا (بما في ذلك واحد على الزواج)، ثم عاد إلى التدريس . و انه ترك إرثا من الأعمال في الفقه والفلسفة واللاهوت، والصوفية.
الصورة أعلاه هو انطباع فنان كيف الغزالي قد بدا  منذ أكثر من 900 سنة.

،  على  الرجال اليوم اتخاذ من الوقت والجهد لتعلم تقنيات (ليس من الاباحية، ولكن من مصادر تعليمية مناسبة) في العلاقة الزوجية، وجعل زوجاتهم يشعرون قيمة.
ينبغي أن تركز كل من الزوج والزوجة على زيادة معارفهم ومهاراتهم  الجنسية للاستمتاع المتبادل .
المداعبة
الله (بقوة) يدعو إلى ممارسة المداعبة، انظر [2.223]، وردد هذا النداء عن النبي   – الحديث.
المداعبة   تشمل مزح خارج غرفة النوم، والحديث، والتقبيل واللمس والتدليك، والمعانقة، الملاطفة، تعري، الملاعبة، وأي شيء للحصول على مزاج والوصول إلى الإثارة الكاملة
الاستمناء
ناقش العلماء هذا الموضوع على مدى قرون.
 مدرسة فكرية اتخذت الموقف  إذا كان الشخص استمنى بقصد إنقاذ نفسه من ارتكاب الخطيئة (مثل الزنا) لن يكون خطيئة، وإذا كان يفعل ذلك مع نية التمتع انه سيكون آثم . وأوصوا بأن يفعل الحسنات كما يوجد في الإسلام “لا شك فضائل يمحو الخطايا
” [11.114].
الرجال قد يتمتع استمناء جسديا، ولكن البعض قد تجد أنه تركهم فارغة عاطفيا، والاكتئاب أو وحيدا لشيء حقيقي أو الرفقة.
وينبغي أن يكون مسلم تقاوم هذا الإغراء كما هو أو هي من استمنى قد، وفقا لبعض العلماء، ويعتبر من بين “أولئك الذين يسعون إليه شيئا” ما وراء تلك المحددة في [23،5 حتي 7].
ولكن، يجب  أن نضع في اعتبارنا أن القرآن لا يذكر الاستمناء.
من ناحية أخرى، وقد ذكر أنه من الشرعي (وفقا لمذهب الحنبلي) للزوج أن تحقيق القذف من قبل زوجته استمناء له، وفرك قضيبه بين فخذيها أو الثديين.
الجنس عن طريق الفم
القرآن والحديث لا يذكر، وبالتالي لا تحظر الجنس عن طريق الفم بين الزوج والزوجة.
Ahmad Al-Kubaisi (b. 1934), an Iraqi scholar based in UAE, who is the head of Sharia Studies at UAE University and Baghdad University and leads prayers at the state mosque of Abu Dhabi , also spoke on TV (2013-14) regarding Oral Sex as being permissible citing Muhammad Al-Qurtubi (1214-1273) the scholar who was born in Cordoba, Spain.

Ahmad Al-Kubaisi (b. 1934), an Iraqi scholar based in UAE, who is the head of Sharia Studies at UAE University and Baghdad University and leads prayers at the state mosque of Abu Dhabi , also spoke on TV (2013-14) regarding Oral Sex as being permissible citing Muhammad Al-Qurtubi (1214-1273) the scholar who was born in Cordoba, Spain.

تحدث أحمد الكبيسي (ولد في 1934)، وهو باحث عراقي مقيم في دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة، هو رئيس قسم دراسات الشريعة في جامعة الإمارات العربية المتحدة وجامعة بغداد ويؤدي صلاة الجمعة في مسجد الدولة أبوظبي، وأيضا على التلفزيون (2013-14) حول الجنس عن طريق الفم على أنه يجوز نقلا عن محمد القرطبي (1214-1273) الباحث الذي ولد في قرطبة، إسبانيا.

الجنس عن طريق الفم هو استخدام الفم أو اللسان لتحفيز الأعضاء التناسلية لشخص آخر (التحفيز الشفوي للجهاز الذكور يسمى “اللسان” والتحفيز الشفوي من الأعضاء التناسلية كما هو معروف “اللحس”). ويشمل الجنس عن طريق الفم مجموعة واسعة من الأنشطة، من مجرد تقبيل الأعضاء التناسلية لاتخاذ الفعلي في والبلع من السوائل الجنسية. لا يعتبر المني الرجل نجس (النجس) وفقا لعلماء الشافي، خلافا لعلماء الحنفية، ولكن على حد سواء يبدو أن نتفق ابتلاع السوائل الجنسية ينبغي ألا يكون مسموحا به. كان واحدا من المناقشات التي جرت مؤخرا بين اثنين من العلماء التركي (الموالية والمعارضة) على شاشة التلفزيون في يوليو 2015.
Yusuf al-Qaradawi (b. 1926), an Egyptian scholar based in Qatar, is the author of some 80 books. Among his most famous works are “The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam” and “Fiqh al-Zakat”. He released statements on Oral Sex (cited in this Article) and expressed opposition to female genital mutilation (FGM).

Yusuf al-Qaradawi (b. 1926), an Egyptian scholar based in Qatar, is the author of some 80 books. Among his most famous works are “The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam” and “Fiqh al-Zakat”. He released statements on Oral Sex (cited in this Article) and expressed opposition to female genital mutilation (FGM).

يوسف القرضاوي (ولد في 1926)، وهو  مصري مقره في قطر، وهو مؤلف من نحو 80 كتابا. ومن بين أعماله الأكثر شهرة هي “الحلال والممنوع في الإسلام” و “فقه الزكاة”. وأصدر بيانات عن الجنس عن طريق الفم (المذكورة في هذه المادة)، وأعرب عن المعارضة لتشويه الأعضاء التناسلية للإناث (ختان الإناث).

لذلك، كان هذا الموضوع أيضا موضوع نقاش لعدة قرون. رأي الشهير الباحث المصري المعاصر يوسف القرضاوي (مقره في قطر) الذي درس على الأرجح هذا النقاش بدقة وقد نقل على النحو التالي “… فقهاء المسلمين هي من رأي أنه  قانوني للزوج لأداء اللحس على زوجته، أو زوجة لأداء عمل مماثل لزوجها (اللسان) وليس هناك أي خطأ في ذلك، ولكن إذا مص يؤدي إلى الإفراج عن السائل المنوي، فمذموم (أو مكروه)، ولكن ليس هناك دليل حاسم لجعله غير قانوني، وخاصة إذا كانت الزوجة توافق معها أو تحقق النشوة الجنسية من خلال ممارسة ذلك “.
السحاق
بعض النساء المسلمات يشعرون أنهن في معضلة. كتب أحدهن “أنا مثلية، لقد ولدت بهذه الطريقة، ولكن في نفس الوقت، وأنا أصلي خمس مرات في اليوم. أصوم في رمضان. أنا أستمتع حضور محادثات الإسلامية في  (الجامعة)”.
: مؤشرات على ما وكيفية أداء امرأتين في السرير يمكن أن يكون الجنس (بدون رجل). على ما يبدو
، قبلة، عناق، مص، يداعب كل جسد الآخر لساعات ويداعب حلمات و / أو البظور بعضهم البعض، المس  مع أصابع وألسنة، الصحافة وفرك اجسادهم و أو الاستمناء معا، الجنس عن طريق الفم مع بعضها البعض (أو في نفس الوقت مع بعضهم البعض في موقف ’69’)، مما يجعل الضوضاء، لعق (الالسنه، المهبل أو الثدي)، المقص (حيث لمس أعضائهم التناسلية معا وأو فرك لهم)ا يمكن أن هزة الجماع مرة واحدة أو عدة مرات.
جلبت مقالة نشرت مؤخرا عن أحدث التطورات في الزواج من نفس الجنس في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية بإعلان أن “throuple” ، عبارة جديدة تشير إلى “ثلاثة مثليات الزوجية”،! وأشارت هذه المادة اتفق نحو 300 حلفاء المثليين الآن فصاعدا “لا يوجد سبب لعدم مواصلة إعادة تشكيل” الزواج “لتشمل شريك متعددة”، وفقا لأستاذ ماكورميك الفقه في جامعة برينستون
USA Supreme Court ruled by a 5-to-4 vote in June 2015 that the Constitution guarantees a right to same-sex marriage nationwide. President Obama called the Supreme Court decision

USA Supreme Court ruled by a 5-to-4 vote in June 2015 that the Constitution guarantees a right to same-sex marriage nationwide. President Obama called the Supreme Court decision “a victory for America.” In the build up to this legislation, the New York Post, on April 23, reported that Doll, Kitten, and Brynn Young, three Massachusetts women in a polyamorous relationship, were expecting their first child after uniting in an August 2013 commitment ceremony. And after undergoing IVF with an unknown sperm donor, the youngest of the group is now with child. This action, as in the case of three men in polyamorous relationship, is not criminal offence in the USA where it is a criminal offence for a man to marry two women! One wonders on what President Barak Hossein Obama think of where the USA legal system heading with this?

المحكمة العليا

التزام ثلاثة رجال ، ليست جريمة جنائية في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية حيث هو جريمة جنائية للرجل أن يتزوج امرأتين!
من جهة أخرى، استنادا إلى بيانات الباحثون ان النساء لديهم احتمال أكبر من الرجال من الانجذاب إلى كل من الرجال والنساء … وهذا يدل على أن الحياة الجنسية للمرأة قد تكون أكثر مرونة وتكيفا من الرجال.
لفهم هذا الموضوع، وهناك ثلاثة الآيات [3.14، 19.20 و 4.15] في القرآن الكريم التي تستدعي اهتماما وثيقا.
كلمة رئيسية في [3.14] هو “الناس”، والذي يشير بوضوح “للرجال والنساء” وليس فقط الى “الرجال”!
 وآية  الثانية [19:20]، والتي توفر تأكيدا حاسما و “الوضوح الدقيق” إلى أقصى درجات النقاء والعفة مريم، يستخدم كلمة رئيسية أخرى هو ” بشر”  التي تشير إلى “رجل أو امرأة”، بدلا من  فقط إلى “رجل”! وهذا أمر مهم، لأنه من الممكن، على الأقل وفقا لخدمة البريطانية الوطنية للصحة
(NHS) موقع على شبكة الإنترنت للمرأة للحصول على الحمل دون الجماع الجنسي، على سبيل المثال: إذا كانت (أو شريكها – ذكرا كان أو إناث) والسائل
المنوي أو ما قبل القذف على الأصابع ولمس مهبلها.
هذه الآيات اثنين [3.14، 19.20]  أن يمكن للمرأة، وبطبيعها  تسعى أيضا متع جنسية من نساء أخريات. ولكن، نكاح بيت الزوجية التعاقدية، التي يرأسها رجل، هو المؤسسة الشرعية الوحيدة في القرآن؛ انظر [4.3، 4.34، و4،128-129] .
في الإسلام، يجب على المسلمين تلبية كل ما لديهم الجنسية (وكذلك الملذات الأخرى والجذب الكامنة بما في ذلك الحب، والرفقة والإنجاب، والرحمة، والاحتياجات المادية والعاطفية، والرغبات والشهوات) داخل الزيجات التعاقدية نكاح
. ولذلك، الخيارات المتاحة لكلا الطرفين هي على النحو التالي؛
• للرجل المسلم يمكن أن يكون أكثر من زوجة واحدة بشرط أن يكون قادرا ومستعدا لتقسيم وقته والثروة بصورة عادلة بين الزوجات منها؛ أو غير ذلك يجب أن يتزوج من زوجة واحدة فقط، انظر
[3.14، 4.3] .
• للمرأة المسلمة (مع رغبات مثليه ) يمكن أن يكون الزوج الذي هو على استعداد لقبول حالتها (بدعم من واحده على الأقل من زوجاته القائمة التي هي على استعداد للقيام بأعمال مثليه مع  الزوجة الجديدة )؛ أو    قمع السحاق  وتعيش مع زوجها في الجنس الثابت الوحيد الذي هي قادرة  ايضا قادره  عليه بشكل طبيعي  انظر
[3.14، 4.3] .
لاحظ أنه يتم السماح للنساء لوضع بنود وشروط مقدما في عقد نكاح بهم.
وفقا لذلك، قد تكون الأفعال مثليه فقط مشروعا ضمن حدود الزواج متعدد الزوجات [4،3]، داخل خصوصية بيت الزوجية الخاصة، وتوفير، بطبيعة الحال، موافقة مسبقة من أزواجه و زوجة المعنية .
والثالثه [4.15 ]. يعالج النساء المتزوجات اللواتي ارتكبن عمل مثليه مع غيرها من النساء الذين ليسوا زوجات زوجها . هذه الآية يدل على هذا الفعل كما الفاحشة (بذيئة) والمخاطر، عند الإدانة، والعقوبة السجن المؤبد (الإقامة الجبرية).
Laura Poyneer is a white American convert to Islam who lives near Seattle, USA. By day, she works for a blogging company, while in the evenings she serves as Muslim ARC’s Membership Services Chair. She wrote Articles on Seattle mosques and, in September 2015, most notably, on her personal experiences in life as an “asexual” and Muslim.

Laura Poyneer is a white American convert to Islam who lives near Seattle, USA. By day, she works for a blogging company, while in the evenings she serves as Muslim ARC’s Membership Services Chair. She wrote Articles on Seattle mosques and, in September 2015, most notably, on her personal experiences in life as an “asexual” and Muslim.

لورا Poyneer

أمريكيه اعتنقت الإسلام   بالقرب من سياتل، الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية. انها تعمل في شركة تدوين،    

  تكتب  عن المساجد سياتل و، في سبتمبر 2015، وعلى الأخص، على تجربتها الشخصية في الحياة بأنه “عديم الجنس” ومسلمه.

وبالمثل، فإن “عديم الجنس” امرأة مسلمة يمكن، إذا رغبت،    تدخل عقد الزواج بإعلان حالتها مقدما على موافقة مسبقة من قبل الرجل. ويعرف اللاجنسية ب “عدم وجود  الجذب الجنسي لأي شخص أومنخفضة أو غائبة في النشاط الجنسي”.
الجنس الشرجي مع زوجه
قلة من العلماء، الذين يقولون هذا الفعل جائز، ذلك وفقا لهذا التفسير لمعنى [2.223، ] بناء على حديث واحد أفاد به محمد بن إسماعيل البخاري (810-870)، ولكن غالبية العلماء لا توافق على مثل هذا التفسير وتشير إلى هذا العمل لا يجوز نقلا عن عدد من الأحاديث كما ورد في عدة مصادر أخرى موثوق بها.
إذا كان الرجل عادة يفعل هذا أو يصر على ممارسة الجنس الشرجي مع زوجته،  انها لديها الحق في طلب الطلاق، لأنه يعتبر التسبب في ضرر بنشاطاته (أيضا لأن واحدا من مقاصد النكاح لا يمكن أن يتحقق من خلال هذا العمل).
تشويه الأعضاء التناسلية الأنثوية (ختان الإناث)
لا يوجد أي شرط في القرآن لختان الإناث.
الله في القرآن والنبي محمد في الحديث يلمح الى طبيعة العلاقات الجنسية كوسيلة لتحقيق الارتياح المتبادل والتواصل والتراحم بين الزوج وزوجته .
ختان الإناث هو عادة تمارس منذ فترة طويلة قبل ظهور الإسلام في الجزيرة العربية في العديد من الأماكن بما فيها روسيا وأمريكا الجنوبية؛ فإنه لا يزال يمارس في السودان، وبدرجة أقل في مصر.
ممارسة “البظر” يمكن أن يكون الإجراء معتدل تنطوي على قطع من جزء صغير جدا من الجزء الخارجي للبظر
(حوالي 1mm إلى 3MM ومقصوص من أعلى جدا من البظر) التي قد لا يقلل من الرغبة الجنسية أو يؤدي إلى الآخر المضاعفات.
ولكن، تشويه الأعضاء التناسلية الأنثوية (ختان الإناث) يمكن أن تكون شديدة، أقسى بكثير وغير المحترمة، وبالتالي غير مقبول في الإسلام لأنه يؤدي إلى الضعف الجنسي للمرأة شديد، وبالتالي منعها من تحقيق فاء الجنسي الذي هو حق لها كإنسان.
اللواط
واستنكر هذا العمل مرارا وتكرارا في القرآن من خلال قصة سيدنا لوط المتعلقة شعبه الذي يمارس عليه، انظر على سبيل المثال
[27،54-58].
انظر أيضا [(7،80-84)، (11،78 حتي 83)، (15،61 حتي 75)، (21.74)، (26،162 حتي 174)، و (29،28 حتي 30)].
العلماء يعترفون بأن القرآن لا ينص صراحة عقوبة محددة. ومع ذلك، كثير من العلماء أن عقوبة هذا الفعل يجب أن يكون نفس بتهمة الزنا. .
وتجدر الإشارة إلى أن العقوبات الزنا توصف في القرآن على أدلة على أربعة شهود ذكورحسن السمعة. بعض المعلقين النظر في مستويات الإثبات التي تتطلبها الشريعة الإسلامية هي عالية جدا، بحيث الإدانة إذا تم تطبيق القواعد بشكل صحيح من المستحيل تقريبا
Alfred Kinsey (1894 –1956) published, in 1948-1953, a scale which uses grading from 0, meaning exclusively heterosexual, to 6, meaning exclusively homosexual. An additional grade, listed as

Alfred Kinsey (1894 –1956) published, in 1948-1953, a scale which uses grading from 0, meaning exclusively heterosexual, to 6, meaning exclusively homosexual. An additional grade, listed as “X”, was used to mean “no socio-sexual contacts or reactions” or asexual. In approximate numbers, it brands bi-sexual behaviours (3-5) in 12% of men and 5% of women and homosexual behaviours (6) in 10% of men and 2% of women, and some 1% are placed under X. Kinsey was himself bi-sexual. Jones, James H. (1997) wrote that Kinsey’s sexual activity influenced his work, that he over-represented prisoners and prostitutes, classified some single people as “married” and that he included a disproportionate number of homosexual men, which may have distorted his studies. Nevertheless, this simplistic straight-line scale caught the public eye in the Western world. The Kinsey Reports, which led to a storm of controversy, are regarded by many as a precursor to the sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s.

ألفريد كينزي (1894 -1956)، نشر في 1948-1953، السلوكيات  الجنسية الدرجات من 0، إلى 6،

“X”
تقارير كينزي، ا أدى إلى عاصفة من الجدل من قبل العديد تمهيدا للثورة الجنسية
i980 – 1960
في العالم الغربي.
 في عام 1995، جامعة ستانفورد بيان صحفي أشارت تحت عنوان “أساس البيولوجي التوجه الجنسي” أن 3٪ -5٪ م      الذي هو أقل من التقدير كينزي السابق البالغ 10٪ من دراسة 1950
في مايو 2009، صحيفة الغارديان البريطانية ذكرت “لا أحد من المسلمين البريطانيين الذين تمت مقابلتهم 500 يعتقد أن الأفعال المثلية مقبولة أخلاقيا”. حتى التقدميين       والمعتدلين مثل الإمام حمزة يوسف في الولايات المتحدة والبروفيسور طارق رمضان في المملكة المتحدة تنظر الشذوذ الجنسي أن يكون خطيئة جسيمة.
وتفيد التقارير أنه حكم على رجل سعودي في عام 2010 إلى جلد 500 جلدة وخمس سنوات في السجن لممارسة الجنس مع رجل آخر، وأنه منذ غزو العراق عام 2003 أكثر من 700 شخص قد قتلوا بسبب هذه الأفعال. وذكر أيضا أن تقدير 4000 مثليون جنسيا قد أعدموا في إيران منذ قيام الثورة في ذلك البلد في عام 1979، فضلا عن عمليات الإعدام العلنية على نطاق واسع من مثليون جنسيا في أفغانستان من قبل حركة طالبان.
في الإسلام، بغض النظر عن الدراسات الاستقصائية أو إحصاءات السلوكية، إذا كان هناك مثل أقلية من النزعات السلوكية بين الرجال المسلمين من المتوقع أن السيطرة على أنفسهم والحفاظ على واضح من هذا الفعل؛ وإلا فإنها قد تواجه عواقب وخيمة في الدنيا والآخرة
استنتاج
الجنس هو هدية رائعة من الله. الخاسرون هم الذين الاعتداء عليه. والفائزون هم أولئك الذين يستخدمونه بمسؤولية لتحقيق أقصى قدر من الملذات والسعادة مع مراعاة أساسيات التالية:
الزوج المسلم يمكن أن يكون الجنس فقط مع زوجته . واستنكر اللواط مرارا وتكرارا في القرآن الكريم.
الزوجة المسلمة يمكن أن يكون الجنس مع رجل واحد فقط؛ زوجها. انها أيضا التمتع أفعال مثلية مع زوجات زوجها أو أفعال  مع زوجها وزوجاته .
منع الوطء في الدبر والزنا،
يحظر أي نشاط جنسي  خارج  عقد الزواج على جميع المسلمين، رجالا ونساء.

