ممارسة الجنس في الإسلام

ا. طه، لندن، المملكة المتحدة
تحديث في 10 نوفمبر 2015

ملاحضه : هذا المقال مترجم من الانكليزىه الي العربيه -عذرا عن بعض الصعؤبات النحويه و الاملائيه٠المقال الاصلي بالانكليزيه موجود في هذا الموقع
من الأفضل فهم الجنس في الإسلام في مختلف جوانب ووجهات النظر من خلال، في المقام الأول، الاستشهادات من القرآن الكريم. هناك أعداد كافية من الآيات (الآيات) في القرآن التي هي واضحة ومباشرة صراحة على كل القضايا الحيوية  
    يؤكد القرآن الكريم ان النبي محمد (570-632)   أول قدوة لكل مسلم، انظر  الآيات [6،162 حتي 163] سلوكه في حياته وما قاله هو نموذج مثالي لمتابعة مدى الحياة المباركة، بما في ذلك الزواج السعيد. هناك العديد من كتب الحديث   ، وعدد كبير من المنشورات الضخمة التي تراكمت على مدى قرون من أعمال العلماء البارزين في العديد من المدارس الفكرية. ومع ذلك فإنه لا يزال  واجبا حيويا على كل مسلم {رجل وامرأة }  ، بغض النظر عن الطائفة   الاستماع بعناية إلى  الآيات القرآنية عن  الجنس والنشاط الجنسي والسلوك الجنسي.
قبل كل شيء، الكلمة الرئيسية في القرآن على هذا الأمر هي” نكاح ”  والتي تعني حرفيا “الجماع.
  أن المشاكل العملية والمحلية، بما في ذلك الزواج القسري، وسفاح المحارم، والحياة الجنسية المختلة وظيفيا، جرائم الشرف، السحاق وصمة العار وختان الإناث يتم تخفيفها بنجاح، وربما حتى لا تنشأ إذا واحد يشير إلى وفهم والامتثال حقا مع ما هو مبين بوضوح في القرآن الكريم
القرآن
أن القرآن هو كلام الخالق، الله ، وليس وثيقة من تأليف إنسان (أو البشر)
The Quran Muslims believe the Quran is the words of The Creator, God (in Arabic: Allah), and not a document authored by a human (or humans) or angles or any other than The Creator Himself (God). The Quran was read by The Creator’s Angel messenger (Gabriel) directly to The Creator’s human messenger (Prophet Muhammad) over a period of 23 years nearly 14 centuries ago. Since then people memorize the Quran; generation after generation. In today’s printed form on paper the Quran is normally contained in a single book of around 600 pages widely available in recorded voice, video, paper and on the internet. The Quran contains 114 Surah each constitutes a number of Ayahs .

The Quran
Muslims believe the Quran is the words of The Creator, God (in Arabic: Allah), and not a document authored by a human (or humans) or angles or any other than The Creator Himself (God). The Quran was read by The Creator’s Angel messenger (Gabriel) directly to The Creator’s human messenger (Prophet Muhammad) over a period of 23 years nearly 14 centuries ago. Since then people memorize the Quran; generation after generation. In today’s printed form on paper the Quran is normally contained in a single book of around 600 pages widely available in recorded voice, video, paper and on the internet. The Quran contains 114 Surah each constitutes a number of Ayahs .

