By A Taha, PhD
London, United Kingdom
17 August 2016
Time and the Big Bang
One popular theory of cosmology is called the Big Bang. According to the Big Bang theory, the universe was formed about 13.8 billion (or: 13,800,000,000) years ago, in what is called a “gravitational singularity“.
The singularity was small, dense, and very hot. According to this theory, all of the matter that we know today, including all galaxies, came out of this single point. This theory stipulates the universe once had an infinitesimal size and an almost infinite temperature and gravitational field strength. It has been expanding and cooling ever since. When it cooled below 10,000,000,000 degrees Kelvin, individual particles could form into atomic nuclei. When it cooled below 10,000 degrees Kelvin, individual electrons and atomic nuclei could form into atoms. Later, as the expansion continued, the atoms clumped into stars and galaxies, eventually producing the universe of today.
Stephen Hawking (born 1932) stated that time began with the Big Bang, and that questions about what happened before the Big Bang are meaningless. The Big Bang itself resulted from an extremely dense “singularity” event out of which matter, space and time came out intimately linked together.
The singularity from which our universe emerged is an event before matter, space and time. Hence, the Big Bang theory does not speak to what happened at or before the initial Big Bang event. It is a theory only of the aftermath of that event.
Scientists have come to some agreement on descriptions of events that happened 10^ -35 seconds after the Big Bang, but generally agree that descriptions about what happened before one Planck time (5 × 10^ -44 seconds) after the Big Bang will likely remain pure speculation. Current established physical theories are believed to fail at this Planck time.
Quran explain the creation of the universe accurately and in astounding precision. Quran address God creations in many Ayahs. The Arabic expression “kun fa yakun” in Ayahs (3.47 and 40.68) does not mention time at all because such God creation event is “beyond time”, that such event happens at t=0.
In the aftermath “matter and space” were joined as one and then were separated. This is accurately described in Quran Ayah (21.30).
The universe in its very early stages was still in the form of hot gases. This is also accurately described in Quran Ayah (41.11) in which rather than gas the word “smoke” is used which imply association with extreme heat.
The Six Days
Quran states that the universe was created in six days. The Quran refers to the six days in many Ayahs, such as (7.54, 10.3, 11.7, 25.59, 32.4, 50.38 and 57.4). In several Ayahs, such as (7.54 and 11.7) the six days are mentioned with God’s Throne and thus Muslims interpret the six days to be days at God’s Throne, not Earth days.
Big Bang theory stipulates the universe age is about 13.8 billion years; that is Earth years. And, the energy at the Big Bang event slowed down the flow of time of up-to 10^12 (one million-million) times. A rough estimate would be one minute at Big Bang event corresponds to one million-million Earth minutes; or six days at Big Bang event corresponds to six million-million Earth days (or 16.427 billion Earth years).
Big Bang theory stipulates time to be continuously slowing down in proportion to the expansion of the universe; approximately described: ever since the Big Bang event the size of the universe doubles as the passage of time half. In other words, as the universe grows, the rate at which it doubles in size slows down. Hereunder is “refined” theoretically postulated sequence;
- Throne Day 1 (6) corresponds to 8.00 billion Earth years.
- Throne Day 2 (6) corresponds to 4.00 billion Earth years.
- Throne Day 3 (6) corresponds to 2.00 billion Earth years.
- Throne Day 4 (6) corresponds to 1.00 billion Earth years.
- Throne Day 5 (6) corresponds to 0.50 billion Earth years.
- Throne Day 6 (6) corresponds to 0.25 billion Earth years.
Total is 15 billion 750 million Earth years.
This figure is more than the famous estimate of 13.8 billion years which gives rise to a speculation: Could this figure mean the universe’s “time” as a constituency of space-time amounts to 15.75 billion years? That is to say the remainder of the universe time is only about 2 billion years (15.75 billion (total) – 13.80 billion (elapsed) = 1.95 billion years) remaining of the universe life. This speculation stems from the Arabic word “fee” as used in the Quran above mentioned Ayahs which means “in” and not “during” six days.
Referenced Quran Ayahs
Approximate translations to English of Quran Ayahs cited in this Article;
(3.47) She (Mary) said, “My Lord, how can I have a son, when no man has touched me?” He said, “God thus creates whatever He wills. To have anything done, He says to it: “Be and it is”.
(7:54) Your Lord is the one GOD, who created the heavens and the earth in six days, then assumed all authority. The night overtakes the day, as it pursues it persistently, and the sun, the moon, and the stars are committed to serve by His command. Absolutely, He controls all creation and all commands. Most Exalted is GOD, Lord of the universe.
(40.68) He is the only One who controls life and death. To have anything done, He says to it “Be and it is”.
(41:11) Then He turned to the sky, when it was still smoke, and said to it, and to the earth, “Come into existence, willingly or unwillingly.” They said, “We come willingly.”
Note on citations from the Quran
A number of Quran Ayahs have been cited in this Article. Each of the cited Ayahs is preceded by a numerical code within two brackets; for example: (9.36) refers to Ayah Number 36 in Surah number 9. Ideally, the readers who know Arabic would refer directly to the original Quran in Arabic. Quran translation to any other language has always been difficult, even though many attempts have already been made. In 1982-84, a Quran Complex was established by Saudi Arabia government, named after King Fahd. This Quran Complex outlines Quran translation difficulties into English, considers all translations to be translations to the “meanings” or “interpretations” of the Quran and denotes own Quran translations as “Translations of the Meanings of the Quran”.
By A Taha, PhD
London, United Kingdom
17 August 2016