Sex with reference to the Quran

 

By A. Taha, London, United Kingdom

Updated on 10 November 2015

Sex in Islam is best understood in its various aspects and perspectives through, in the first place, citations from the Quran. There are sufficient numbers of Ayahs (Ayahs) in the Quran that are clear and expressively direct on all vital issues.

The Quran confirms Prophet Muhammad (570-632) as the first role model for every Muslim, see English translation of Ayahs [6.162-163] shown below;

[6:162] Say: ‘My prayer and my rituals, and my living, and my dying, are all for God, the Lord of the Worlds [6:163] No associate has He. And to this, I have been commanded, and I am the first of those who submit’.

His conduct of his life and what he said is the ideal model to follow for blessed life, including happy marriage. There are many books of Hadith (Prophet Mohammad actions or statements), vast number of voluminous publications that have been accumulated over centuries of works by outstanding scholars in many schools of thought. Yet, it remains vital for every Muslim, man and woman, irrespective of sect and school of thought to carefully listen to the Quranic Ayahs on sex, sexuality and sexual behaviours. After all, the key word in the Quran on this matter is ”Nikah” (Arabic: نكاح) which literally means “sexual intercourse”. Practical and domestic problems, including forced marriages, incest, dysfunctional sexual life, honour killings, lesbianism stigma and FGM would be successfully mitigated and may not even arise if one refers to, understand and truly comply with what is clearly outlined in the Quran.

The Quran

The Quran Muslims believe the Quran is the words of The Creator, God (in Arabic: Allah), and not a document authored by a human (or humans) or angles or any other than The Creator Himself (God). The Quran was read by The Creator’s Angel messenger (Gabriel) directly to The Creator’s human messenger (Prophet Muhammad) over a period of 23 years nearly 14 centuries ago. Since then people memorize the Quran; generation after generation. In today’s printed form on paper the Quran is normally contained in a single book of around 600 pages widely available in recorded voice, video, paper and on the internet. The Quran contains 114 Surah each constitutes a number of Ayahs .

The Quran
Muslims believe the Quran is the words of The Creator, God (in Arabic: Allah), and not a document authored by a human (or humans) or angles or any other than The Creator Himself (God). The Quran was read by The Creator’s Angel messenger (Gabriel) directly to The Creator’s human messenger (Prophet Muhammad) over a period of 23 years nearly 14 centuries ago. Since then people memorize the Quran; generation after generation. In today’s printed form on paper the Quran is normally contained in a single book of around 600 pages widely available in recorded voice, video, paper and on the internet. The Quran contains 114 Surah each constitutes a number of Ayahs .

It is not possible to make precise translation of the Quran from the original Arabic to any other language. But many attempts have already been made to translate the Quran from Arabic to over 40 of World languages. Though each translation effort aims to deliver the original Arabic words’ meaning or a thorough interpretation thereof; such effort remains unable to provide the presence, beauty, fullness, coherence, depth and perfection of the Quran when recited in original Arabic. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to refer to the Quran in the original Arabic language and if such is not possible then one should consult more than one translation, see subtitle “Citations from the Quran” at the bottom of this Article.

This Quran translation to English is by Yusuf Ali (1872 –1953) a British-Indian Islamic scholar. He died in London and is buried in England at the Muslim cemetery at Brookwood, Surrey (near Woking), not far from the burial place of Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall (1875 –1936) who was a Western Islamic scholar (a convert from Christianity) also noted for his translation of the Qur'an (1930) from Arabic to English.

This Quran translation to English is by Yusuf Ali (1872 –1953) a British-Indian Islamic scholar. He died in London and is buried in England at the Muslim cemetery at Brookwood, Surrey (near Woking), not far from the burial place of Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall (1875 –1936) who was a Western Islamic scholar (a convert from Christianity) also noted for his translation of the Qur’an (1930) from Arabic to English. This translation is one of 10 other translations listed at the bottom of this Article.. Total number of translations count is beyond this Article scope.

The English translation of all cited Ayahs within this Article, such as [6.162] shown above,  is from a single source; that is as published on the Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought, Amman, Jordan, 2008. The English translation of the cited Ayahs under subtitle “Citations from the Quran” at the bottom of this Article, such as [24.11] is primarily based on cautious correlation-comparison of more than one translation with the Arabic original.

Each of the cited Ayahs, whether within this Article text or those listed under subtitle “Citations from the Quran” at the bottom of this Article, is preceded by a numerical code within two brackets; for example: [4.3] refers to Ayah number 3 in Surah number 4.

Ignorance and Knowledge

The Arabic word “Jaheleyah – جاهيليه” refers to the era of “ignorance” prior to the advent of Islam in Arabia. In this era of ignorance, marriage was a “status” rather than a fair “contract”. Under such status men would disregard a woman view in respect of her own marriage or own divorce; a man would inherit his father wives (including his own mother!) and could sell or bury his own new-born daughter alive!  All such “statuary” practices were abolished by the arrival of Islam.

Islam is “way of life”

The meaning of the Arabic word “Deen – دين” is “way of life” and the English word “religion” is therefore considered by Muslims insufficient to describe Islam. Individual’s way of life in submission to the will of God encompasses the Arabic phrase “Deen al Islam

Judgment Day

Muslims believe in “personal responsibility” and do not believe in “vicarious atonement” .

In Christianity, atonement refers to the forgiving or pardoning of sin in general and original sin in particular through the “death and resurrection” of Jesus. To atone means to make amends (to repair a wrong done) and man is a sinner and cannot atone for himself. Throughout the centuries, Christians have used different metaphors and given differing explanations of the atonement to express how the atonement might work.

In contrast, the Quran repeatedly stresses the message to mankind that “each person” is responsible for “his” or “her” own actions and that on Judgment Day everyone will be resurrected and each human will individually have to answer directly to God for every word, thought and deed.

Jihad

The Arabic word “Jihad – جهاد “, which is frequently used in the Quran, means “to strive” or “to struggle” and it does not mean “holy war” which is in Arabic “Harb Muqadasa- مقدسه حرب” a phrase not found in the Quran.

The Arabic word “Jihad – جهاد ” refers to three basic struggles:

  • Individual’s inner struggle to submit their will to the will of God.
  • Physical struggle against persecution and oppression, and
  • Struggle to build a robust corruption-free society.

Sex is naturally a prime component in each of these three struggles and therefore a thorough and deep understanding of sexual acts, guidelines and regulations is critical for every Muslim man and women.

Celibacy

God states in the Quran that He did not ordain Celibacy (on mankind) but people (monks) invented it [57.27];

[57:27] Then We sent to follow in their footsteps Our messengers, and We sent to follow, Jesus son of Mary, and We gave him the Gospel, and We placed in the hearts of those who followed him kindness and mercy. But [as for] monasticism, they invented it — We had not prescribed it for them — only seeking God’s beatitude. Yet they did not observe it with due observance. So We gave those of them who believed their reward; but many of them are immoral.

And the Quran confirms that previous Prophets (beginning with Adam) have married and produced children [2.35, 13.38];

[2:35] And We said, ‘Adam, dwell and your wife in the Garden and eat thereof easefully where you desire; but do not come near this tree lest you be evildoers (in another translation: lest you sin)’.

[13:38] And indeed We sent messengers before you, and We assigned to them wives and seed; and it was not for any Messenger that he should bring a sign, save by God’s leave. For every term there is a Book.

Slander

God repeatedly warned Muslims in the Quran against the spread of immorality as well as the spread of false accusations of immorality.

Charles le Gai Eaton (1921 – 2010) was a British diplomat, writer and Islamic scholar. Eaton was educated at Cambridge, where he studied history. Later he became consultant to the Islamic Cultural Centre at Regent's Park Mosque in London for over two decades. He recalled the story of slander against Aisha (Prophet Mohammad wife) in his book “Islam and the Destiny of Man “, first published in 1985, ISBN 0-04-297047-4, pages 85-86.

Charles le Gai Eaton (1921 – 2010) was a British diplomat, writer and Islamic scholar. Eaton was educated at Cambridge, where he studied history. Later he became consultant to the Islamic Cultural Centre at Regent’s Park Mosque in London for over two decades. He recalled the story of slander against Aisha (Prophet Mohammad wife) in his book “Islam and the Destiny of Man “, first published in 1985, ISBN 0-04-297047-4, pages 85-86.

Aisha, the Prophet’s wife, was looking for her lost necklace whilst their army caravan halted briefly in the desert then moved on without her by error. A young man following in the rear-guard discovered her asleep on the sand. Losing no time he escorted and re-united her with the main body of the caravan. Tongues wagged and those who resented her or her father were quick to voice their suspicions. A month passed, it was a terrible situation for Aisha as she was unable to prove a negative. God intervened in the matter and exonerated her and condemned her detractors [(24.11-20), Note: English translation of an Ayah number given within two smooth brackets ( ) is given below at the bottom of this Article under sub-title “Citations from the Quran”]. With this came Ayahs of legislation concerning accusations of adultery which have remained valid for ever after.

Chastity and Marriage Importance

God calls for chastity [24.33, (33.35)];

[24:33] And let those who cannot find the means to marry be continent, until God enriches them out of His bounty. And those who seek a written contract [of emancipation], from among those whom your right hand owns, contract with them accordingly, if you know in them any good, and give them out of the wealth of God which He has given you. And do not compel your slave-girls to prostitution when they desire to be chaste, that you may seek the transient things of the life of this world. And should anyone compel them, then surely God, after their compulsion, will be Forgiving, Merciful.

And gave the ultimate example of chastity in the person of Virgin Mary mother of Jesus in [3.42, 19.20-21];

[3:42] And when the angels said, ‘O Mary, God has preferred you, and made you pure; He has preferred you above all women of the worlds.

[19:20] She said, ‘How shall I have a boy when no human being has [ever] touched me, neither have I been unchaste?’ [19:21] He said, ‘It shall be so! Your Lord has said: “It is easy for Me, and so that We may make him a sign for mankind, and a mercy from Us. And it is a thing [already] decreed” ‘.

Muslim youths are expected to remain chaste. Prophet Yusuf opted to choose jail rather than violate his chastity even under extreme seductive pressures [(12.32-33)];

God calls upon Muslim men to get married to believing women including servants (slaves) [4.25];

[4:25] And whoever has not the means wherewith to be able to marry believing women in wedlock, let him take believing maids whom your right hands own. God knows very well your faith; the one of you is as the other. So marry them, with the permission of their folk, and give them their wages, honourably, as women in wedlock, not illicitly, or taking lovers. But when they are given in wedlock, if they commit lewdness, they shall be liable to half the chastisement, of married women. That is for those of you who fear the distress of sin, yet it is better for you to be patient. God is Forgiving, Merciful.

Note that Ayah [24.33], shown above, is also preceded by [24.32] which calls for single Muslims to marry and not refrain from marriage even in poverty;

[24:32] And marry off the spouseless among you and the righteous ones among your male slaves and your female slaves. If they are poor, God will enrich them out of His bounty. God is Embracing.

At the same time, slander and false accusations against believing chaste women is strongly deplored [(24.11-20)].

Marital Home in Islam and Nikah Contract

God presents comprehensive guidelines and rules on the setting out of a Muslim household. See for example [(4.19-22), (4.34-35), (4.128-130)]. Marriage in Islam is a contract called “Nikah”, which means “sexual intercourse” literary, and it is a sign of God’s Mercy that should bring peace and tranquillity to the husband and the wife [30.21];

[30:21] And of His signs is that He created for you from yourselves mates that you might find peace by their side, and He ordained between you affection and mercy. Surely in that there are signs for a people who reflect.

Another translation of Ayah [30.21]

Another translation of Ayah [30.21]

Marriage by Nikah contract normally includes;

  • Spouse selection; proposal from the man (or the woman) and acceptance by the woman (or the man) [2.221, 2.235, 4.3, (4.6), (4.22-24), (24.3), (24.26)];

[2:221] Do not marry idolatresses until they believe; a believing slavegirl is better than an idolatress, though you may admire her. And do not marry idolaters, until they believe. A believing slave is better than an idolater, though you may admire him. Those call to the Fire; and God calls to Paradise and pardon by His leave; and He makes clear His signs to the people so that they might remember.

[2:235] You would not be at fault regarding the proposal you present or hide in your hearts to women. God knows that you will be mindful of them; but do not make arrangements with them secretly, unless you speak honourable words. And do not resolve on the knot of marriage until that which is written has reached its term; and know that God knows what is in your souls; so be fearful of Him; and know that God is Forgiving, Forbearing.

[4:3] If you fear that you will not act justly towards the orphans, marry such women as seem good to you, two or three or four, but if you fear you will not be equitable, then only one, or what your right hands own; thus, it is likelier that you will not be unjust (in another translation: that will be more suitable to avoid hardship (of a large family)).

See also [24:32-33] shown above.

  • Permission from the woman guardians, see  [4.25] shown above.
  • Payment of a dowry from the man to the woman [4.4];
[4:4] And give women their dowries as a free gift; but if they are pleased to offer you any of it of their own accord, consume it with wholesome appetite.
  • Man’s acceptance of his position as protector, maintainer and supporter of the family as the head of the household, see [4.34-35] shown above.

Also, both parties should confirm declaration of compliance with the Quran, including but not limited to requirements of divorce should it occur in future [(2.231-237), (2.241), (33.49), and (65.1-2)]; see also sub-title “Divorce” below. The man and the woman each has the right to declare their own specific conditions (if any) and the Nikah contract is then written in the presence of at least two witnesses.

Marriage in Islam is a unique contract. God refers to it in the Quran using powerful phrases and words such as “Solemn Covenant” that have serious consequences if disregarded [4.21];

[4:21] How shall you take it, when each of you has been privily with the other, and they have taken from you a solemn covenant.

Note that God uses the same phrase for the agreement made between God and the Prophets before granting them the responsibility of Prophet-hood [33.7];

[33:7] And when We took a pledge from the prophets and from you, and from Noah and Abraham and Moses and Jesus son of Mary. And We took from them a solemn pledge (in another translation: “solemn covenant” corresponding to Arabic “methaqan ghalethan“as in [4.21])

Blessed Marriage

The Quran tells that the Angels glorify and praise God, and believe in Him, and they ask forgiveness for those who believe and repent [40.7];

[40:7] Those who bear the Throne and those around it glorify with praise of their Lord, and they believe in Him, and they ask forgiveness for those who believe: ‘Our Lord, You embrace all things in [Your] mercy and knowledge. So forgive those who repent and follow Your way and shield them from the chastisement of Hell-fire.

And appeal to God to admit them into Paradise and the righteous among their parents, spouses, and children [40.8];

[40:8] Our Lord, and admit them into the Gardens of Eden that which You have promised them, along with whoever were righteous among their fathers and their wives and their descendants. Surely You are the One Who is the Mighty, the Wise.

And protect them from falling into sin on Judgment Day [40.9];

[40:9] And shield them from evil deeds for whomever You shield from evil deeds that day, verily him You will have had been merciful to; and that is indeed the supreme triumph’

So a blessed marriage in this life would not end in it, but it is greatly rewarded in the permanent life here after by bearing in mind [63.9, 66.6]  and thanking God for it;

[63:9] O you who believe, do not let your possessions and your children divert you from the remembrance of God; for whoever does that — it is they who are the losers.

[66:6] O you who believe! Guard yourselves and your families against a Fire whose fuel is people and stones, over which stand angels, stern, mighty, who do not disobey God in what He commands them, but do what they are commanded.

The successful [43.69] will be told to enter Paradise, together with their spouses, and rejoice [43.70];

[43:69] those who believed in Our signs and had submitted themselves [to Me] [43:70] Enter Paradise, you and your spouses to be made joyful.

Nobel Women in Islam

God consistently reminds man of the woman rights, pursues the woman protection and highlights the fact that some of the most noble among mankind are women. In The Quran, in addition to a Surah named Women [4] and another named Divorce [65] there is a Surah named Mary (the mother of Jesus) [19] and another named The Pleading Woman (after a women who was complaining to God concerning her husband) [58].

The Quran addresses Mary, by name, as the woman whom GOD purified among all women [3.42, shown above] and also mentions, as those among the most noble among mankind Moses mother (who obeyed God and cast Moses the infant into the river without sadness or fear) [(28.7)] and the wife of Pharaoh (who adopted Moses) [(66.11)] and the wife of Imran (mother of Mary) [(3.35-37)] and the queen of Yemen who submitted to Islam with Prophet Suleiman [(27.44)] and even the wife of Al-Aziz who tried to seduce Prophet Yusuf and repented [(12.32-33), (12.52-53)].

Best Husband

Prophet Mohammad carried out domestic chores; he cooked, cleaned and even sewed in the home. Prophet Muhammad once said: “The best of men are those who are good to their wives” (this Hadith is cited in many Hadith sources). Muslims are expected to engage in marriage having a comprehensive understanding of the rights and obligations of the Islamic marriage contract.

God gives permission for men to have sex with their wife(s) in Ramadan (at night after breaking the fast), but not while they keep to the mosques [2.187];

[2:187] Permitted to you, upon the night of the Fast, is to go in to your wives; they are a vestment for you, and you are a vestment for them; God knows that you have been betraying yourselves, and so He has turned to you [relenting], and He has pardoned you. So now, lie with them and seek what God has prescribed for you, and eat and drink until the white thread is distinct to you from the black thread at daybreak; then complete the fast to the night; and do not lie with them, while you cleave to the mosques in devotion [to God]. Those are God’s bounds; do not approach them. So, God makes clear His signs to people so that they might fear.

But, God calls for husbands to detach from their wives during Menstruation and only resume sex after they are cleansed from it [2.222];

[2:222] They will ask you about the monthly period. Say: ‘It is an ailment; so part with women in the monthly period, and do not approach them until they are pure; when they have cleansed themselves, then come to them, as God has commanded you’. Truly, God loves those who repent, and He loves those who cleanse themselves.

A Muslim husband can kiss his wife before going out for prayer (without repeating ablution) or even when fasting as it has been reported that Prophet Mohammad did so.

Around Nikah Contract

Historically, some Muslims pursued modifications to the Nikah contract for various reasons and objectives including access to sex and companionship. These modifications often focus on mutual agreement between the man and the woman that amounts to surrendering certain marital rights of the Nikah contract. The same is practiced now in our time under various titles;

*       Travel Marriage (Misyar) mostly takes place in The Gulf states; through which a husband surrenders his right to regular access (as the couple do not normally live together) and the wife surrenders her right to housing, maintenance expenditure and the equal division of nights between wives in cases of polygyny.

Several reports in the Media indicate Egypt's Grand (from 2003-2013) Mufti Dr. Ali Gomaa announced that

Several reports in the Media indicate Egypt’s Grand (from 2003-2013) Mufti Dr. Ali Gomaa announced that “travellers marriages,” known in Arabic as “Nikah Mesyar “, are legitimate unless banned by the state. However, it was also reported Saudi Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan (b. 1933) advised against it whilst Saudi Sheikh Adel Salim Al Kelbani approved a version of it.

*      Pleasure Marriage (Mut‘ah) predominantly practiced in Iran (also in Lebanon, UK, and other countries); it has a time limit, again certain rights are surrendered such as the couple do not inherit from each other, the man usually is not responsible for the economic welfare of the woman and she may leave her home at her own discretion.

Ali al-Sistani (b. 1930), prominent Shia ceric in Iraq, wrote on his web site guidelines on Mutah Marriage (Temporary Marriage).

Ali al-Sistani (b. 1930), prominent Shia ceric in Iraq, wrote on his web site guidelines on Mutah Marriage (Temporary Marriage).

*      Confidential Marriage (‘Urfi) mostly takes place in Egypt, often secretly, without the public approval of the bride’s guardians, even though the contract is officiated by a religious cleric and sometimes by a state representative.