قرأ القرآن من قبل الملاك رسول من الخالق (جبرائيل) مباشرة إلى رسول البشرية (النبي محمد) على مدى 23 عاما قبل نحو 14 قرنا. ومنذ ذلك الحين الناس تحفظ القرآن؛ جيلا بعد جيل. في شكله اليوم المطبوع على الورق يرد القرآن عادة في كتاب واحد من حوالي 600 صفحة وايضا على نطاق واسع في تسجيل الصوت والفيديو  وعلى شبكة الانترنت. يحتوي على القرآن الكريم 114 سورة.
كل واحده من الآيات المذكورة، يسبقه الرمز العددي داخل قوسين. على سبيل المثال: [4.3] يشير إلى الآية رقم 3 في سورة رقم .4.
الجهل والمعرفة
كان عهد “الجهل” قبل ظهور الإسلام في الجزيرة العربية. وفي هذه الحقبة من الجهل، كان الزواج “حالة” بدلا من “عقد” عادل.
! الرجل من شأنه أن يرث زوجات والده ويمكن ان يبيع أو يدفن ابنتة حديثه الولادة على قيد الحياة ألغيت جميع هذه الممارسات  بصول الإسلام.
الإسلام هو “أسلوب حياة
معنى الكلمة العربية “الدين” هي “أسلوب الحياة” و طريقة الفرد للحياة في الخضوع لإرادة الله تشمل عبارة ” دين الإسلام”.
يوم الحساب
يؤمن المسلمون “بالمسؤولية الشخصية” و لا يؤمنون “بالتكفير بالانابه”.
في المسيحية، يشير التكفير إلى مسامحة أو العفو عن الخطيئة  من خلال “موت وقيامة” السيد المسيح. ، وان الانسان هو خاطىء ولا يمكن التكفير عن نفسه. على مر القرون، المسيحيون اإعطو تفسيرات متفاوتة للتعبير عن كيفية عمل التكفير.
في المقابل، يؤكد القرآن مرارا وتكرارا على رسالة للبشرية أن “كل شخص” هو المسؤول عن  نفسه وسيتم احياء  الجميع وسيكون لكل إنسان  الإجابة مباشرة الى الله لكل كلمة    و   فكر و  فعل.
الجهاد
                هذه الكلمة  وردت كثيرا في القرآن، تعني “الكفاح” أو “النضال” و لا تعني “الحرب المقدسة” . عبارة  “الحرب المقدسة”  غير موجودة في القرآن.
هذه الكلمة “الجهاد” تشير إلى ثلاثة صراعات أساسية:
• نضال الفرد الداخلي لتقديم إرادته لإرادة الله.
• الصراع المادي ضد الاضطهاد والقمع،
• النضال لبناء مجتمع   قوي خالي من الفساد .
الجنس هو بطبيعة الحال عنصرا في كل من هذه الصراعات الثلاثة، وبالتالي فهم شامل وعميق  للافعال الجنسية، والمبادئ التوجيهية  أمر بالغ الأهمية لكل رجل وامرأة من المسلمين.
اهميه الزواج
ويؤكد القرآن أن الأنبياء السابقين (بدءا من آدم) قد تزوج وأنتج الأطفال [2.35، 13.38].
افتراء
حذر الله مرارا وتكرارا المسلمين في القرآن من انتشار الفجور وكذلك  من  انتشار اتهامات كاذبة  بالفجور.
Charles le Gai Eaton (1921 – 2010) was a British diplomat, writer and Islamic scholar. Eaton was educated at Cambridge, where he studied history. Later he became consultant to the Islamic Cultural Centre at Regent's Park Mosque in London for over two decades. He recalled the story of slander against Aisha (Prophet Mohammad wife) in his book “Islam and the Destiny of Man “, first published in 1985, ISBN 0-04-297047-4, pages 85-86.

Charles le Gai Eaton (1921 – 2010) was a British diplomat, writer and Islamic scholar. Eaton was educated at Cambridge, where he studied history. Later he became consultant to the Islamic Cultural Centre at Regent’s Park Mosque in London for over two decades. He recalled the story of slander against Aisha (Prophet Mohammad wife) in his book “Islam and the Destiny of Man “, first published in 1985, ISBN 0-04-297047-4, pages 85-86.

 دبلوماسي بريطاني، كاتب ومفكر إسلامي – تشارلز لو جاي إيتون (2010 1921). تلقى تعليمه في جامعة كامبريدج، حيث درس التاريخ. وفي وقت لاحق أصبح مستشارا للمركز الثقافي الإسلامي في مسجد ريجنت بارك في لندن لأكثر من عقدين من الزمن. وأشار إلى قصة تشهير ضد عائشة (زوجة النبي محمد) في كتابه “الإسلام ومصير الإنسان”، نشرت لأول مرة في عام 1985، ISBN 0-04-297047-4،صفحات 85-86.