Among positive consequences are access to sex, motherhood, companionship and escape from spinsterhood. Among negative consequences are fatherless children and sudden homelessness for involved women.  Scholars have debated such modifications for many years and there are some well-known scholars on both sides of the debate (for and against).

Marriageable Age

It is critical to note that Surah 65 in the Quran is about Divorce and the Ayah [65.4] words “those who have not menstruated” do not speak of girls who have not yet reached puberty as some scholars have suggested, but they speak of divorced women of reproductive age who do not menstruate;

[65:4] And [as for] those of your women who no longer expect to menstruate, if you have any doubts, their prescribed [waiting] period shall be three months, and [also for] those who have not yet menstruated. And those who are pregnant, their term shall be when they deliver. And whoever fears God, He will make matters ease for him.

This is a medical condition in women known as Amenorrhoea which is defined as “the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age”. Boys and girls before puberty are not yet at reproductive age.

God ties the minimum age of marriage (for male and female) to reaching Nikah age, or puberty, in Surah 4 in the Quran and not to reaching a specific number of years of age since puberty attainment differ from one individual to another.

In [4.6];

[4:6] Try well the orphans until they reach the age of marrying (in another translation: when they reach sexual intercourse; corresponding to Quran in Arabic “the Nikah”); then, if you perceive in them maturity, deliver their property to them; consume it not wastefully and in haste, lest they should grow up. If any man is rich, let him be abstinent; if he is poor, let him consume honourably. And when you deliver to them their property, take witnesses over them. God suffices as a reckoner.

God does not specify the exact age for the marriage of a man or woman; instead God defines this age as that at which boys or girls attain “Nikah” status (or puberty). Puberty is defined as “the process of physical changes through which a child’s Physical body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction to enable fertilization”. In other words, a man should not consummate marriage with his young bride until she is physically able to bear intercourse (and capable of getting pregnant). The marriageable age naturally varies from one era, place and environment to another. But, in all cases, eras and environments a person must reach “Nikah” status to be married. The Quran does not contain a specific legal age of marriage, but it does make clear that men and women must be both physically mature and of sound judgement in order to get married

Polygyny

Polygyny has been practiced by mankind since ancient times and a recent study (2003) published in the NCBI, USA concluded “humans were essentially polygynous during much of their history”. Another interesting citation is that in India the percentage of polygamous marriages between the years 1951 and 1961 was among Hindus (5.06%) more than among Muslims (4.31%) despite it is being made illegal (by the State) for Hindus to have multiple wives.

God, in the Quran [4.3, shown above] allows Polygyny (the marriage of one man to more than one woman), with the requirement that the man is able and willing to partition his time and wealth fairly among the respective wives. Under this Ayah [4.3]; sex should take place within the framework of Nikah contract which can also extend to other forms of a contractual relationship (such as that between the husband and one or more women captured in war or slave women in the days when that were practised and warranted).

A historical account in “Sahih al-Bukhari” stipulates this Ayah [4.3] was revealed after the Battle of Uhud. Many Muslim men were killed in this battel, leaving widows and orphans and hence the permission of Polygyny was also timely.

Muhammad Al-Bukhari (810-870) collected and compiled several thousand Hadiths in a volume known as “Sahih Al-Bukari”. He finished this work around 846 and its authenticity seems to have been accepted by other scholars of that era such as Ahmad ibn Hanbal (855), Yahya ibn Ma'in (847), and Ali ibn al-Madini (848). The “Sahih Al-Bukhari” ranks as the most authentic of the Kutub al-Sittah, the six books containing collections of hadith (sayings or acts of the prophet Muhammad).The next one is “Sahih Muslim”, collected by Muslim bin al-Hajjaj (d. 875 ).

Muhammad Al-Bukhari (810-870) collected and compiled several thousand Hadiths in a volume known as “Sahih Al-Bukari”. He finished this work around 846 and its authenticity seems to have been accepted by other scholars of that era such as Ahmad ibn Hanbal (855), Yahya ibn Ma’in (847), and Ali ibn al-Madini (848). The “Sahih Al-Bukhari” ranks as the most authentic of the Kutub al-Sittah, the six books containing collections of hadith (sayings or acts of the prophet Muhammad).The next one is “Sahih Muslim”, collected by Muslim bin al-Hajjaj (d. 875 ).

However, benefits of Polygyny cannot be denied in many other situations, for example if the single wife is barren or falls seriously ill. God does not make Polygyny mandatory but a choice (to the man) with a challenge and a caution that demands fairness of the husband to all of his wives [4.129];

[4:129] You will never be able to be just (in another translation: equitable) to your wives, even if you be eager; yet do not turn altogether away, so that you leave her like one suspended. If you set things right, and fear, surely God is ever Forgiving, Merciful.

Recently, several campaigns have been launched by scholars , as well as unmarried women, calling upon married men to marry more than one wife. Marriage costs have become beyond the reach of young men leaving a lot of young women facing the prospects of staying spinsters.

Recently, several campaigns have been launched in the Middle East by scholars , as well as unmarried women, calling upon married men to marry more than one wife. Marriage costs have become beyond the reach of young men leaving a lot of young women facing the prospects of staying spinsters.

In Islam, polyandry (the marriage of one woman to more than one man) is not allowed.

Divorce

Divorce in Islam has been thoroughly addressed in the Quran. Divorce should only be considered as a last resort after attempts of waiting time and reconciliation [2.226] efforts, (and also after mediation [4.35, shown above under Marital Home in Islam]);

[2:226] For those who forswear (in another translation: those who intend to divorce) their women, a wait of four months; if they revert, God is Forgiving, Merciful.

When and if divorce has to and does happen [2.227];

[2:227] But if they resolve upon divorce; surely God is Hearing, Knowing.

Then the interests of the man [(2.228)] and the interests of the women [2.229] have to be thought of and approached carefully; see also [(65.1-2)]. Note that a deterrent is put in place for the man to bear in mind before he finally announces his “third divorce pronouncement” [2.230].

[2:229] Divorce is twice; then honourable retention; or setting free kindly. It is not lawful for you to take of what you have given them unless the couple fear that they may not maintain God’s bounds. If you fear they may not maintain God’s bounds, neither of them would be at fault if she were to ransom herself. Those are God’s bounds; do not transgress them. Whoever transgresses God’s bounds – those are the evildoers [2:230] If he divorces her, she shall not be lawful to him after that, until she marries another husband. If he divorces her, then neither of them would be at fault to return to each other, if they think that they will maintain God’s bounds. Those are God’s bounds, which He makes clear to a people who have knowledge.

Then two matters become of paramount importance and must be attended equitably; namely the protection of Children [2.233];

[2:233] Mothers suckle their children for two full years for such as desire to fulfil the suckling. It is for the father to provide them and clothe them honourably. No soul is charged save to its capacity; a mother shall not be harmed by her child; neither a father by his child. The heir has a similar duty. But if the two desire by mutual consent and consultation to wean, then they would not be at fault. And if you desire to seek nursing for your children, you would not be at fault, provided you hand over what you have given honourably, and fear God, and know that God sees what you do.

And the interests of divorced women [2.241];

[2:241] There shall be provision for divorced women, honourably – an obligation on those who fear.

See more details in other Ayahs, such as [2.231-232 and 235-237 shown above, (33.49), (65.1-2)].

Similarly interests of widowed women have to be protected [(2.234, 2.240-241)].

Adultery (Arabic: Zina – زنى)

God prohibits adultery [17.32, 24.2-10, (24.26 and 25.68)];

[17:32] And do not come [anywhere] near fornication (in another translation: adultery). It is indeed an indecency and an evil way.

[24:2] As for the fornicatress and the fornicator, strike each of them a hundred lashes. And do not let any pity for them overcome you in God’s religion, if you believe in God and the Last Day. And let their punishment be witnessed by a group of the believers [24:3] The fornicator shall not marry anyone but a fornicatress or an idolatress, and the fornicatress shall be married by none except a fornicator or an idolater, and that is forbidden to believers [24:4] And those who accuse honourable women [in wedlock], and then do not bring four witnesses, strike them eighty lashes, and do not accept any testimony from them ever; and those, they are the immoral [24:5] except those who repent thereafter and make amends, for God is indeed Forgiving, Merciful.

If convicted, a Muslim man or women will be the subject of the punishment of 100 lashes each as prescribed in [24.2, shown above]. If not convicted, then their accusers (who fail to provide four witnesses) will be the subject of 80 lashes as prescribed in [24.4, also shown above].

Incest

God prohibits incest marriage and expressively outlines a comprehensive list of the women among relatives and other close associates with whom sex is forbidden [4.23-24];

[4:22] And do not marry women whom your fathers married, unless it be a thing of the past; surely that is obscene and abominable, an evil way [4:23] Forbidden to you are your mothers, and daughters, your sisters, your paternal aunts, and maternal aunts, your brother’s daughters, your sister’s daughters, your foster mothers who have given you milk, your foster sisters, your mothers-in-law, your step-daughters, who are in your care being born of your wives you have been in to – but if you have not yet been in to them you are not at fault – and the spouses of your sons who are of your loins, and that you should take to you two sisters together unless it be a thing of the past. God is ever Forgiving, Merciful [4:24] And wedded women, save what your right hands own, this is what God has prescribed for you. Lawful for you beyond all that is that you seek using your wealth, in wedlock and not in illicitly. Such wives as you enjoy thereby, give them their wages as an obligation; you are not at fault in agreeing together, after the obligation. God is ever Knowing, Wise.

It is interesting to note that a Muslim man can marry a girl who is his first cousin (from father side or mother side), but cannot marry any girl who breast fed from a woman (even if this woman is not his mother) who breast fed him when they were infants. Also, a Muslim man can marry the divorcee of his adopted son [(33.37)] unless she is one of those listed in [4.23-24] above.  Also, a man cannot marry any women who were previously married to his father [4.22, as shown above].

Islam Openness on Sexual Pleasures

God reminds Muslims that He created mankind, animals and plants of sexual pairs [(4.1), 16.72, (25.54), (30.21), (36.36), (49.13), (51.49), and 53.45-46];

 [16:72] And God made for you mates from your own selves, and made for you, from your mates, children and grandchildren, and He provided you with the good things. Is it then in falsehood that they believe and in the grace of God that they disbelieve?

[53:45] and that He [Himself] creates the two spouses, the male and the female [53:46] from a drop [of semen] once it is emitted (in another translation: from a tiny drop if fertilized)

Sex is part of mankind natural instincts, Arabic “فطره “. It is strongly encouraged and must not be suppressed. Islam has an open and playful approach to sex so long as it is within marriage, free of lewdness and adultery, see [2.187, 4.3 , 4.23 , 4.25, 24.26, 24.32 ] shown above, and [2.223, 3.14, 5.87 and 25.74};

[2:223] Your women are a tillage for you; so come to your tillage as you wish; and offer for your souls (in another translation: and priory provide for yourselves (foreplay)); and fear God; and know that you shall meet Him; and give good tidings to the believers.

[3:14]Beautified for mankind is love of lusts – of women, children, stored-up heaps of gold and silver, horses of mark, cattle, and tillage. That is the comfort of the life of this world; but God – with Him is the more excellent abode.

[5:87] O you who believe, do not forbid the good things that God has made lawful for you and do not transgress; God does not love transgressors.

[25:74] And those who say, ‘Our Lord! Grant us in our spouses and our offspring a joyful sight, and make us paragons for the God-fearing’.

Today, Muslims (men and women) have a tendency to shy away from frank sexual discussions. The arrival of Islam encouraged open and unembarrassed discussion concerning sex, sexual pleasure and in particular women’s pleasure.  This openness has been lost over time, and all mention of sex has become taboo.

In many societies, sex has been a difficult topic to talk about publicly among the Muslims. This topic is always shoved aside and not dealt with in an honest manner. Muslim youth are confused by the ambivalence shown toward sex by their parents and elders. They go out in the world where their peers are engaging in sex and talking about sex but then they come back to their Muslim communities only to find that their elders are unwilling to engage the topic in a manner both relevant and ethical.

While most Islamic societies go to great lengths to insure all things sex-related remain taboo, sex between a married man and woman is allowed to be sensual and uninhibited to achieve orgasm. Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali (1058-1111) cited a Hadith which advises husbands to engage in acts that enable the women to achieve orgasm first. Al-Ghazali stated, in Rule 10 (out of 12) in Section 3 of his famous book “Revival of Religion (Deen) Learnings”, that  Muslim husband should not “cohabit with wife without talking with her or without kissing her and or without being able to restrain the ejaculation of his semen before that of the semen of his wife”. He was also cited to have said Ibn Umar (one of the scholarly Companion to the Prophet) used to break his fast with sexual intercourse before eating and that after the death of Fatima, her husband Ali remarried in seven days.

Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali (1058-1111), the teacher at Baghdad’s Nizamia College and the most influential thinker of that Classical era, abruptly left his position and spent a decade in or between Damascus, Makka, Madina, and Jerusalem. During this period, he wrote his master-piece “Revivification of the Religious (Deen) Learnings” (in Arabic: Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Din), a grand work of forty books (including one on marriage), then returned to teaching. He left a legacy of works in jurisprudence, philosophy, theology, and Sufism.

Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali (1058-1111), the teacher at Baghdad’s Nizamia College and the most influential thinker of that Classical era, abruptly left his position and spent a decade in or between Damascus, Makka, Madina, and Jerusalem. During this period, he wrote his master-piece “Revivification of the Religious (Deen) Learnings” (in Arabic: Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Din), a grand work of forty books (including one on marriage), then returned to teaching. He left a legacy of works in jurisprudence, philosophy, theology, and Sufism. The above image is an Artist impression of how Al-Ghazali might have looked like over 900 years ago.

Today, men should at least be expected to have taken the time and effort to learn the techniques (not from porn, but from proper educational sources) while investing in the marital relationship and making their wives feel valuable. Both husband and wife should focus on increasing their knowledge, skills and emotional know-how to mutually enjoy their sexual experience.

Foreplay

God (strongly) calls for the practice of foreplay, see [2.223, shown above ], and this call is echoed by the Prophet Hadith.

Foreplay is considered to include flirting outside the bedroom, talking, kissing, touching, massage, hugging, fondling, undressing, French kissing, petting, and anything to get in the mood and reach full arousal including other acts some of which are discussed here.

Masturbation

Scholars debated this subject over the centuries; a school of thought appears to have taken the position that if a person masturbates with the intention of saving himself from committing sin (such as adultery) it will not be a sin and if he does it with the intention of enjoyment he will be a sinner. They recommend that he does good deeds as there is in Islam “no doubt the virtues wipe away the sins” [11.114];

[11:114] And establish prayer at the two ends of the day, and in some watches of the night. Indeed good deeds annul misdeeds. That is a remembrance for the mindful.

Men may enjoy masturbating physically, but some may find it leaving them emotionally empty, depressed or lonely for the real thing or companionship. A Muslim should resist this temptation as he or she who masturbates might, according to some scholars, is considered among “those who crave something” beyond that specified in [23.5-7];

[23:5] and who guard their private parts [23:6] except from their spouses, and what [slaves] their right hands possess, for then they are not blameworthy [23:7] But whoever seeks [anything] beyond that, those, they are transgressors.

But, one must bear in mind the Quran does not mention masturbation.

On the other hand, it has been cited that it is lawful (according to Hanbali school) for a husband to achieve ejaculation by his wife masturbating him, and by rubbing his penis between her thighs or breasts.

Oral Sex

The Quran and the Hadith do not mention and thus do not prohibit Oral Sex between husband and wife.

Ahmad Al-Kubaisi (b. 1934), an Iraqi scholar based in UAE, who is the head of Sharia Studies at UAE University and Baghdad University and leads prayers at the state mosque of Abu Dhabi , also spoke on TV (2013-14) regarding Oral Sex as being permissible citing Muhammad Al-Qurtubi (1214-1273) the scholar who was born in Cordoba, Spain.

Ahmad Al-Kubaisi (b. 1934), an Iraqi scholar based in UAE, who is the head of Sharia Studies at UAE University and Baghdad University and leads prayers at the state mosque of Abu Dhabi , also spoke on TV (2013-14) regarding Oral Sex as being permissible citing Muhammad Al-Qurtubi (1214-1273) the scholar who was born in Cordoba, Spain.

Oral sex is the use of the mouth or the tongue to stimulate another person’s genitals (oral stimulation of the male organ is called “fellatio” and oral stimulation of the female genital is known as “cunnilingus”). Oral Sex covers a wide range of activities, from simply kissing the genitalia to the actual taking in and swallowing of sexual fluids. Man’s semen is not considered impure (unclean) according to the Shäfi scholars, contrary to the Hanafï scholars, but both seem to agree swallowing of sexual fluids should not be permissible. One of the recent debates was between two Turkish scholars (pro and against) on TV in July 2015.

Yusuf al-Qaradawi (b. 1926), an Egyptian scholar based in Qatar, is the author of some 80 books. Among his most famous works are “The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam” and “Fiqh al-Zakat”. He released statements on Oral Sex (cited in this Article) and expressed opposition to female genital mutilation (FGM).

Yusuf al-Qaradawi (b. 1926), an Egyptian scholar based in Qatar, is the author of some 80 books. Among his most famous works are “The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam” and “Fiqh al-Zakat”. He released statements on Oral Sex (cited in this Article) and expressed opposition to female genital mutilation (FGM).

So, this subject has also been a matter of debate for centuries. Opinion of famous contemporary Egyptian scholar Yusuf Al-Qaradawi (based in Qatar) who most probably has studied this debate thoroughly has been quoted as follows ” … Muslim jurists are of the opinion that it is lawful for the husband to perform cunnilingus on his wife, or a wife to perform the similar act for her husband (fellatio) and there is no wrong in doing so, but, if sucking leads to releasing semen, then it is blameworthy (or disliked), but there is no decisive evidence to make it unlawful, especially if the wife agrees with it or achieves orgasm by practicing it”.

Woman-Woman Sex

Some Muslim women feel they are in a conundrum; one wrote “I am a Lesbian, I was born that way. But at the same time, I pray five times a day. I fast in Ramadan. I enjoy attending Islamic talks at uni (university)”.

Information, from surveys and blogs, provide indications on what and how two women perform in bed could have sex (without a man). Apparently, they may kiss, hug, suck, caress each other’s bodies for hours and caress each other’s nipples and/or clitorises, touch their vulvas with fingers and tongues, press and rub their bodies and vulvas or masturbate together, oral sex to one another (or at the same time with each other in the ’69’ position), making noises, licking (tongues, vaginas or breasts), scissoring (where they touch their genitals together and or rub them) and basically turn each other on such that one, both, or neither may orgasm once or several times

A recent article about latest developments in same-sex marriages in the USA brought the announcement that a lesbian “throuple”, a new phrase referring to “three married lesbians”, is awaiting their first born child! This article indicated some 300 LGBT allies now agreed on  “there is no reason not to further re-shape ‘marriage’ to include multiple partner unions”, according to the McCormick Professor of Jurisprudence at Princeton University!.

USA Supreme Court ruled by a 5-to-4 vote in June 2015 that the Constitution guarantees a right to same-sex marriage nationwide. President Obama called the Supreme Court decision

USA Supreme Court ruled by a 5-to-4 vote in June 2015 that the Constitution guarantees a right to same-sex marriage nationwide. President Obama called the Supreme Court decision “a victory for America.” In the build up to this legislation, the New York Post, on April 23, reported that Doll, Kitten, and Brynn Young, three Massachusetts women in a polyamorous relationship, were expecting their first child after uniting in an August 2013 commitment ceremony. And after undergoing IVF with an unknown sperm donor, the youngest of the group is now with child. This action, as in the case of three men in polyamorous relationship, is not criminal offence in the USA where it is a criminal offence for a man to marry two women! One wonders on what President Barak Hossein Obama think of where the USA legal system heading with this?

On the other hand, another recent article based on data the researchers of which tracked 5,018 women and 4,191 men found women have a greater probability than men of being attracted to both men and women… and this indicates that women’s sexuality may be more flexible and adaptive than men’s.

To comprehend this subject, there are three Ayahs [3.14, 19.20 and 4.15] in the Quran that warrant close attention. Whilst doing so, it is worth having a closer look at some of the difficulties associated with Quran translations. Consider the following;

A translation, by Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought (2008), Amman, Jordan,  to the first two Ayahs is given below;

[3:14] Beautified for mankind is love of lusts – of women, children, stored-up heaps of gold and silver, horses of mark, cattle, and tillage. That is the comfort of the life of this world; but God – with Him is the more excellent abode.

[19:20] She (Mary) said, ‘How shall I have a boy when no human being has [ever] touched me, neither have I been unchaste?’

The key word that is relevant to this subject, in the first Ayah [3.14], is the Arabic word “Al Nas (الناس)” which in the above translation given as “mankind”, but in other translations it is given differently – compare following examples;

  • “Mankind” in Dr. Ghali, Pickthall and Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought translations.
  • “Men” in Muhsin Khan, Shakir and Yusuf Ali translations.
  • “People” in Sahih International translation.

The normal translation, say using the online Google Translate, of the Arabic word “Al Nas (الناس )” is “people” and hence the word “mankind” or “people” is much closer than “men” which is in Arabic “Rejal (رجال )” a word not in [3.14].

Again, the key word that is relevant to this subject, in the second Ayah [19.20], is the Arabic word “Basharon (بشر)” which in the above translation given as “human”, but in other translations it is given differently – compare following examples;

  • “Mortal” in Dr. Ghali, Pickthall, and Shakir translations.
  • “Man” in Muhsin Khan, Sahih International translations.
  • “Human” in Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought translation.

The normal translation of the Arabic word “Basharon (بشر)” is “human” and hence “mortal” or “human” is much closer than “man” which is in Arabic “Rajolon  (رجل ) ” a word not in [19.20].

So, one must always bear in mind all Quran translations are influenced by the translator perception of the meaning of the corresponding Arabic word or by an interpretation citing a Hadith or an understanding by a scholar. This is extremely important, because as can be seen from the above two examples a single improper translation of a single key word could have an enormous impact on the meaning or the intention of the whole Ayah (see also below; Citations from The Quran).

Now, back to our subject, the key word in [3.14] is the Arabic word “Al Nas (الناس)”, that is “mankind” or “people”, which obviously refers “to men and women” and not only to “men”! The second Ayah [19:20], which provide decisive confirmation and “exact clarity” to the ultimate purity and chastity of Mary the mother of Jesus, uses another Arabic key word “Basharon (بشر)”,that is “human”, which refers to “man or woman”, instead of solely to “man”! This is significant, because it’s possible, at least according to British National Health Service (NHS) web site for a woman to get pregnant without having sexual intercourse, for example: if she (or her partner – male or female-) has semen or pre-ejaculate on fingers and touch her vagina.

These two Ayahs [3.14, 19.20] document the fact that women may, naturally, also seek sexual pleasures from other women. But, the Nikah contractual marital home, headed by a man, is the only legitimate institution in the Quran; see [4.3 , 4.34, and 4.128-129] shown above. In Islam, Muslims must satisfy all their sexuality (as well as other pleasures and inherent attractions including love, companionship, procreation, mercy, physical and emotional needs, desires and lusts) inside their Nikah contractual marriages. Therefore, available choices for both parties are as follows;

  • A Muslim man can have more than one wife providing he is able and willing to partition his time and wealth fairly among the respective wives; or otherwise he should marry only one wife, see [3.14, 4.3] shown above.
  • A Muslim woman (with lesbian or bisexual desires) can have a husband who is willing to accept her condition (supported by at least one of his existing wives who is willing to conduct lesbian acts with her being the proposed new wife); or otherwise she has to suppress her lesbianism and live with her husband in straight sex only which she is naturally capable of, see [3.14, 4.3] shown above.

Thus, a Muslim woman who wants to act on her lesbian desires may do so within the Nikah contract only, which by definition must be made with a man; in order to comply with the Nikah (sexual intercourse) requirement. Note that women are allowed to put clauses and conditions up-front in their Nikah contract.

Accordingly, as in the case of husband’s perusal of sexual intercourse, lesbian acts may only be legitimate within the confines of polygynous marriage [4.3], inside the privacy of their own marital home, providing, of course, prior agreement of their husband and his concerned wife(s).

The third is [4.15 shown above]; it addresses married women who commit a lesbian act with other women who are not wives of their own husband marital household. This Ayah denotes such act as outrageous (lewd) and risks, upon conviction, the punishment by life-time imprisonment (house arrest).

Laura Poyneer is a white American convert to Islam who lives near Seattle, USA. By day, she works for a blogging company, while in the evenings she serves as Muslim ARC’s Membership Services Chair. She wrote Articles on Seattle mosques and, in September 2015, most notably, on her personal experiences in life as an “asexual” and Muslim.

Laura Poyneer is a white American convert to Islam who lives near Seattle, USA. By day, she works for a blogging company, while in the evenings she serves as Muslim ARC’s Membership Services Chair. She wrote Articles on Seattle mosques and, in September 2015, most notably, on her personal experiences in life as an “asexual” and Muslim.

Similarly, a Muslim “Asexual” woman could, if she wishes, enter Nikah marital contract by declaring her condition in advance for prior agreement by the man. Asexuality is defined as “the lack of sexual attractions to anyone or low or absent interest in sexual activity”.

Anal Sex with Wife

Minority of scholars, who say this act is permissible, do so as per an interpretation of the meaning of [2.223, shown above ] based on a single Hadith reported by Muhammad al-Bukhari (810-870), but majority of scholars do not agree to such interpretation and indicate this action is not permissible citing a number of Hadiths as reported in several other reliable sources.

Scholars maintain that if a man habitually does this or insists on having anal sex with his wife, she has the right to ask for a divorce, because he is considered causing harm by his action (also because one of the purposes of marriage cannot be achieved through this action).

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)

There is no requirement in the Quran for female circumcision. God in the Quran and Prophet Mohammad in Hadith allude to the nature of sexual relations as a means of attaining mutual satisfaction, closeness and compassion between husband and his wife(s).

Female circumcision is a habit practiced long before Islam advent in Arabia in many places including Russia and South America; it is still practiced in Sudan and to lesser extent in Egypt.

The practice of “clitoridectomy” can be a mild procedure involving the cutting off a tiny part from the outer portion of the clitoris (about 1mm to 3mm is snipped off the very top of the clitoris) which may not diminish sexual desire or result in other complications.

But, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) can be severe, much harsher and undignified and hence unacceptable in Islam because it results in a severe sexual debilitation of the woman and thus preventing her from achieving sexual fulfilment which is her right as a human and as a Muslim.

Man-Man Sex

This act is deplored repeatedly in the Quran through the Prophet Lot story concerning his people who practiced it, see for example [27.54-58];

[27:54] And Lot, when he said to his people, ‘What! Do you commit [such] abomination while you watch? [27:55] What! Do you come unto men in lust instead of women? Nay, but you are truly a people in ignorance’ [27:56] But the only response of his people was that they said, ‘Expel Lot’s family from your town. They are indeed a folk who [prefer to] remain pure!’ [27:57] So We delivered him and his family, except his wife – We decreed [for] her to be of those who remained behind [27:58] Then We rained on them a rain. And evil indeed was the rain of those who were warned.

See also [(7.80-84), (11.78-83), (15.61-75), (21.74), (26.162-174), and (29.28-30)]. 

Scholars acknowledge that the Quran does not expressively prescribe specific punishment.  However, many scholars have ruled that the punishment for this act should be the same as for adultery; that is one hundred whiplashes (stripes) for the man who has never married, and death by stoning for the married man. It should be noted that adultery (Zina) punishments are prescribed in the Quran upon the evidence of four reputable male witnesses. Some commentators consider the levels of proof required by Islamic law are so high that if the rules are properly applied conviction is virtually impossible baring sexual intercourse in the public arena.

Alfred Kinsey (1894 –1956) published, in 1948-1953, a scale which uses grading from 0, meaning exclusively heterosexual, to 6, meaning exclusively homosexual. An additional grade, listed as "X", was used to mean "no socio-sexual contacts or reactions" or asexual. In approximate numbers, it brands bi-sexual behaviours (3-5) in 12% of men and 5% of women and homosexual behaviours (6) in 10% of men and 2% of women, and some 1% are placed under X. Kinsey was himself bi-sexual. Jones, James H. (1997) wrote that Kinsey's sexual activity influenced his work, that he over-represented prisoners and prostitutes, classified some single people as "married" and that he included a disproportionate number of homosexual men, which may have distorted his studies. Nevertheless, this simplistic straight-line scale caught the public eye in the Western world. The Kinsey Reports, which led to a storm of controversy, are regarded by many as a precursor to the sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s.

Alfred Kinsey (1894 –1956) published, in 1948-1953, a scale which uses grading from 0, meaning exclusively heterosexual, to 6, meaning exclusively homosexual. An additional grade, listed as “X”, was used to mean “no socio-sexual contacts or reactions” or asexual. In approximate numbers, it brands bi-sexual behaviours (3-5) in 12% of men and 5% of women and homosexual behaviours (6) in 10% of men and 2% of women, and some 1% are placed under X. Kinsey was himself bi-sexual. Jones, James H. (1997) wrote that Kinsey’s sexual activity influenced his work, that he over-represented prisoners and prostitutes, classified some single people as “married” and that he included a disproportionate number of homosexual men, which may have distorted his studies. Nevertheless, this simplistic straight-line scale caught the public eye in the Western world. The Kinsey Reports, which led to a storm of controversy, are regarded by many as a precursor to the sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s.

In 2004, a paper published by Concerned Women for America (CWA) was titled “Born or Bred? Science Does Not Support the Claim That Homosexuality Is Genetic”. Earlier, in 1995, Stanford University News Release indicated under “Biological basis of sexual orientation” that 3%-5% of men are homosexual (which is less than the previous estimate of 10% from a 1950s study by Kinsey).

In May 2009, the British newspaper The Guardian reported “None of the 500 British Muslims interviewed believed that homosexual acts were morally acceptable”. Even self-identified progressives and moderates such as Imam Hamza Yusuf in the United States and Professor Tariq Ramadan in the UK consider homosexuality to be a grave sin.

It is reported that in 2010 a Saudi man was sentenced to 500 lashes and five years in jail for having sex with another man and that since the 2003 invasion of Iraq more than 700 people have been reportedly killed because of such acts. It is also reported that an estimate of 4,000 homosexuals have been executed in Iran since that country’s revolution in 1979 as well as large-scale public executions of homosexuals in Afghanistan by the Taliban.

In Islam, regardless of behavioural surveys or statistics, if there is such a minority of behavioural tendencies among Muslim men they are expected to control themselves and keep clear from this act; otherwise they could face adverse consequences in this life and in the permanent life hereafter.

Conclusion

Sex is fantastic gift from God. The losers are those who abuse it. The winners are those who use it responsibly to maximize their pleasures and happiness bearing in mind the following basics;

  • A Muslim husband can only have sex with his wife(s). Man-man sex is repeatedly deplored in the Quran.
  • A Muslim wife can only have sex with one man; her husband. She may also enjoy lesbian acts with her husband’s wives or bisexual acts with her husband and his wives providing husband and concerned wife(s) are in full mutual agreement.

Bar anal intercourse and adultery, a Muslim marital home bonded by Nikah marital contract between husband and his wife(s) should enjoy and even indulge, within the privacy of their marital home, in limitless scope of husband-wife straight sexual acts (within their monogamous marriage) or husband-wives straight, lesbian and bisexual acts (within their polygamous marriage).

Any sexual activity (be it straight, lesbian or bisexual) outside Nikah marriage contract is prohibited on all Muslims, men and women.

Citations from the Quran

A total of about 140 Quran Ayahs (addressing sex or topics related to or associate with sex) have been cited in this Article. Ideally, the readers who know Arabic would refer directly to the original Quran in Arabic. This is because Quran translations to other languages have always been difficult, even though many attempts have already been made in the past.

Three decades ago, in 1982-84, a Quran Complex was established by Saudi Arabia government, named after King Fahd. This Complex outlines Quran translation difficulties to English language, and considers all translations from original Arabic to any other language are translations to the “meanings” or “interpretations” of the Quran. This Complex headings of own Quran translations states “Translations of the Meanings of the Quran”.

Quran Complex in Medina published Translations of the Meanings of the Quran to 39 languages.. It was established in 1982-1984 by the government of Saudi Arabia..

Quran Complex in Medina published Translations of the Meanings of the Quran to 39 languages.. It was established in 1982-1984 by the government of Saudi Arabia..

There are several well-known Quran translations to English which can be found on the internet or published in the form of books such as the following 10 translations by;

(1) Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought, Amman, Jordan, 2008.

(2) Quran Complex which was established in 1982-84 by Saudi Arabia government, named after King Fahd.

(3) Dr.  Mohammad Ghali (born in 1920) who was a Professor of Linguistics and Islamic Studies, Al-Azhar University, CairoEgypt.

(4) Muhammad Pickthall (1875-1936); he was a Western; a convert from Christianity.

(5) Mohammad Muhsin Khan (born in 1927). He is a contemporary author of Pashtun origin who completed this translation with Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali.

(6) Shakir: There is a controversy on the real identity of the translator who may be Egyptian judge Muhammad Habib Shakir (1866-1939) or likely Mohammedali Habib Shakir the son of Habib Esmail of The House of Habib in Pakistan.

(7) Yusuf Ali (1872-1953) who was a British-Indian Islamic scholar.

(8) Sahih International; in 1989 three American converts to Islam joined together to form “Saheeh International” and published their translation in 1997.

(9) Muhammad Asad (1900–1992) who was a Jewish-born Austro-Hungarian journalist, traveller, linguist, diplomat and Islamic scholar.

(10) Dr. Martin Lings (1909–2005) who is best known for his English language biography of Prophet Muhammad, titled “Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources”. He passed away before completing his translation.

Martin Lings (1909 – 2005), an English writer and scholar, best known as the author of “Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources”, first published in 1983. He passed away before completing his translation of the Quran to English.

Martin Lings (1909 – 2005), an English writer and scholar, best known as the author of “Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources”, first published in 1983. He passed away before completing his translation of the Quran to English.

The following English translations for Ayahs (from among those cited above), are primarily based on cautious correlation-comparison of one or more than one translation with that of the Arabic original. Once again, the readers who know Arabic should refer directly to the original Quran in Arabic, if not possible then it is recommended that readers do not rely on any single translation but try, as much as possible, to consult more than one translation.

On Aisha Chastity;

[24:11] A gang among you produced a big lie. Do not think that it was bad for you; instead, it was good for you. Meanwhile, each one of them has earned his share of the guilt. As for the one who initiated the whole incident, he has incurred a terrible retribution [24:12] When you heard it, the believing men and the believing women should have had better thoughts about themselves, and should have said, “This is obviously a big lie.” [24:13] Only if they produced four witnesses (you may believe them). If they fail to produce the witnesses, then they are, according to God, liars. [24:14] If it were not for God’s grace towards you, and His mercy in this world and in the Hereafter, you would have suffered a great retribution because of this incident [24:15] You fabricated it with your own tongues, and the rest of you repeated it with your mouths without proof. You thought it was simple, when it was, according to God, gross [24:16] When you heard it, you should have said, “We will not repeat this. Glory be to You. This is a gross falsehood.” [24:17] God admonishes you that you shall never do it again, if you are believers [24:18] God thus explains the revelations for you. God is Omniscient, Wise [24:19] Those who love to see immorality spread among the believers have incurred a painful retribution in this life and in the Hereafter. God knows, while you do not know [24:20] God showers you with His grace and mercy. God is Most Kind towards the believers, Most Merciful.

On Chastity;

 [12:32] She said, “This is the one whom you blamed me of (for falling in love with). I did indeed try to seduce him, and he refused. Unless he does what I order him to do, he will surely go to prison, and will be debased.” (Note: the wife of Al-Aziz is quoted as saying here) [12:33] He (Prophet Yusuf) said, “My Lord, the prison is more to my liking than that to which they invite me (better than giving in to them). Unless You divert their scheming from me (if You do not avert from me their plan), I might incline toward them (may desire them) and behave like the ignorant ones (and thus be ignorant).”

[33:35] The submitting men, the submitting women, the believing men, the believing women, the obedient men, the obedient women, the truthful men, the truthful women, the steadfast men, the steadfast women, the reverent men, the reverent women, the charitable men, the charitable women, the fasting men, the fasting women, the chaste men, the chaste women, and the men who commemorate God frequently, and the commemorating women; God has prepared for them forgiveness and a great recompense.

On Marital Home in Islam and Nikah Contract;

[2.231] If you divorce the women, once they fulfil their interim (three menstruations), you shall allow them to live in the same home amicably, or let them leave amicably. Do not force them to stay against their will, as revenge (or to hurt them). Anyone who does this wrongs his own soul. Do not take God’s revelations in vain. Remember God’s blessings upon you, and that He sent down to you the scripture and wisdom to enlighten you. You shall observe God, and know that God is aware of all things [2:232] If you divorce the women, once they fulfil their interim (three menstruations), do not prevent them from remarrying their husbands, if they reconcile amicably. This shall be heeded by those among you who believe in God and the Last Day. This is purer for you, and more righteous. God knows, while you do not know

[2:236] You commit no error by divorcing the women before touching them, or before setting the dowry for them. In this case, you shall compensate them – the rich as he can afford and the poor as he can afford – an equitable compensation. This is a duty upon the righteous [2:237] If you divorce them before touching them, but after you had set the dowry for them, the compensation shall be half the dowry, unless they voluntarily forfeit their rights, or the party responsible for causing the divorce chooses to forfeit the dowry. To forfeit is closer to righteousness. You shall maintain the amicable relations among you. God is Seer of everything you do.

4:34] Men are in charge of women because of that with which God has preferred the one over the other, and because of what they expend of their property. Therefore righteous women are obedient, guarding in the unseen because of what God has guarded. And those you fear may be rebellious, admonish them, and share not beds with them, and strike them. If they then obey you, do not seek a way against them. God is ever High, Great.

[4:6] And try orphans (as regards their intelligence) until they reach the age of marriage; if then you find sound judgement in them, release their property to them, but consume it not wastefully and hastily fearing that they should grow up, and whoever (amongst guardians) is rich, he should take no wages, but if he is poor, let him have for himself what is just and reasonable (according to his labour). And when you release their property to them, take witness in their presence; and Allâh is All-Sufficient in taking account.

[4:19] O you who believe, it is not lawful for you to inherit what the women leave behind, against their will. You shall not force them to give up anything you had given them, unless they commit a proven lewdness (unlawful sexual act). Live with them on a footing of kindness and equity, and if you take a dislike to them, it may be that you dislike a thing through which God brings about a great deal of good [4:20] If you decide to take one wife in place of another, and you had given one of them a great deal (or whole treasure), you shall not take back anything you had given her. Would you take it fraudulently and manifest slander? [4:21] How could you take it back, after you have been intimate with each other, and they had taken from you a solemn covenant? [4:22] Do not marry the women who were previously married to your fathers; existing marriages are exempted and shall not be broken. It was lewdness, gross offense and an abominable act [4:23] Forbidden to you (for marriage) are: your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your father’s sisters, your mother’s sisters, your brother’s daughters, your sister’s daughters, your foster mother who gave you suck, your foster milk suckling sisters, your wives’ mothers, your step daughters under your guardianship, born of your wives to whom you have gone in – but there is no sin on you if you have not gone in them (to marry their daughters), – the wives of your sons who (spring) from your own loins, and two sisters in wedlock at the same time, except for what has already passed; verily, Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful [4:24] Also (forbidden are) women already married, except those (slaves) whom your right hands possess. Thus has Allâh ordained for you. All others are lawful, provided you seek (them in marriage) with Mahr (bridal-money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage) from your property, desiring chastity, not committing illegal sexual intercourse, so with those of whom you have enjoyed sexual relations, give them their Mahr as prescribed; but if after a Mahr is prescribed, you agree mutually (to give more), there is no sin on you. Surely, Allâh is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.

[4:128] If a woman senses oppression (contempt, ill treatment) or evasion (desertion) from her husband, the couple shall mutually try to reconcile (settle) their differences, for conciliation (settlement) is best for them. Selfishness (greed, stinginess) is a human trait (present in human souls), so if you do good and heedful (lead a righteous life), God is fully Cognizant (Expertly Informed) of everything you do [4:129] You will never be able to be equitable in dealing with more than one wife, no matter how hard you try (or strive to do so). Therefore, do not be so biased as to leave one of them hanging (neither enjoying marriage, nor left to marry someone else). If you correct this situation and maintain righteousness, God is Forgiver, Most Merciful [4:130] If the couple must decide to part (do separate), God will enrich (provide) for each of them from His bounties (abundance). God is Bounteous, Most Wise.

[24.3] The adulterer shall not marry except (save) an adulteress or an idolatress, and the adulteress none shall marry except (save) an adulterer or an idolater (a polytheist), all that is forbidden unto believers.

[24:26] The bad (vile) women for the bad (vile) men, and the bad (vile)  men for the bad (vile) women, and the virtuous (good) women for the virtuous (good) men, and the virtuous (good) men for the virtuous (good) women. The latter are innocent of such accusations. They have attained forgiveness and a generous reward.

[33:49] O you who believe, if you married believing women, then divorced them before you have touched them (having intercourse with them), they do not owe you any waiting interim (before marrying another man). You shall provide for them (compensate them equitably), and let them go amicably (give them a gracious release).

[36.36] Glory be to Him Who created all the sexual pairs, of that which the earth grow, and of themselves, and of that which they know not.

[65:1] O you prophet, when you people divorce the women, you shall ensure that a divorce interim is fulfilled. You shall measure such an interim precisely. You shall reverence God your Lord. Do not evict them from their homes, nor shall you make life miserable for them, to force them to leave on their own, unless they commit a proven lewdness (adultery). These are God ‘s laws. Anyone who transgresses God ‘s laws commits an injustice against himself. You never know; maybe God wills something good to come out of this.

[65:2] Once the interim is fulfilled, you may reconcile with them equitably, or go through with the separation equitably. You shall have two equitable witnesses from among you and give upright testimony (witness) before God. This is to enlighten those who believe in God and the Last Day. Anyone who reverences God, He will create an exit (appoint a way out) for him.

On Nobel Women in Islam;

 [3:35] The wife of Emran said, “My Lord, I have pledged to You what is in my womb (dedicated the baby in my belly to You), totally, so accept from me. You are Hearer, Omniscient.” [3:36] When she gave birth to her, she said, “My Lord, I have given birth to a female”, God was fully aware of what she bore (delivered), the male is not the same as the female. “And I have named her Mary, and I invoke Your protection (seek refuge in You) for her and her descendants from the rejected (expelled) devil.” [3:37] Her Lord accepted her gracious acceptance, and brought her up (caused her to grow up) a gracious upbringing, and put her in the care (under the guardianship) of Zachariah. Whenever Zachariah entered her sanctuary (prayer chamber) he found provisions with her. He would ask, “Mary, where did you get this from?” She would say, “It is from God. God provides for whomever He chooses, without limits (account).”

[3:42] The angels said, “O Mary, God has chosen you and purified you. He has chosen you from all the women (chosen you above the women of the World).

[12:32] She said, “This is the one whom you blamed me of (for falling in love with). I did indeed try to seduce him, and he refused. Unless he does what I order him to do, he will surely go to prison, and will be debased.” (Note: the wife of Al-Aziz is quoted as saying here) [12:33] He (Prophet Yusuf) said, “My Lord, the prison is more to my liking than that to which they invite me (better than giving in to them). Unless You divert their scheming from me (if You do not avert from me their plan), I might incline toward them (may desire them) and behave like the ignorant ones (and thus be ignorant).”

[12:52] “I hope that he will realize that I never betrayed him in his absence, for God does not guide (bless) the schemes of the betrayers”. (Note: the wife of Al-Aziz is quoted as saying here) [12:53] “I do not claim innocence for myself (I do not acquit myself). The self is an advocate of vice (the self does order bad deeds), except for those who have attained mercy from my Lord. My Lord is Forgiver, Most Merciful.” (Note: the wife of Al-Aziz quote continued here).

[27:44] She (the queen) was told, “Go inside the palace.” When she saw its interior, she thought it was a pool of water, and she (pulled up her dress,) exposing her legs (to wade through). He (Solomon) said, “This interior is paved (made) of crystal.” She said, “My Lord, I have wronged my soul (myself). I now submit with Solomon to God, Lord of the worlds (universe).”

[28:7] We inspired Moses’ mother: “Nurse (suckle) him, and when you fear for his life, throw him into the river without fear or grief. We will return him to you, and will make him one of Our messengers.”

[66:11] And God cites (set forth) as an example of those who believed, the wife of Pharaoh. She said, “My Lord, build a home for me (at near You) in Paradise, and save me from Pharaoh and his work; save me from the transgressing people.”

On Divorce;

[2:228] The divorced women shall wait three menstruations (before marrying another man). It is not lawful for them to conceal what God creates in their wombs, if they believe in God and the Last Day. The husband’s wishes shall supersede the wife’s wishes in case of pregnancy, if he wants to remarry her. The women have rights, as well as obligations, equitably. Thus, the man’s wishes prevail (in responsibility and in case of pregnancy). God is Almighty, Most Wise.

 [2:234] Those who die and leave wives, their widows shall wait four months and ten days (before they remarry). Once they fulfil their interim, you commit no error by letting them do whatever righteous matters they wish to do. God is fully Cognizant of everything you do.

[2:240] Those who die and leave wives, a will shall provide their wives with support for a year, provided they stay within the same household. If they leave, you commit no sin by letting them do whatever they wish, so long as righteousness is maintained. God is Almighty, Most Wise.

On Adultery;

[24.6] As for those who accuse their wives (spouses) but have no witnesses except themselves; let the witness of one of them be the equivalent of four witnesses if he testify four testimonies (taking oath) by God that he is of those who speak the truth (solemnly telling the truth) [24.7] The fifth (oath) invoking the curse of God on him if he is of those who is telling a lie [24:8] Her punishment shall be averted (she shall be considered innocent) if she swears (bear witness) by God four times that he is a liar (what he said is indeed false) [24.9] The fifth (oath) that the wrath of God be upon her if he spoke (was telling) the truth[24:10] This is God ‘s grace and mercy towards you. God is Redeemer (Clement), Most Wise.

[24:26] The bad (vile) women for the bad (vile) men, and the bad (vile)  men for the bad (vile) women, and the virtuous (good) women for the virtuous (good) men, and the virtuous (good) men for the virtuous (good) women. The latter are innocent of such accusations. They have attained forgiveness and a generous reward.

[25:68] They never implore beside God any other god, nor do they kill any one (as such life) that God has made sacred except in the course of justice. Nor do they commit fornication (adultery). Those who commit these offenses will meet penalties.

On Incest;

[33:37] And when you said to him to whom God had shown favour, and to whom you [too] had shown favour. ‘Retain your wife for yourself and fear God’. But you had hidden in your heart what God was to disclose, and you feared people, though God is worthier that you should fear Him. So when Zayd had fulfilled whatever need he had of her, We joined her in marriage to you so that there may not be any restriction for the believers in respect of the wives of their adopted sons, when the latter have fulfilled whatever wish they have of them. And God’s commandment is bound to be realised. (Note: Zayd was the adopted son of Prophet Mohammad).

On Islam Openness on Sexual Pleasures;

[4:1] O people, observe your Lord; the One who created you from one being (one soul), and created from it its mate, then spread from the two many men and women. You shall regard God, by whom you ask one another (by whom you are enquiring about), and regard the parents. God is watching over you.

[25:54] He is the One who created from water a human being, then made him reproduce forefathers and siblings (through marriage and mating). Your Lord is Omnipotent.

[30:21] Among His proofs is that He created for you spouses from among yourselves, to tranquil and content with her, and He placed in-between yourselves love and care. In this, there are signs for people who think.

[36.36] Glory be to Him Who created all the sexual pairs, of that which the earth grow, and of themselves, and of that which they know not.

[49:13] O people, We created you from male and female, and rendered (made) you distinct peoples (nations) and tribes, that you may recognize one another (know each other). The best among you in the sight of God is the most righteous. God is Omniscient, Cognizant.

[51.49] and of everything we created a pair, that you may reflect.

On Man-Man Sex;

[7:80]And Lot when he said to his people, ‘Do you commit abomination, such as no one in all the worlds ever committed before you? [7:81] Do you come lustfully to men instead of women? Nay, you are a wanton folk’ [7:82] And the response of his people was only that they said, ‘Expel them from your city. Surely they are folk who would be pure!’ [7:83] So We delivered him and his family, except his wife: she was of those who stayed behind [7:84] And We rained upon them a rain. So behold what was the end of the sinners!

[11.78] His people came rushing at him (hastening to him), and before that they were committing evil deeds (sinful acts). He said, “O my people, it would be purer for you, if you instead take my daughters (to marry). You shall reverence God; do not disgrace (embarrass) me with my guests. Have you not one reasonable (right-thinking) man among you?” [11:79] They said, “You know well that we have no claim (no need) for your daughters; and you (indeed) know exactly what we want.” [11:80] He said, “If only I had against you some power (strength) or could take refuge in a strong support (a powerful ally).” [11:81] (The angels) said, “O Lot, we are your Lord’s messengers, and these people cannot touch (reach) you. You shall leave with your family during a portion of the night, and let not anyone of you look back, except your wife; she is condemned (will be struck) along with those who are condemned. Their appointed time is the morning. Is not the morning near (soon enough)?” [11:82] When our command (judgment) came, We made the highest part (of the village) its lowest (turned it upside down), and We showered (rained) it with stones of layered hard clay (hard, devastating rocks) [11:83] (Such rocks) were designated by your Lord and it was not far away from (close to) the transgressors (wrong-doers).

[15:61] The messengers went to Lot’s town [15:62] He said, “You are unknown people.” [15:63] They said, “We bring to you what they have been doubting [15:64] “We bring to you the truth; we are truthful [15:65] “You shall take your family during the night. Stay behind them, and make sure that none of you looks back. Go straight as commanded.” [15:66] We delivered to him this command: those people are to be annihilated in the morning [15:67] The people of the city came joyfully [15:68] He said, “These are my guests; do not embarrass me [15:69] “Fear God, and do not shame me.” [15:70] They said, “Did we not enjoin you from contacting anyone?” [15:71] He said, “Here are my daughters, if you must.” [15:72] But, alas, they were totally blinded by their lust [15:73] Consequently, the disaster struck them in the morning [15:74] We turned it upside down, and showered them with devastating rocks [15:75] This is a lesson for those who possess intelligence.

[21:74] As for Lot, we granted him wisdom (judgment) and knowledge, and we saved him from the community that practiced (did) abominations; they were wicked (lewd) and (folk) of evil people.

[26.162] [Lot said] I am to you a faithful apostle [26:165] “Do you approach males (to have sex with) from among the people?” [26.166] “and leave (forsake) what your Lord has created for you of your wives? Nay, but you are people who transgress.” [26:167] They said, “Unless you refrain, O Lot, you will be banished (expelled).” [26:168] He said, “I deplore your actions.” [26:169]  “My Lord, save me and my family (my household) from their works (from their doings).” [26:170] We saved him and all his family (all of his household) [26:171] But not an old woman; she was doomed (among those who stayed behind) [26:172] We then (afterwards) destroyed the others [26:173] We showered (rained on) them with a miserable shower; what a terrible (dreadful) shower for those who had been warned! [26:174] This should be a lesson, and most them were not believers.

[27:54] Lot said to his people, “How could you commit such an abomination, publicly (knowingly), while you see? [27:55] “You practice sex with (purse lust from) the men, lustfully, instead of the women. Indeed, you are ignorant people (acting senselessly).” [27:56] The only response from his people was their saying, “Banish Lot’s family from your village; they are people who wish to be pure.” [27.57] Then We saved him and his family (household) except his wife; We destined her to be of those who stayed behind (counted her among the doomed) [27. 58] And We rained upon them a rain; dreadful (miserable) is the rain of those who have been warned.

[29:28]  Lot said to his people, “You commit such an abomination; no one previously in the world has ever done it before you.” [29.29] You come (in lust) to men and stop folks on the highway (commit highway robbery); and conduct in your assembly sin (vice). The only response from his people was to bring us God’s torment (retribution) if you are among those who speak the truth (if you are truthful) [29:30]  He said, “My Lord, grant me victory over these wicked (corrupt) people.”

Sex in reference to The Quran

By A Taha, London, United Kingdom

Updated 25 November 2015

Sex in Islam is best understood in its various aspects and perspectives through, in the first place, citations to the Quran. There are sufficient numbers of Ayahs in the Quran that are clear and expressively direct on all vital issues. The Quran confirms Prophet Mohammad as the first role model for every Muslim [see Ayahs Nos. 6.162-163 shown below]. His conduct of his life and what he said and did is the ideal model to follow for blessed life, including happy marriage. There are many books of Hadeeth (Prophet Mohammad actions or statements), vast number of voluminous publications that have been accumulated over centuries of works by outstanding scholars in many schools of thought. Yet, it remains vital for every Muslim, man and woman, irrespective of sect and school of thought to carefully listen to the Quranic Ayahs on sex, sexuality and sexual behaviours. After all, the key word in the Quran on this matter is “Nikah” (Arabic: نكاح ) which literally means “sexual intercourse”. Practical and domestic problems, including forced marriages, incest, dysfunctional sexual life, honour killings, and lesbianism stigma would be successfully mitigated and may not even arise if one refers to, understand and truly comply with what is clearly outlined in the Quran.

The Quran

Muslims believe the Quran is the words of The Creator, GOD (in Arabic: Allah), and not a document authored by a human (or humans) or angles or any other than The Creator Himself (GOD). The Quran was read by The Creator’s Angel messenger (Gabriel) directly to The Creator’s human messenger (Prophet Muhammad) over a period of 23 years nearly 14 centuries ago. Since then people memorize the Quran; generation after generation.

It is not possible to make precise translation of the Quran from the original Arabic; but the meanings of the words are translated from Arabic to over 40 of World languages. Though each translation effort aims to deliver the original Arabic words’ meaning or interpretation thereof; such effort remains unable to provide the presence, beauty, fullness, coherence, depth and perfection of the Quran when recited in original Arabic. Therefore, it is recommended to refer to the Quran in the original Arabic language and if such is not possible then one should consult more than one translation. There are many attempts to translate the Quran to English.

The Quran Muslims believe the Quran is the words of The Creator, God (in Arabic: Allah), and not a document authored by a human (or humans) or angles or any other than The Creator Himself (God). The Quran was read by The Creator’s Angel messenger (Gabriel) directly to The Creator’s human messenger (Prophet Muhammad) over a period of 23 years nearly 14 centuries ago. Since then people memorize the Quran; generation after generation. In today’s printed form on paper the Quran is normally contained in a single book of around 600 pages widely available in recorded voice, video, paper and on the internet. The Quran contains 114 Surah each constitutes a number of Ayahs .

The Quran
In today’s printed form on paper the Quran is normally contained in a single book of around 600 pages widely available in recorded voice, video, paper and on the internet. The Quran contains 114 Surah each constitutes a number of Ayahs .

 Ignorance and Knowledge

The Arabic word “Jaheleyah ” refers to the era of “ignorance” prior to the advent of Islam in Arabia. In this era of ignorance, marriage was a “status” rather than a fair “contract”. Under such status men would disregard a woman view in respect of her own marriage or own divorce; a man would inherit his father wives (including his own mother!) and a man could sell or bury his own new-born daughter alive! All such “statuary” practices were abolished by the arrival of Islam.

Judgment Day

The meaning of the Arabic word “Deen” is “way of life” and the English word “religion” is therefore considered by Muslims insufficient to describe Islam. Individual’s way of life in submission to the will of GOD encompasses the Arabic phrase “Deen al Islam”.

Muslims believe in “personal responsibility” and do not believe in “vicarious atonement”. In Christianity, atonement refers to the forgiving or pardoning of sin through the “death and resurrection” of Jesus. To atone means to make amends (to repair a wrong done) and mankind, according to Christians, are  sinners and cannot atone for themselves. Throughout the centuries, Christians have used different metaphors and given differing explanations of the atonement to express how the atonement might work.

The Quran repeatedly stresses the message to mankind that “each person” is responsible for his or her own actions and that on Judgment Day everyone will be resurrected and each human will individually have to answer directly to GOD for every word, thought and deed.

Jihad

The Arabic word “Jihad “, which is frequently used in the Quran, means “to strive” or “to struggle” and it does not mean “holy war” which is in Arabic “Harb Muqadasa-  حرب  مقدسه ” a phrase not found in the Quran.

The Arabic word “Jihad “ refers to three basic struggles:

(1) Individual’s inner struggle to submit their will to the will of GOD,

(2) Physical struggle against persecution and oppression, and

(3) Struggle to build a robust corruption-free society.

Sex is naturally a prime component in each of these three struggles and therefore a thorough and deep understanding of sexual acts, guidelines and regulations is critical for every Muslim man and women.

 Celibacy 

GOD states in the Quran that He did not ordain Celibacy (on mankind) but people (monks) invented it [57.27] and the Quran confirms that previous Prophets (beginning with Adam) have married and produced children [2.35, 13.38].

Chastity and Marriage Importance

GOD calls for chastity [24.33, 33.35] and gave the ultimate example of chastity in the person of Virgin Mary mother of Jesus [19.20-21, 21.91].

Muslim youths are expected to remain chaste. Prophet Yusuf opted to choose jail rather than violate his chastity even under extreme seductive pressures [12.32-33].

GOD calls upon Muslim men to get married to believing women including servants (slaves) [4.25]. Note that said Ayah (24.33] is also preceded by [24.32] which calls for single Muslims to marry and not refrain from marriage even in poverty. At the same time, slander and false accusations against believing chaste women is strongly deplored [24.33].

Marital Home in Islam

GOD presents comprehensive guidelines and rules on the setting out of a Muslim household [see for example; 4.19-22, 4.34-35, and 4.128-130].

Nikah Contract

Marriage in Islam is a contract called “Nikah”, which means “sexual intercourse” literary, and it is a sign of GOD’s Mercy that should bring peace and tranquillity to the husband and the wife [30.21].

Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali (1058-1111), the teacher at Baghdad’s Nizamia College and the most influential thinker of that Classical era,  abruptly left his position and spent a decade in or between Damascus, Makka, Madina, and Jerusalem. During this period, he wrote his master-piece “Revivification of the Religious (Deen) Learnings” (in Arabic: Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Din), a grand work of forty books (including one on marriage), then returned to teaching. He left a legacy of works in jurisprudence, philosophy, theology, and Sufism.

Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali (1058-1111), the teacher at Baghdad’s Nizamia College and the most influential thinker of that Classical era, abruptly left his position and spent a decade in or between Damascus, Makka, Madina, and Jerusalem. During this period, he wrote his master-piece “Revivification of the Religious (Deen) Learnings” (in Arabic: Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Din), a grand work of forty books (including one on marriage), then returned to teaching. He left a legacy of works in jurisprudence, philosophy, theology, and Sufism. The above image is an artist impression on how Al Gazali might have looked like more than 900 years ago.

Marriage by Nickah contract normally includes;

• Spouse selection; proposal from the man (or the woman) and acceptance by the woman (or the man) [2.221, 2.235, 4.3, 4.6, 4.22-25, 24.3, 24.26, 24.32-33].

• Permission from the woman guardians [4.25].

• Payment of a dowry from the man to the woman [4.4].

• Man’s acceptance of his position as protector, maintainer and supporter of the family as the head of the household [4.34-35].

• Declaration of compliance with the Quran, including but not limited to requirements of divorce should it occur in future [2.231-237, 2.241, 33.49, and 65.1-2].

The man and the woman each has the right to declare their own specific conditions (if any) and the Nickah contract is then written in the presence of at least two witnesses.

Marriage in Islam is a unique contract. GOD refers to it in the Quran using powerful phrases and words such as “Solemn Covenant” that have serious consequences if disregarded [4.21]. Note that GOD uses the same phrase for the agreement made between GOD and the Prophets before granting them the responsibility of Prophet-hood [33.7].

Blessed Marriage

The Quran tells that the Angels glorify and praise GOD, and believe in Him, and they ask forgiveness for those who believe and repent [40.7] and appeal to GOD to admit them into Paradise and the righteous among their parents, spouses, and children [40.8] and protect them from falling into sin on Judgment Day [40.9].

So a blessed marriage, bearing in mind [63.9, 66.6] and thanking GOD for it in this life would not end in it, but it is greatly rewarded in the permanent life here after. The successful [43.69] will be told to enter Paradise, together with their spouses, and rejoice [43.70].

Nobel Women in Islam

GOD consistently reminds man of the woman rights, pursues the woman protection and highlights the fact that some of the most noble among mankind are women.

In The Quran, in addition to a Surah named Women [4] and another named Divorce [65] there is a Surah named Mary (the mother of Jesus) [19] and another named The Pleading Woman (after a women who was complaining to GOD concerning her husband) [58].

The Quran addresses Mary, by name, as the woman whom GOD purified among all women [3.42] and also mentions, as those among the most noble among mankind;

  • Moses mother who obeyed GOD and cast Moses the infant into the river without sadness or fear [28.7],
  • Wife of Pharaoh who adopted Moses [66.11],
  • Wife of Imran mother of Mary [3.35-37],
  • Queen of Yemen who submitted to Islam with Prophet Suleiman [27.44], and
  • Even the wife of Al-Aziz who tried to seduce Prophet Yusuf and repented [12.32-33, 12.52-53].

Slander

Charles le Gai Eaton (1921 – 2010) was a British diplomat, writer and Islamic scholar.  Eaton was educated at Cambridge, where he studied history. Later he became consultant to the Islamic Cultural Centre at Regent's Park Mosque in London for over two decades. He recalled the story of slander against Aisha (Prophet Mohammad wife) in his book “Islam and the Destiny of Man “, first published in 1985, ISBN 0-04-297047-4, pages 85-86.

Charles le Gai Eaton (1921 – 2010) was a British diplomat, writer and Islamic scholar. Eaton was educated at Cambridge, where he studied history. Later he became consultant to the Islamic Cultural Centre at Regent’s Park Mosque in London for over two decades. He recalled the story of slander against Aisha (Prophet Mohammad wife) in his book “Islam and the Destiny of Man “, first published in 1985, ISBN 0-04-297047-4, pages 85-86.

GOD repeatedly warned Muslims in the Quran against the spread of immorality as well as the spread of false accusations of immorality.

Aisha, the Prophet’s wife, was looking for her lost necklace whilst their army caravan halted briefly in the desert then moved on without her by error. A young man following in the rear-guard discovered her asleep on the sand. Losing no time he escorted and re-united her with the main body of the caravan. Tongues wagged and those who resented her or her father were quick to voice their suspicions.

A month passed, it was a terrible situation for Aisha as she was unable to prove a negative.

GOD intervened in the matter and exonerated her and condemned her detractors [24.11-20]. With this came verses of legislation concerning accusations of adultery which have remained valid for ever after.

Best Husband

Prophet Mohammad carried out domestic chores; he cooked, cleaned and even sewed in the home. Prophet Muhammad once said: “The best of men are those who are good to their wives”.

Muslims are expected to engage in marriage having a comprehensive understanding of the rights and obligations of the Islamic marriage contract.

GOD gives permission for men to have sex with their wife(s) in Ramadan (at night after breaking the fast), but not while they keep to the mosques [2.187].

Also, GOD calls for husbands to detach from their wives during Menstruation and only resume sex after they are cleansed from it [2.222].

A Muslim husband can kiss his wife before going out for prayer (without repeating ablution) or even when fasting as it has been reported that Prophet Mohammad did so.

Several reports in the Media indicate Egypt's Grand (from 2003-2013)  Mufti  Dr. Ali Gomaa  announced that "travellers marriages,” known in Arabic as “Nikah Mesyar “, are legitimate unless banned by the state. However, it was also reported Saudi  Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan (b. 1933) advised against it whilst Saudi Sheikh Adel Salim Al Kelbani approved a version of it.

Several reports in the Media indicate Egypt’s Grand (from 2003-2013) Mufti Dr. Ali Gomaa announced that “travellers marriages,” known in Arabic as “Nikah Mesyar “, are legitimate unless banned by the state. However, it was also reported Saudi Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan (b. 1933) advised against it whilst Saudi Sheikh Adel Salim Al Kelbani approved a version of it.

Around Nickah Contract

Historically, some Muslims pursued modifications to the Nikah contract for various reasons and objectives including access to sex and companionship.

These modifications often focus on mutual agreement between the man and the woman that amounts to surrendering certain marital rights of the Nikah contract.

The same is practiced now in our time under various titles;

• Travel Marriage (Misyar) mostly takes place in The Gulf states; through which a husband surrenders his right to regular access (as the couple do not normally live together) and the wife surrenders her right to housing, maintenance expenditure and the equal division of nights between wives in cases of polygyny.

• Pleasure Marriage ( Mut‘ah) predominantly practiced in Iran (also in Lebanon, UK, and other countries); it has a time limit, again certain rights are surrendered such as the couple do not inherit from each other, the man usually is not responsible for the economic welfare of the woman and she may leave her home at her own discretion.

• Confidential Marriage (‘Urfi) mostly takes place in Egypt, often secretly, without the public approval of the bride’s guardians, even though the contract is officiated by a religious cleric and sometimes by a state representative.

Among positive consequences are access to sex, motherhood, companionship and escape from spinsterhood.

Among negative consequences are fatherless children and sudden homelessness for involved women.

Ali al-Sistani (b. 1930), prominent Shia ceric in Iraq, wrote on his web site guidelines on Mutah Marriage (Temporary Marriage).

Ali al-Sistani (b. 1930), prominent Shia ceric in Iraq, wrote on his web site guidelines on Mutah Marriage (Temporary Marriage).

Scholars have debated such modifications for many years and there are some well-known scholars on both sides of the debate (for and against).

Whilst scholars continue their debate, every Muslim should bear in mind  all the obstacles placed in the Quran by God on the man before he can divorce his wife such as : wait 4 months cooling period before divorce [2:226], seek a council from the 2 families [4:35], give the wife a divorce compensation [2:241], not expel the wife from the marriage home [65:1], all these obstacles are there to establish the fact that God regards marriage as a long lasting bond under a “Solemn Covenant”;  see sub-title “Divorce” below.

Marriageable Age

It is critical to note that Chapter 65 in the Quran is about Divorce and the verse [65.4] words “those who have not menstruated” do not speak of girls who have not yet reached puberty as some scholars have suggested, but they speak of divorced women of reproductive age who do not menstruate. This is a medical condition in women known as Amenorrhoea which is defined as “the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age”.

Boys and girls before puberty are not yet at reproductive age. GOD ties the minimum age of marriage (for male and female) to reaching puberty in Surah 4 in the Quran and not to reaching a specific number of years of age since puberty attainment differ from one individual to another.

In [4.6], GOD does not specify the exact age for the marriage of a man or woman; instead GOD defines this age as that at which boys or girls attain “Nikah” status (or puberty).

Puberty is defined as ” the process of physical changes through which a child’s body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction to enable fertilization”. In other words, a man should not consummate marriage with his young bride until she is physically able to bear intercourse (and capable of getting pregnant).

Marriageable age naturally varies from one era, place and environment to another. But, in all cases, eras and environments a person must reach “Nickah” status to be married.

Polygyny

GOD, in the Quran [4.3], allows Polygyny (the marriage of one man to more than one woman), with the requirement that the man is able and willing to partition his time and wealth fairly among the respective wives. Under this Ayah; sex should take place within the framework of Nikah contract which can also extend to other forms of a contractual relationship (such as that between the husband and one or more women captured in war or slave women in the days when that were practised and warranted).

A historical account in Sahih al-Bukhari stipulates the Ayah [4.3] was revealed after the Battle of Uhud. Many Muslim men were killed in this battel, leaving widows and orphans and hence the permission of Polygyny was also timely.

However, benefits of Polygyny cannot be denied in many other situations, for example if the single wife is barren or falls seriously ill.

GOD does not make Polygyny mandatory but a choice (to the man) with a challenge and a caution that demands fairness of the husband to all of his wives [4.129].

Polygyny has been practiced by mankind since ancient times. One recent interesting citation is that in India the percentage of polygamous marriages between the years 1951 and 1961 was among Hindus (5.06%) more than among Muslims (4.31%) despite it is being made illegal (by the State) for Hindus to have multiple wives.

In Islam, polyandry (the marriage of one woman to more than one man) is not allowed.

Divorce

Divorce in Islam has been thoroughly addressed in the Quran. Divorce should only be considered as a last resort after attempts of waiting time [2.226], reconciliation [2.228] efforts, and mediation [4.35] till the invoking of the “third divorce pronouncement” by the husband [2.229-230].

When and if divorce has to and does happen [2.227] the interests of the man [2.228] and the women [2.229] have to be thought of and approached carefully [65.1-2].

A deterrent is put in place for the man to bear in mind before he finally announces his “third divorce pronouncement” [2.230].

Then two matters become of paramount importance and must be attended equitably: (1) Divorced women interests [2.231-232, 2.235-237, 2.241, 33.49, and 65.1-2], and (2) Protection of children [2.233].

Similarly interests of widowed women have to be protected [2.234, 2.240].

Adultery (Zina) 

The Arabic word “Zina” refers to adultery (in the case of a married person) and fornication (in the case of an unmarried person). GOD prohibits adultery [17.32, 24.2-10, and 25.68].

However, some Jurists have taken the position that the 100 lashes punishment prescribed in [24.2] is for fornicators who have never been married. If a person (man or woman) was ever married before committing the crime of Zina sin, he or she is to be punished by stoning to death (subject to confession or evidence of four witnesses who saw the intercourse act).

Muslims must bear in mind that the Quran prescribe punishment after conviction as 100 lashes [24.2] and there is no reference in the Quran for stoning to death. Furthermore, the Quran prescribe 80 lashes [24.4] for the accusers if they fail to provide reputable four males who have definitely witnessed the adultery act. False accusations are not tolerated in the Quran.

Incest

GOD prohibits incest marriage and expressively outlines a comprehensive list of the women among relatives and other close associates with whom sex is forbidden [4.23-24].

It is interesting to note that a Muslim man can marry a girl who is his first cousin (from father side or mother side), but cannot marry any girl who breast fed from a woman (even if this woman is not his mother) who breast fed him when they were infants. Also, a Muslim man can marry the divorcee of his adopted son [33.37] unless she is one of those listed in [4.23-24] and cannot marry any women who were previously married to his father [4.22].

Islam Openness on Sexual Pleasures

GOD reminds Muslims that He created mankind, animals and plants of sexual pairs [4.1, 16.72, 25.54, 30.21, 36.36, 49.13, 51.49, and 53.45-46].

Sex is part of mankind Fitrah (mankind natural instincts) and hence sex in Islam, the religion of natural instincts, is strongly encouraged and must not be suppressed. Islam has an open and playful approach to sex so long as it is within marriage, free of lewdness, fornication and adultery [2.187, 2.223, 3.14, 4.3, 4.15, 4.23, 4.25, 5.87, 17.32, 24.26, 24.32, and 25.74].

Today, Muslims (men and women) have a tendency to shy away from frank sexual discussions. The arrival of Islam encouraged open and unembarrassed discussion concerning sex, sexual pleasure and in particular women’s pleasure. This openness has been lost over time, and all mention of sex has become taboo. It is not Islam but Muslims who have boxed themselves in. Today, in many societies, sex has been a difficult topic to talk about publicly among the Muslims. This topic is always shoved aside and not dealt with in an honest manner.

While most Islamic societies go to great lengths to insure all things sex-related remain taboo, sex between a married man and woman is, by Islamic jurisprudence, allowed to be sensual and uninhibited. Imam Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali (died in 1111) cited a Hadeeth which advises the Muslim husband to engage in acts that enable his wife to achieve orgasm first.

He was also cited to have said Ibn Umar (one of the scholarly Companion to the Prophet) used to break his fast with sexual intercourse before eating and that after the death of Fatima, her husband Ali remarried in seven days.

Today, men should at least be expected to have taken the time and effort to learn the techniques (not from porn, but from proper educational sources) while investing in the marital relationship and making their wives feel valuable. Both husband and wife should focus on increasing their knowledge, skills and emotional know-how to mutually enjoy their sexual experience.

Foreplay

GOD (strongly) calls for the practice of foreplay [2.223] and this call is echoed by the Prophet Hadeeth.

Foreplay is considered to include flirting outside the bedroom, talking, kissing, touching, massage, hugging, fondling, undressing, petting, and anything to get in the mood and reach full arousal including other acts some of which are discussed here.

Masturbation

Ahmad Al-Kubaisi  (b. 1934), an Iraqi scholar based in UAE, who  is the head of Sharia Studies at UAE University and Baghdad University and leads prayers at the state mosque of Abu Dhabi , also spoke on TV (2013-14) regarding Oral Sex as being permissible citing Muhammad Al-Qurtubi (1214-1273) the scholar who was born in Cordoba, Spain.

Ahmad Al-Kubaisi (b. 1934), an Iraqi scholar based in UAE, who is the head of Sharia Studies at UAE University and Baghdad University and leads prayers at the state mosque of Abu Dhabi , also spoke on TV (2013-14) regarding Oral Sex as being permissible citing Muhammad Al-Qurtubi (1214-1273) the scholar who was born in Cordoba, Spain.

Scholars debated this subject over the centuries; a school of thought appears to have taken the position that if a person masturbates with the intention of saving himself from committing sin (such as adultery) it will not be a sin and if he does it with the intention of enjoyment he will be a sinner. They recommend that he does good deeds as there is in Islam “no doubt the virtues wipe away the sins” [11.114].

Men may enjoy masturbating physically, but some may find it leaving them emotionally empty, depressed or lonely for the real thing or companionship.

A Muslim should perhaps resist this temptation as he or she who masturbates might, according to some scholars, be  considered among “those who crave something” beyond that specified in [23.5-7] , but one must bear in mind the Quran does not mention masturbation.

It has been cited that it is lawful (according to Hanbali school) for a husband to achieve ejaculation by his wife masturbating him, and by rubbing his penis between her thighs or breasts.

Oral Sex

The Quran and the Hadeeth do not mention and thus do not prohibit Oral Sex between husband and wife.

Oral sex is the use of the mouth or the tongue to stimulate another person’s genitals (oral stimulation of the male organ is called “fellatio” and oral stimulation of the female genital is known as “cunnilingus”).

Oral Sex covers a wide range of activities, from simply kissing the genitalia to the actual taking in and swallowing of sexual fluids. Man’s semen is not considered impure (or unclean) according to the Shäfi scholars, contrary to the Hanafï scholars, but both seem to agree swallowing of sexual fluids should not be permissible.

This subject has also been a matter of debate for centuries.

Yusuf al-Qaradawi (b. 1926), an Egyptian scholar based in Qatar, is the author of some 80 books. Among his most famous works are “The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam” and “Fiqh al-Zakat”. He released statements on Oral Sex (cited in this Article) and expressed opposition to female genital mutilation (FGM).

Yusuf al-Qaradawi (b. 1926), an Egyptian scholar based in Qatar, is the author of some 80 books. Among his most famous works are “The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam” and “Fiqh al-Zakat”. He released statements on Oral Sex (cited in this Article) and expressed opposition to female genital mutilation (FGM).

Opinion of famous contemporary Egyptian scholar Yusuf Al-Qaradawi (based in Qatar) who most probably has studied this debate thoroughly has been quoted as follows “ … Muslim jurists are of the opinion that it is lawful for the husband to perform cunnilingus on his wife, or a wife to perform the similar act for her husband (fellatio) and there is no wrong in doing so. But if sucking leads to releasing semen, then it is blameworthy (or disliked), but there is no decisive evidence to make it unlawful, especially if the wife agrees with it or achieves orgasm by practicing it… Scholars maintain that the husband is allowed to enjoy his wife through any means of enjoyment except anal sex …”.

Woman-Woman Sex

Some Muslim women feel they are in a conundrum; one wrote “I am a Lesbian, I was born that way. But at the same time, I pray five times a day. I fast in Ramadan. I enjoy attending Islamic talks at uni (university)”.

Information, from surveys and blogs, provide indications on what and how two women perform in bed could have sex (without a man). Apparently, they may kiss, hug, suck, caress each other’s bodies for hours and caress each other’s nipples and/or clitorises, touch their vulvas with fingers and tongues, press and rub their bodies and vulvas or masturbate together, oral sex to one another (or at the same time with each other in the ’69’ position), making noises, licking (tongues, vaginas or breasts), scissoring (where they touch their genitals together and or rub them) and basically turn each other on such that one, both, or neither may orgasm once or several times.

A recent article about latest developments in same-sex marriages in the USA brought the announcement that a lesbian “throuple”, a new phrase referring to “three lesbians in a single relationship”, is awaiting their first born child! This article indicated some 300 LGBT allies now agreed on “there is no reason not to further re-shape ‘marriage’ to include multiple partner unions”, according to the McCormick Professor of Jurisprudence at Princeton University.

USA Supreme Court ruled by a 5-to-4 vote in June 2015 that the Constitution guarantees a right to same-sex marriage nationwide. President Obama called the Supreme Court decision "a victory for America." In the build up to this legislation, the New York Post, on April 23, reported that Doll, Kitten, and Brynn Young, three Massachusetts women in a polyamorous relationship, were expecting their first child after uniting in an August 2013 commitment ceremony. And after undergoing IVF with an unknown sperm donor, the youngest of the group is now with child. This action, as in the case of three men in polyamorous relationship, is not criminal offence in the USA where it is a criminal offence for a man to marry two women! One wonders on what President Barak Hossein Obama think of where the USA legal system heading with this?

USA Supreme Court ruled by a 5-to-4 vote in June 2015 that the Constitution guarantees a right to same-sex marriage nationwide. President Obama called the Supreme Court decision “a victory for America.” In the build up to this legislation, the New York Post, on April 23, reported that Doll, Kitten, and Brynn Young, three Massachusetts women in a polyamorous relationship, were expecting their first child after uniting in an August 2013 commitment ceremony. And after undergoing IVF with an unknown sperm donor, the youngest of the group is now with child. This action, as in the case of three men in polyamorous relationship, is not criminal offence in the USA where it is a criminal offence for a man to marry two women! One wonders on what President Barak Hossein Obama think of where the USA legal system heading with this?

On the other hand, another recent article based on data the researchers of which tracked 5,018 women and 4,191 men found women have a greater probability than men of being attracted to both men and women… and this indicates that women’s sexuality may be more flexible and adaptive than men’s.

To comprehend this subject, there are three Ayahs in the Quran that warrant close attention;

The first is [3.14], its opening statement is “Adorned (Beautified) for people (mankind) is the love of lusts (desires) from women, “. The key word here is “for people” which refers “to men and women” and not only “for men”!

The second Ayah [19:20], which provide decisive clarity to the ultimate purity and chastity of Mary the mother of Jesus uses another key word “human”, instead of “man”! This is significant, because it’s possible, at least according to British National Health Service (NHS) web site for a woman to get pregnant without having sexual intercourse, for example: if she (or her partner – male or female-) has semen or pre-ejaculate on fingers and touch her vagina.

These two Ayahs [3.14, 19.20] document the fact that women may also, naturally (by Fitra),  seek sexual pleasures from other women.

But, the Nikah contractual marital home, headed by a man, as the protector and maintainer, is the only legitimate institution in the Quran [4.3, 4.34, 4.128-129] inside which Muslims should satisfy all their sexuality needs (as well as other pleasures and inherent attractions including love, companionship, procreation, mercy, physical and emotional needs, desires and lusts).

Therefore, available choices for both parties (the Muslim man and the Muslim woman) are as follows;

Laura Poyneer is a white American convert to Islam who lives near Seattle, USA. By day, she works for a blogging company, while in the evenings she serves as Muslim ARC’s Membership Services Chair. She wrote Articles on Seattle mosques and, in September 2015, most notably, on her personal experiences in life as an “asexual” and Muslim.

Laura Poyneer is a white American convert to Islam who lives near Seattle, USA. By day, she works for a blogging company, while in the evenings she serves as Muslim ARC’s Membership Services Chair. She wrote Articles on Seattle mosques and, in September 2015, most notably, on her personal experiences in life as an “asexual” and Muslim.

• A Muslim man can have more than one wife providing he is able and willing to partition his time and wealth fairly among the respective wives; or otherwise he should marry only one wife [3.14, 4.3].

• A Muslim woman (lesbian or bisexual) can have a husband who is willing to accept her condition (supported by at least one of his existing wives who is willing to conduct lesbian acts with the new wife); or otherwise she has to supress her lesbianism and live with her husband in straight sex only which she is naturally capable of [3.14, 4.3].

Thus, a Muslim woman who wants to act on her lesbian desires may do so within the Nikah contract only, which by definition must be made with a man; in order to comply with the Nikah (sexual intercourse) requirement.

Note that women as well as men are allowed to put clauses and conditions up-front in their Nikah contract. Accordingly, as in the case of husband’s perusal of sexual intercourse with more than one wife within the confines of polygynous marriage, also lesbian acts may only be legitimate within the confines of polygynous marriage [4.3], inside the privacy of their own marital home, providing, of course, prior agreement of their husband and his concerned wife(s).

The third Ayah is [4.15]; it addresses married women who commit a lesbian act with other women who are not wives of their own husband marital household. This Ayah denotes such act as outrageous (lewd) and risks, upon conviction, the punishment by life-time imprisonment (house arrest).

Similarly, a Muslim “Asexual” woman could, if she wish, enter Nickah marital contract by declaring her conditions in advance for prior agreement by the man. Asexuality is defined as the lack of sexual attractions to anyone or low or absent interest in sexual activity.

Anal Sex with Wife

Majority of scholars indicate this action is not permissible citing a number of Hadeeths as reported in some reliable sources.

The minority, who say this act is permissible, do so as per an interpretation of the meaning of [2.223] based on a single Hadeeth reported by Bukhari. Majority of scholars (including Ibn al-Qayyim, al-Nasaa’I, Abu Dawood and others) do not agree to such interpretation.

Summary of Sahih Al Bukari

Muhammad Al-Bukhari (810-870) collected and compiled several thousand Hadiths in a volume known as “Sahih Al-Bukari”. He finished this work around 846 and its authenticity seems to have been accepted by other scholars of that era such as Ahmad ibn Hanbal (855), Yahya ibn Ma’in (847), and Ali ibn al-Madini (848). The “Sahih Al-Bukhari” ranks as the most authentic of the Kutub al-Sittah, the six books containing collections of hadith (sayings or acts of the prophet Muhammad).The next one is “Sahih Muslim”, collected by Muslim bin al-Hajjaj (d. 875 ).

Scholars maintain that if a man habitually does this or insists on having anal sex with his wife, she has the right to ask for a divorce, because he is considered causing harm by his action (also because one of the purposes of marriage cannot be achieved through this action).

Some scholars take the position that while anal sex is unlawful, it is lawful to place a finger on the anus as long as it does not penetrate.

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) 

There is no requirement in the Quran for female circumcision.

GOD in the Quran and Prophet Mohammad in Hadeeth allude to the nature of sexual relations as a means of attaining mutual satisfaction, closeness and compassion between husband and his wife(s).

Female circumcision is a habit practised long before Islam advent in Arabia (in many places including Russia and South America); it is still practiced in Sudan and to lesser extent in Egypt.

The practice of “clitoridectomy” can be a mild procedure involving the cutting off a tiny part from the outer portion of the clitoris (about 1mm to 3mm is snipped off the very top of the clitoris) which may not diminish sexual desire or result in other complications.

But, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) can be severe, much harsher and undignified and hence unacceptable in Islam because it results in a severe sexual debilitation of the woman and thus preventing her from achieving sexual fulfilment which is her right as a human and as a Muslim.

Man-Man Sex

This act is deplored repeatedly in the Quran through the Prophet Lot story concerning his people who practiced it [7.80-84, 11.78-83, 15.72-75, 21.74, 26.162-174, 27.54-58, and 29.28-30].

Scholars acknowledge that the Quran does not expressively prescribe specific punishment, beyond that in [4.16] for first-time offense.

Alfred Kinsey (1894 –1956) published, in 1948-1953, a scale which uses grading from 0, meaning exclusively heterosexual, to 6, meaning exclusively homosexual. An additional grade, listed as "X", was used to mean "no socio-sexual contacts or reactions" or asexual. In approximate numbers, it brands bi-sexual behaviours (3-5) in 12% of men and 5% of women and homosexual behaviours (6) in 10% of men and 2% of women, and some 1% are placed under X. Kinsey was himself bi-sexual. Jones, James H. (1997) wrote that Kinsey's sexual activity influenced his work, that he over-represented prisoners and prostitutes, classified some single people as "married" and that he included a disproportionate number of homosexual men, which may have distorted his studies. Nevertheless, this simplistic straight-line scale caught the public eye in the Western world. The Kinsey Reports, which led to a storm of controversy, are regarded by many as a precursor to the sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s.

Alfred Kinsey (1894 –1956) published, in 1948-1953, a scale which uses grading from 0, meaning exclusively heterosexual, to 6, meaning exclusively homosexual. An additional grade, listed as “X”, was used to mean “no socio-sexual contacts or reactions” or asexual. In approximate numbers, it brands bi-sexual behaviours (3-5) in 12% of men and 5% of women and homosexual behaviours (6) in 10% of men and 2% of women, and some 1% are placed under X. Kinsey was himself bi-sexual. Jones, James H. (1997) wrote that Kinsey’s sexual activity influenced his work, that he over-represented prisoners and prostitutes, classified some single people as “married” and that he included a disproportionate number of homosexual men, which may have distorted his studies. Nevertheless, this simplistic straight-line scale caught the public eye in the Western world. The Kinsey Reports, which led to a storm of controversy, are regarded by many as a precursor to the sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s.

However, many scholars have ruled that the punishment for this act should be the same as for adultery; that is one hundred whiplashes (stripes) for the man who has never married, and death by stoning for the married man (as mentioned above the Quran prescribe 100 lashes for adultery and the stoning to death is not in the Quran).

It should be noted that adultery (Zina) punishments are prescribed in the Quran upon the evidence of four reputable male witnesses.

Some commentators consider the levels of proof required by Islamic law are so high that if the rules are properly applied conviction is virtually impossible baring the conduct of adulterer’s sexual intercourse in the public arena.

In May 2009, the British newspaper The Guardian reported “None of the 500 British Muslims interviewed believed that homosexual acts were morally acceptable”.

Even self-identified progressives and moderates such as Imam Hamza Yusuf in the United States and Professor Tariq Ramadan in the UK consider homosexuality to be a grave sin.

It is reported that in 2010 a Saudi man was sentenced to 500 lashes and five years in jail for having sex with another man and that since the 2003 invasion of Iraq more than 700 people have been reportedly killed because of such acts.

It is also reported that an estimate of 4,000 homosexuals have been executed in Iran since that country’s revolution in 1979 as well as large-scale public executions of homosexuals in Afghanistan by the Taliban

In 2004, a paper published by Concerned Women for America (CWA) was titled “Born or Bred? Science Does Not Support the Claim That Homosexuality Is Genetic”.

Earlier, in 1995, Stanford University News Release indicated under “Biological basis of sexual orientation” that 3%-5% of men are homosexual (which is less than the previous estimate of 10% from a 1950s study by Kinsey).

Regardless of the opinion of biologists or statisticians, if there is such a minority among Muslim men  with such inclination they are expected to control themselves and keep clear from this act; otherwise they could face adverse consequences in this life and in the permanent life hereafter.

Conclusion

Sex is fantastic gift from GOD. The losers are those who abuse it. The winners are those who use it responsibly to maximize their pleasures and happiness;

• A Muslim husband can only have sex with his wife(s) [23.5-6]. Man-man sex is repeatedly deplored in the Quran [7.80-84, 11.78-83, 15.72-75, 21.74, 26.162-174, 27.54-58, and 29.28-30].

• A Muslim wife can only have sex with one man; her husband. Additionally, a Muslim wife may enjoy lesbian acts with her husband’s wives or bisexual acts with her husband and his wives providing husband and concerned wife(s) are in mutual agreement [3.14, 4.3].

• Bar anal intercourse and adultery, a Muslim marital home bonded by Nikah marital contract between husband and his wife(s) should enjoy and even indulge, within the privacy of their marital home, in limitless scope of husband-wife straight sexual acts (within their monogamous marriage) or husband-wives straight, lesbian and bisexual acts (within their polygamous marriage).

Any sexual activity (be it straight, lesbian or bisexual) outside Nikah marriage contract is prohibited on all Muslims, men and women.

Citations from The Quran

A total of about 140 Quran Ayahs (addressing sex or topics related to or associate with sex) have been cited in this Article. Ideally, the readers who know Arabic should refer directly to the original Quran in Arabic. This is because Quran translations to other languages have always been difficult, even though many attempts have already been made in the past.

Quran Complex in Medina published Translations of the Meanings of the Quran to 39 languages.. It was established in 1982-1984 by the government of Saudi Arabia..

Quran Complex in Medina published Translations of the Meanings of the Quran to 39 languages.. It was established in 1982-1984 by the government of Saudi Arabia..

Three decades ago, in 1982-84, a Quran Complex was established by Saudi Arabia government, named after King Fahd. This Complex outlines Quran translation difficulties to English language, and considers all translations from original Arabic to any other language are translations to the “meanings” or “interpretations” of the Quran. This Complex headings of own Quran translations states “Translations of the Meanings of the Quran”.

There are several well-known Quran translations to English which can be found on the internet or published in the form of books such as the following 10 translations by;

This Quran translation to English is by Yusuf Ali (1872 –1953) a British-Indian Islamic scholar. He died in London and is buried in England at the Muslim cemetery at Brookwood, Surrey (near Woking), not far from the burial place of Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall (1875 –1936) who was a Western Islamic scholar (a convert from Christianity) also noted for his translation of the Qur'an (1930) from Arabic to English.

This Quran translation to English is by Yusuf Ali (1872 –1953) a British-Indian Islamic scholar. He died in London and is buried in England at the Muslim cemetery at Brookwood, Surrey (near Woking), not far from the burial place of Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall (1875 –1936) who was a Western Islamic scholar (a convert from Christianity) also noted for his translation of the Qur’an (1930) from Arabic to English.

(1) Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought, Amman, Jordan, 2008.

(2) Quran Complex which was established in 1982-84 by Saudi Arabia government, named after King Fahd.

(3) Dr.  Mohammad Ghali (born in 1920) who was a Professor of Linguistics and Islamic Studies, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

(4) Muhammad Pickthall (1875-1936); he was a Western; a convert from Christianity.

(5) Mohammad Muhsin Khan (born in 1927). He is a contemporary author of Pashtun origin who completed this translation with Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali.

(6) Shakir: There is a controversy on the real identity of the translator who may be Egyptian judge Muhammad Habib Shakir (1866-1939) or likely Mohammedali Habib Shakir the son of Habib Esmail of The House of Habib in Pakistan.

(7) Yusuf Ali (1872-1953) who was a British-Indian Islamic scholar.

(8) Sahih International; in 1989 three American converts to Islam joined together to form “Saheeh International” and published their translation in 1997.

(9) Muhammad Asad (1900–1992) who was a Jewish-born Austro-Hungarian journalist, traveller, linguist, diplomat and Islamic scholar.

(10) Dr. Martin Lings (1909–2005) who is best known for his English language biography of Prophet Muhammad, titled “Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources”. He passed away before completing his translation.

Martin Lings (1909 – 2005), an English writer and scholar, best known as the author of “Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources”, first published in 1983. He passed away before completing his translation of the Quran to English.

Martin Lings (1909 – 2005), an English writer and scholar, best known as the author of “Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources”, first published in 1983. He passed away before completing his translation of the Quran to English.

The following English translations for Ayahs  are primarily based on cautious correlation-comparison of one or more than one translation with that of the Arabic original. Once again, the readers who know Arabic should refer directly to the original Quran in Arabic, if not possible then it is recommended that readers do not rely on any single translation but try, as much as possible, to consult more than one translation.

Cited English text translations for Ayahs  of the Quran relevant to this Article are presented below, each cited verse is preceded by a numerical code within two brackets; for example: [4.3] refers to Ayah number 3 in Surah number 4;

[2.2] This is the Book, in it there is no doubt. Guidance for the God-fearing.

[2.35] We said, “O Adam, live with your wife in Paradise, and eat therefrom generously, as you please, but do not approach this tree, lest you sin.”

[2.187] Permitted for you is sexual intercourse with your wives during the nights of fasting. They are clothing for you (keepers of your secrets), and you are clothing for them (keepers of their secrets). GOD knew that you used to betray your souls (deceive yourselves), and He has redeemed you, and has pardoned you. Henceforth, you may have intercourse with them, seeking what GOD has permitted for you. You may eat and drink until the white thread of light becomes distinguishable from the dark thread of night at dawn. Then, you shall fast until sunset. Sexual intercourse is prohibited if you decide to retreat to the masjid (staying for worship in the mosques). These are GOD’s laws; you shall not transgress them. GOD thus clarifies His revelations for the people, that they may attain salvation.

[2:221] Do not marry idolatresses unless they believe; a believing woman is better than an idolatress, even if you like her. Nor shall you give your daughters in marriage to idolatrous men, unless they believe. A believing man is better than an idolater, even if you like him. These invite to Hell, while GOD invites to Paradise and forgiveness, as He wills. He clarifies His revelations for the people, that they may take heed.

[2.222] They ask you about menstruation: say, “It is harmful; you shall avoid sexual intercourse with the women during menstruation; do not approach them until they are rid of it. Once they are rid of it, you may have intercourse with them in the manner designed by GOD. GOD loves the repeaters, and He loves those who are clean.”

[2.223] Your women are a tilth for you (to cultivate) so go to your tilth however you like, and priory provide for yourselves (foreplay). Fear GOD and know you will meet Him. Give good news to the believers.

[2:226] Those who intend to divorce their wives shall wait four months (cooling off); if they change their minds and reconcile, then GOD is Forgiver, Merciful.

[2:227] If they go through with the divorce, then GOD is Hearer, Knower.

[2:228] The divorced women shall wait three menstruations (before marrying another man). It is not lawful for them to conceal what GOD creates in their wombs, if they believe in GOD and the Last Day. The husband’s wishes shall supersede the wife’s wishes in case of pregnancy, if he wants to remarry her. The women have rights, as well as obligations, equitably. Thus, the man’s wishes prevail (in responsibility and in case of pregnancy). GOD is Almighty, Most Wise.

[2.229] Divorce is twice. The divorced woman shall be allowed to live in the same home amicably, or leave it amicably. It is not lawful for the husband to take back anything he had given her. However, the couple may fear that they may transgress GOD’s law. If there is fear that they may transgress GOD’s law, they commit no error if the wife willingly gives back whatever she chooses. These are GOD’s laws; do not transgress them. Those who transgress GOD’s laws are the unjust.

[2:230] If he divorces her (for the third time), it is unlawful for him to remarry her, unless she marries another man, then he divorces her. The first husband can then remarry her, if they consider that they are able to observe the limits of GOD’s laws; these are the limits of GOD’s laws; He explains them for people who know.

[2.231] If you divorce the women, once they fulfill their interim (three menstruations), you shall allow them to live in the same home amicably, or let them leave amicably. Do not force them to stay against their will, as revenge (or to hurt them). Anyone who does this wrongs his own soul. Do not take GOD’s revelations in vain. Remember GOD’s blessings upon you, and that He sent down to you the scripture and wisdom to enlighten you. You shall observe GOD, and know that GOD is aware of all things.

[2:232] If you divorce the women, once they fulfill their interim (three menstruations), do not prevent them from remarrying their husbands, if they reconcile amicably. This shall be heeded by those among you who believe in GOD and the Last Day. This is purer for you, and more righteous. GOD knows, while you do not know.

[2:233] (Divorced) mothers shall nurse (suckle) their infants two full years, to whoever wishes to complete the nursing (duration). The father shall provide the mother’s food and clothing equitably. No one shall be burdened beyond his ability. No mother shall be harmed on account of her infant, nor shall the father be harmed because of his infant. The inheritor (if the father dies) shall assume these responsibilities. If the infant’s parents mutually agree to part, after due consultation, they commit no error by doing so. You commit no error by hiring nursing mothers, so long as you pay them equitably. You shall observe GOD, and know that GOD is Seer of everything you do.

[2:234] Those who die and leave wives, their widows shall wait four months and ten days (before they remarry). Once they fulfil their interim, you commit no error by letting them do whatever righteous matters they wish to do. GOD is fully Cognizant of everything you do.

[2:235] You commit no sin by speaking of your intentions to propose (announcing your engagement) to women, or keeping it secret. GOD knows that you will think about them. Do not meet them secretly, unless you have something righteous to discuss. Do not consummate the marriage until their interim is fulfilled. You should know that GOD knows your innermost thoughts, and observe Him. You should know that GOD is Forgiver, Clement.

[2:236] You commit no error by divorcing the women before touching them, or before setting the dowry for them. In this case, you shall compensate them – the rich as he can afford and the poor as he can afford – an equitable compensation. This is a duty upon the righteous.

[2:237] If you divorce them before touching them, but after you had set the dowry for them, the compensation shall be half the dowry, unless they voluntarily forfeit their rights, or the party responsible for causing the divorce chooses to forfeit the dowry. To forfeit is closer to righteousness. You shall maintain the amicable relations among you. GOD is Seer of everything you do.

[2:240] Those who die and leave wives, a will shall provide their wives with support for a year, provided they stay within the same household. If they leave, you commit no sin by letting them do whatever they wish, so long as righteousness is maintained. GOD is Almighty, Most Wise.

[2:241] The divorcees also shall be provided for, equitably. This is a duty upon the righteous.

[3:14] Adorned (Beautified) for people (mankind) is the love of lusts (desires) from women, having children, piles upon piles of gold and silver, trained (branded) horses, livestock (cattle), and crops (tilled land). These are the materials of this world. With GOD is a far better abode.

[3:35] The wife of Emran said, “My Lord, I have pledged to You what is in my womb (dedicated the baby in my belly to You), totally, so accept from me. You are Hearer, Omniscient.”

[3:36] When she gave birth to her, she said, “My Lord, I have given birth to a female”, GOD was fully aware of what she bore (delivered) , the male is not the same as the female. “And I have named her Mary, and I invoke Your protection (seek refuge in You) for her and her descendants from the rejected (expelled) devil.”

[3:37] Her Lord accepted her gracious acceptance, and brought her up (caused her to grow up) a gracious upbringing, and put her in the care (under the guardianship) of Zachariah. Whenever Zachariah entered her sanctuary (prayer chamber) he found provisions with her. He would ask, “Mary, where did you get this from?” She would say, “It is from GOD. GOD provides for whomever He chooses, without limits (account).”

[3:42] The angels said, “O Mary, GOD has chosen you and purified you. He has chosen you from all the women (chosen you above the women of the World).

[4:1] O people, observe your Lord; the One who created you from one being (one soul), and created from it its mate, then spread from the two many men and women. You shall regard GOD, by whom you ask one another (by whom you are enquiring about), and regard the parents. GOD is watching over you.

[4.3] If you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans, then marry whom you like from the women (mothers of orphan children or orphan adult girls), two or three or four, but if you fear that you will not be just, then only one or what you already have that will be more suitable to avoid hardship (of a large family).

[4:4] You shall give the women their due dowries, equitably. If they give up willingly to you anything of it, then take it in satisfaction and ease.

[4:6] You shall test the orphans when they reach sexual intercourse (puberty, marriageable age). As soon as you find them mature enough, give them their property. Do not consume it extravagantly and in a hurry, before they grow up. The rich guardian shall not charge any wage, but the poor guardian may charge equitably. When you give them their properties, you shall have witnesses. GOD suffices as Reckoner.

[4:15] Those who commit lewdness (unlawful sexual act) among your women, you must have four witnesses against them, from among you. If they do bear witness, then you shall keep such women in their homes until they die, or until GOD creates for them an exit (a way).

[4:16] And the two who commit it dishonour them both (by strong words). If they repent and reform, you shall leave them alone. GOD is Redeemer, Most Merciful.

[4:19] O you who believe, it is not lawful for you to inherit what the women leave behind, against their will. You shall not force them to give up anything you had given them, unless they commit a proven lewdness (unlawful sexual act). Live with them on a footing of kindness and equity, and if you take a dislike to them, it may be that you dislike a thing through which GOD brings about a great deal of good.

[4:20] If you decide to take one wife in place of another, and you had given one of them a great deal (or whole treasure), you shall not take back anything you had given her. Would you take it fraudulently and manifest slander?

[4:21] How could you take it back, after you have been intimate with each other, and they had taken from you a solemn covenant?

[4:22] Do not marry the women who were previously married to your fathers; existing marriages are exempted and shall not be broken. It was lewdness, gross offense and an abominable act.

[4:23] Prohibited for you (in marriage) are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, the sisters of your fathers, the sisters of your mothers, the daughters of your brother, the daughters of your sister, your nursing mothers, the girls who nursed from the same woman as you, the mothers of your wives, the daughters of your wives with whom you have consummated the marriage – if the marriage has not been consummated, you may marry the daughter. Also prohibited for you are the wives of your sons who are from your [own] loins (women who were married to your genetic sons). Also, you shall not be married to two sisters at the same time but do not break up existing marriages. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.

[4:24] Also prohibited are the women who are already married, except those flee their disbelieving husbands who are at war with you. These are GOD ‘s commandments to you. All other categories are permitted for you in marriage, so long as you pay them their due dowries. You shall maintain your chastity not committing unlawful sexual intercourse (adultery). Thus, whoever you like among them, you shall pay them their due compensation as an obligation (the dowry decreed for them). You commit no error by mutually agreeing to any adjustments beyond the obligation (of the dowry decreed for them). GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.

[4:25] Those among you who cannot afford to marry free believing women, may marry believing slave (servant) women. GOD knows best about your belief, and you are equal to one another, as far as belief is concerned. You shall obtain permission from their guardians before you marry them, and pay them their due dowry equitably. They shall be chastised not committing unlawful intercourse (adultery), or having secret lovers. Once they are freed through marriage, if they commit adultery, their punishment shall be half of that for the free women. This is for him among you who fears sin. To be patient is better for you. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.

[4:34] The men are made responsible for the women, and GOD has endowed them with certain qualities, and made them the bread earners. The righteous women are devoutly obedient (would cheerfully accept this arrangement), since it is GOD’s commandment, guarding in [the husband’s] absence what GOD would have them guard. If you experience rebellion from the women, you shall first talk to them, then (forsake) desert them in bed, then you may (as a last alternative) beat (strike) them. If they obey you, you are not permitted to transgress against them. GOD is Most High, Supreme.

[4:35] If a couple fears separation, you shall appoint an arbitrator from his folk (family) and an arbitrator from her family (family); if they decide to reconcile, GOD will help them get together. GOD is Omniscient, Cognizant.

 [4.87]  God – there is no god except Him, He will surely gather you to the Day of Resurrection whereof there is no doubt. And who is truer in statement (Arabic: hadith) than God?

[4:128] If a woman senses oppression (contempt, ill treatment) or evasion (desertion) from her husband, the couple shall mutually try to reconcile (settle) their differences, for conciliation (settlement) is best for them. Selfishness (greed, stinginess) is a human trait (present in human souls), so if you do good and heedful (lead a righteous life), GOD is fully Cognizant (Expertly Informed) of everything you do.

[4:129] You will never be able to be equitable in dealing with more than one wife, no matter how hard you try (or strive to do so). Therefore, do not be so biased as to leave one of them hanging (neither enjoying marriage, nor left to marry someone else). If you correct this situation and maintain righteousness, GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.

[4:130] If the couple must decide to part (do separate), GOD will enrich (provide) for each of them from His bounties (abundance). GOD is Bounteous, Most Wise.

[4:130] If the couple must decide to part, GOD will provide for each of them from His abundance (bounties). GOD is Bounteous, Most Wise.

[5:87] O you who believe, do not prohibit (by yourselves) good things that are made lawful to you by GOD, and do not aggress (do not exceed the limits); GOD dislikes the aggressors.

[6.112] And so We have appointed to every Prophet an enemy, devils of mankind and jinn who inspire decorative speech to each other in delusion; yet, had your Lord willed, they would never have done it. So leave them with what they fabricate.

[6.113] And that the hearts of those who do not believe in the Hereafter may incline to it, and that they may be pleased with it, and that they may commit what they are committing.

[6.114] [Say], “Then is it other than Allah I should seek as judge while it is He who has revealed to you the Book explained in detail?” And those to whom We [previously] gave the Scripture know that it is sent down from your Lord in truth, so never be among the doubters.

[6.115] Perfected is the word of your Lord in truthfulness and justice; none can change His words. He is the Hearing, the Knowing.

[6.155] And this [Qur’an] is a Book We have revealed [which is] blessed, so follow it and fear God that you may receive mercy.

[6:162] Say, “My Prayer (Salat), my worship practices, my life and my death, are all devoted absolutely to GOD alone, the Lord of the universe.

[6:163] “He has no partner. This is what I am commanded to believe, and I am the first to submit.”

[7:80] And Lot (Prophet Lot) said to his people, “You commit such an abomination; no one in the world has done it before you”

[7:81] “You approach men with lust (to practice sex with them), instead of the women. Indeed, you are a transgressing people.”

[7:82] His people responded by saying, “Evict them from your village. They are people who pretend to purity (wish to be pure).”

[7:83] (Consequently), we saved him and his family, but not his wife; she was with the doomed (the evildoers).

[7:84] We showered (rained down on) them with a certain shower (heavy rain); note the consequences for the guilty (the criminals).

[11.78] His people came rushing at him (hastening to him), and before that they were committing evil deeds (sinful acts). He said, “O my people, it would be purer for you, if you instead take my daughters (to marry). You shall reverence GOD; do not disgrace (embarrass) me with my guests. Have you not one reasonable (right-thinking) man among you?”

[11:79] They said, “You know well that we have no claim (no need) for your daughters; and you (indeed) know exactly what we want.”

[11:80] He said, “If only I had against you some power (strength) or could take refuge in a strong support (a powerful ally).”

[11:81] (The angels) said, “O Lot, we are your Lord’s messengers, and these people cannot touch (reach) you. You shall leave with your family during a portion of the night, and let not anyone of you look back, except your wife; she is condemned (will be struck) along with those who are condemned. Their appointed time is the morning. Is not the morning near (soon enough)?”

[11:82] When our command (judgment) came, We made the highest part (of the village) its lowest (turned it upside down), and We showered (rained) it with stones of layered hard clay (hard, devastating rocks).

[11:83] (Such rocks) were designated by your Lord and it was not far away from (close to) the transgressors (wrong-doers).

[11:114] You shall observe the Prayer (Salat) at both ends of the day, and during the night. The righteous works (virtues, good deeds) wipe out the evil works (sins, misdeeds). This is a reminder for those who would take heed.

[12:32] She said, “This is the one whom you blamed me of (for falling in love with). I did indeed try to seduce him, and he refused. Unless he does what I order him to do, he will surely go to prison, and will be debased.” (Note: the wife of Al-Aziz is quoted as saying here)

[12:33] He (Prophet Yusuf) said, “My Lord, the prison is more to my liking than that to which they invite me (better than giving in to them). Unless You divert their scheming from me (if You do not avert from me their plan), I might incline toward them (may desire them) and behave like the ignorant ones (and thus be ignorant).”

[12:52] “I hope that he will realize that I never betrayed him in his absence, for GOD does not guide (bless) the schemes of the betrayers”. (Note: the wife of Al-Aziz is quoted as saying here).

[12:53] “I do not claim innocence for myself (I do not acquit myself). The self is an advocate of vice (the self does order bad deeds), except for those who have attained mercy from my Lord. My Lord is Forgiver, Most Merciful.” (Note: the wife of Al-Aziz quote continued here).

[13:38] We have sent messengers before you, and assigned to them wives (made them husbands with wives) and descendants. No messenger can produce a sign (miracle) without GOD ‘s authorization (permission). For every term is a decree (in accordance with a specific predetermined time).

[16:72] And GOD made for you spouses (mates) from among yourselves, and produced for you from your spouses (mates) children and grandchildren, and provided you with good provisions. Should they believe in falsehood, and turn unappreciative (in disbelieve) of GOD ‘s blessings?

[17.32] And come not near unto adultery for it is gross (an abomination, a shameful deed) and an evil way (evil behaviour leading to other evils).

[19:20] She (Mary) said, “How can I have a son, when no human has touched me and I have never been unchaste.”

[19:21] He (the Angle) said, “Thus said your Lord, `It is easy for Me. We will render him a sign for the people and mercy from us. This is a predestined matter (this matter is already decreed).’ “

[21:74] As for Lot, we granted him wisdom (judgment) and knowledge, and we saved him from the community that practiced (did) abominations; they were wicked (lewd) and (folk) of evil people.

[21:91] As for the one who maintained her virginity, we blew into her from our spirit, and thus, we made her and her son a portent (a sign) for the whole world.

[23:5] And they who maintain (guard) of their genitals (private parts) .

[23:6] Except to their spouses, or those who are rightfully theirs, they are not to be blamed.

[23:7] Those who transgress these limits are the transgressors.

[24:2] The adulteress and the adulterer you shall whip each of them a hundred lashes (stripes) and do not let pity for the twain withhold you from carrying out GOD ‘s law, if you (truly) believe in GOD and the Last Day. And let a group of believers witness their penalty (punishment).

[24.3] The adulterer shall not marry except (save) an adulteress or an idolatress, and the adulteress none shall marry except (save) an adulterer or an idolater (a polytheist), all that is forbidden unto believers.

[24:4] Those who accuse married women of adultery, then fail to produce four witnesses, you shall whip (flog) them eighty lashes (stripes), and do not accept any testimony from them; they are wicked (transgressors).

[24.5] Except those who afterward repent and make amends (reform), GOD is Forgiving, Merciful.

[24.6] As for those who accuse their wives (spouses) but have no witnesses except themselves; let the witness of one of them be the equivalent of four witnesses if he testify four testimonies (taking oath) by GOD that he is of those who speak the truth (solemnly telling the truth);

[24.7] The fifth (oath) invoking the curse of GOD on him if he is of those who is telling a lie.

[24:8] Her punishment shall be averted (she shall be considered innocent) if she swears (bear witness) by GOD four times that he is a liar (what he said is indeed false).

[24.9] The fifth (oath) that the wrath of GOD be upon her if he spoke (was telling) the truth.

[24:10] This is GOD ‘s grace and mercy towards you. GOD is Redeemer (Clement), Most Wise.

[24:11] A gang among you produced a big lie. Do not think that it was bad for you; instead, it was good for you. Meanwhile, each one of them has earned his share of the guilt. As for the one who initiated the whole incident, he has incurred a terrible retribution.

[24:12] When you heard it, the believing men and the believing women should have had better thoughts about themselves, and should have said, “This is obviously a big lie.”

[24:13] Only if they produced four witnesses (you may believe them). If they fail to produce the witnesses, then they are, according to GOD, liars.
[24:14] If it were not for GOD’s grace towards you, and His mercy in this world and in the Hereafter, you would have suffered a great retribution because of this incident.

[24:15] You fabricated it with your own tongues, and the rest of you repeated it with your mouths without proof. You thought it was simple, when it was, according to GOD, gross.

[24:16] When you heard it, you should have said, “We will not repeat this. Glory be to You. This is a gross falsehood.”

[24:17] GOD admonishes you that you shall never do it again, if you are believers.

[24:18] GOD thus explains the revelations for you. GOD is Omniscient, Wise.

[24:19] Those who love to see immorality spread among the believers have incurred a painful retribution in this life and in the Hereafter. GOD knows, while you do not know.

[24:20] GOD showers you with His grace and mercy. GOD is Most Kind towards the believers, Most Merciful.
[24:23] Those who slander unaware, chaste, believing women (falsely accuse married women who are pious believers) have incurred condemnation in this life and in the Hereafter; they have incurred a horrendous retribution (for them is a grievous doom).

[24:26] The bad (vile) women for the bad (vile) men, and the bad (vile) men for the bad (vile) women, and the virtuous (good) women for the virtuous (good) men, and the virtuous (good) men for the virtuous (good) women. The latter are innocent of such accusations. They have attained forgiveness and a generous reward.

[24.32] Marry those of you who are single and the righteous among your male and female servants. If they be poor, GOD will enrich them out of His grace (bounty). GOD is of ample means (Bounteous), Aware.

[24.33] Those who cannot afford to get married shall maintain morality (abstain from sexual relations) until GOD provides for them from His grace (bounty). Those among your servants who wish to be freed in order to marry (seek a contract for emancipation), you shall grant them their wish, once you realize that they are honest (there is within them goodness). And give them from the wealth of GOD which He has given you (that He has bestowed upon you). You shall not force your girls to commit prostitution, seeking the materials (temporary interests) of this world, if they wish to be chaste. If anyone forces them, then GOD, seeing that they are forced, is Forgiver, Merciful.

[25.33] And they do not bring you any similitude, but that We bring you the truth, and [what is] better [as] exposition. 

[25:54] He is the One who created from water a human being, then made him reproduce forefathers and siblings (through marriage and mating). Your Lord is Omnipotent.

[25:68] They never implore beside GOD any other god, nor do they kill any one (as such life) that GOD has made sacred except in the course of justice. Nor do they commit fornication (adultery). Those who commit these offenses will meet penalties.

[25:74] And those who say, “Our Lord, let our wives (spouses) and descendants (children) be a source of joy for us, and keep (make) us in the forefront of the righteous.”

[26.162] [Lot said] I am to you a faithful apostle.

[26:165] “Do you approach males (to have sex with) from among the people?”

[26.166] “and leave (forsake) what your Lord has created for you of your wives? Nay, but you are people who transgress.”

[26:167] They said, “Unless you refrain, O Lot, you will be banished (expelled).”

[26:168] He said, “I deplore your actions.”

[26:169] “My Lord, save me and my family (my household) from their works (from their doings).”

[26:170] We saved him and all his family (all of his household).

[26:171] But not an old woman; she was doomed (among those who stayed behind).

[26:172] We then (afterwards) destroyed the others.

[26:173] We showered (rained on) them with a miserable shower; what a terrible (dreadful) shower for those who had been warned!

[26:174] This should be a lesson, and most them were not believers.

[27:44] She (the queen) was told, “Go inside the palace.” When she saw its interior, she thought it was a pool of water, and she (pulled up her dress,) exposing her legs (to wade through). He (Solomon) said, “This interior is paved (made) of crystal.” She said, “My Lord, I have wronged my soul (myself). I now submit with Solomon to GOD, Lord of the worlds (universe).”

[27:54] Lot said to his people, “How could you commit such an abomination, publicly (knowingly), while you see?

[27:55] “You practice sex with (purse lust from) the men, lustfully, instead of the women. Indeed, you are ignorant people (acting senselessly).”

[27:56] The only response from his people was their saying, “Banish Lot’s family from your village; they are people who wish to be pure.”

[27.57] Then We saved him and his family (household) except his wife; We destined her to be of those who stayed behind (counted her among the doomed).

[27. 58] And We rained upon them a rain; dreadful (miserable) is the rain of those who have been warned.

[28:7] We inspired Moses’ mother: “Nurse (suckle) him, and when you fear for his life, throw him into the river without fear or grief. We will return him to you, and will make him one of Our messengers.”

[28:27] He said, “I wish to offer one of my two daughters for you to marry, in return for working for me for eight pilgrimages (years); if you make (complete) them ten, it will be voluntary on your part. I do not wish to make this matter too difficult for you. You will find me, GOD willing, righteous.”

[29:28] Lot said to his people, “You commit such an abomination; no one previously in the world has ever done it before you.”

[29.29] You come (in lust) to men and stop folks on the highway (commit highway robbery); and conduct in your assembly sin (vice). The only response from his people was to bring us GOD’s torment (retribution) if you are among those who speak the truth (if you are truthful).

[29:30] He said, “My Lord, grant me victory over these wicked (corrupt) people.”

[31.2] These are ayahs of the wise Book.

[33:7] Recall that we took from the prophets their covenant, including you (O Muhammad), Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus the son of Mary and We took from them a solemn pledge.

[30:21] Among His proofs is that He created for you spouses from among yourselves, to tranquil and content with her, and He placed in-between yourselves love and care. In this, there are signs for people who think.

[33:35] The submitting men, the submitting women, the believing men, the believing women, the obedient men, the obedient women, the truthful men, the truthful women, the steadfast men, the steadfast women, the reverent men, the reverent women, the charitable men, the charitable women, the fasting men, the fasting women, the chaste men, the chaste women, and the men who commemorate GOD frequently, and the commemorating women; GOD has prepared for them forgiveness and a great recompense.

[33:37] Recall that you said to the one who was blessed by GOD, and blessed by you, “Keep your wife and reverence GOD,” and you hid inside (concealed within) yourself what GOD wished to proclaim (disclose). Thus, you feared the people, when you were supposed to fear only GOD (GOD has more right that you fear Him). When Zaid was completely through with his wife (had no longer any relationship for her), We had you marry her, in order to establish the precedent that believer men may marry the divorced wife of their adopted sons after they no longer have any relationship with them. GOD’s command shall be done. (Note: Zaid was the adopted son of Prophet Mohammad).

[33:49] O you who believe, if you married believing women, then divorced them before you have touched them (having intercourse with them), they do not owe you any waiting interim (before marrying another man). You shall provide for them (compensate them equitably), and let them go amicably (give them a gracious release).

[36.36] Glory be to Him Who created all the sexual pairs, of that which the earth grow, and of themselves, and of that which they know not.

[ 39.23] God has revealed the best of discourses, a Book, consimilar in coupled phrases — whereat quiver the skins of those who fear their Lord; then their skins and their hearts soften to the remembrance of God. That is God’s guidance, by which He guides whomever He will; and whomever God leads astray, for him there is no guide.

[40:8] “Our Lord, and admit them into the gardens of Eden that You promised for them and for the righteous among their fathers, spouses, and descendants (children). You are the Almighty, Most Wise.

[40:7] Those who serve the throne and all those around it glorify and praise their Lord, and believe in Him. And they ask forgiveness for those who believe: “Our Lord, Your mercy and Your knowledge encompass all things. Forgive those who repent and follow Your path, and spare (ward off from) them the retribution (punishment) of Hell.

[40:8] “Our Lord, and admit them into the gardens of Eden that You promised for them and for the righteous among their parents, spouses, and children (descendants). You are the Almighty, Most Wise.

[40:9] “And protect them from falling in sin. Whomever You protect from falling in sin, on that day, has attained mercy from You. This is the greatest triumph.”

[43:69] They are the ones who believed in our revelations, and were self-surrendered (submitters).

[43:70] Enter Paradise, together with your spouses, (in beauty) and rejoice.

[45.6] These are the ayahs of God which We recite to you with truth. So in what [kind of] discourse then, after God and His ayahs will they believe?

[49:13] O people, We created you from male and female, and rendered (made) you distinct peoples (nations) and tribes, that you may recognize one another (know each other). The best among you in the sight of GOD is the most righteous. GOD is Omniscient, Cognizant.

[51.49] and of everything we created a pair, that you may reflect.

[53.45] And that He created the two spouses, the male and the female (45) from a drop (human-egg) if seeded (by sperm).

[53:45] He is the One who created the two kinds (spouses), male and female.

[53:46] from a tiny drop (seed) if fertilized (by semen).

[57.27] … And hermitism (monasticism) which they innovated (invented), We did not decree for them, (they sought it) only to please GOD therewith and they did not observe it with the right observance, so We gave those among them who believed their recompense (due reward), and many among them were rebellious sinners (wicked).

[63.9] O you who believe! Let not your wealth or your children distract you from the remembrance of GOD, and whoever does that, they are the losers.

[65:1] O you prophet, when you people divorce the women, you shall ensure that a divorce interim is fulfilled. You shall measure such an interim precisely. You shall reverence GOD your Lord. Do not evict them from their homes, nor shall you make life miserable for them, to force them to leave on their own, unless they commit a proven lewdness (adultery). These are GOD ‘s laws. Anyone who transgresses GOD ‘s laws commits an injustice against himself. You never know; maybe GOD wills something good to come out of this.

[65:2] Once the interim is fulfilled, you may reconcile with them equitably, or go through with the separation equitably. You shall have two equitable witnesses from among you and give upright testimony (witness) before GOD. This is to enlighten those who believe in GOD and the Last Day. Anyone who reverences GOD, He will create an exit (appoint a way out) for him.

[65:4] As for the women (wives) who have reached menopause, if you have any doubts, their interim shall be three months, along with those who have it not. As for those who are pregnant, their interim ends upon giving birth. Anyone whoever reverences GOD, He makes matters easy for him.

[66.6] “O you who believe, guard yourselves and your family members from a fire whose fuel is people and stones. Over it are ferocious and powerful angels. They do not disobey and of GOD’s orders and do whatever they are told.

[66:11] And GOD cites (set forth) as an example of those who believed, the wife of Pharaoh. She said, “My Lord, build a home for me (at near You) in Paradise, and save me from Pharaoh and his work; save me from the transgressing people.”