عائشة، زوجة النبي، بحثت عن  قلادة  لها مفقودة في حين قافلة جيشهم أوقفت لفترة وجيزة في الصحراء ثم انتقلت دونها من قبل الخطأ. شاب  في الخلفية حارس اكتشفها نائمة  على الرمال.  اصطحب وإعادها للقافلة. مهزوز الألسنة وأولئك الذين استاء لها أو لوالدها سارعوا للتعبير عن شكوكهم. مر شهر، كان الوضع رهيبا لعائشة كما لم تتمكن من اثبات العكس . تدخل الله في المسألة، وبرأها [24،11 حتي 20  ] مع هذا جاءت الآيات من التشريعات المتعلقة باتهامات بالزنا التي ظلت سارية المفعول .
العفة والزواج
يدعو الله   المسلمين الى العفة [24.33 (33.35)]. وضرب مثلا  العفة في شخص مريم العذراء  [3.42، 19،20 حتي 21].
اختار نبي الله يوسف   السجن بدلا من ينتهك عفته حتى في ظل الضغوط الشديدة [12،32 حتي 33)].
يدعو الله الرجال على الزواج من نساء المؤمنين بما في ذلك  (العبيد) [4.25]
لاحظ أن الآية [24.32]  تدعو   لعدم   الامتناع عن الزواج حتى في الفقر؛
وفي الوقت نفسه، استنكر الافتراءات والاتهامات الباطلة ضد النساء المؤمنات العفيفات بقوة [24،11 حتي 20].
الله يقدم مبادئ توجيهية شاملة وقواعد الإعداد لبيت المسلم. انظر على سبيل المثال (4،19-22)، (4،34-35)، (4،128 حتي 130).  الزواج في الإسلام هو عقد يسمى “نكاح”، التي تعني “الجماع” ، وإنما هو دلالة من رحمة الله لإحلال السلام والهدوء  والسكينه  للزوج والزوجة [30.21].
الزواج عن طريق عقد نكاح يتضمن
 

• اختيار الزوج؛ اقتراح من رجل (أو امرأة) والقبول من قبل المرأة (أو الرجل)

[2.221، 2.235، 4.3، (4،6)، (4،22-24)، (24.3)، (24.26)].  [24: 32-33] .

• إذن من أولياء المرأة، انظر [4.25] .
• دفع المهر من رجل إلى امرأة [4،4].

أيضا، يجب أن كلا الطرفين تأكيد إعلان الامتثال للقرآن،  الرجل والمرأة كل  له الحق في أن يعلن الظروف الخاصة  (إن وجدت) وبعد ذلك يتم كتابة عقد النكاح في وجود اثنين على الاقل من شهود العيان.  الزواج في الإسلام هو عقد فريد من نوعه. الله يشير إلى ذلك في القرآن الكريم باستخدام عبارات قوية وكلمات مثل “اميثاق غليض” أن يكون لها عواقب وخيمة في حال تجاهل [4.21].
لاحظ أن الله يستخدم نفس العبارة عن الاتفاق الذي تم بين الله والأنبياء قبل منحهم مسؤولية النبوه [33.7].
يقول القرآن أن الملائكة تمجيد ومدح الله، ويؤمنون به، وطلبوا الصفح عن الذين آمنوا والتوبة [40.7]. ونداء الى الله من اجل دخولهم الجنة والصالحين بين آبائهم وأزواجهم، والأطفال [40.8].  المفلحون [43.69] سيقال لدخول الجنة، جنبا إلى جنب مع أزواجهم،[43.70].

الله يذكر باستمرار حقوق المرأة، إلى حماية المرأة ويسلط الضوء على حقيقة أن بعض من أنبل بين البشر هم من النساء. في القرآن الكريم، بالإضافة إلى سورة اسمه المرأة [4] وآخر يدعى الطلاق [65] هناك تسمية سورة مريم [19] و  المجادلة (يشتكي ل الله عن زوجها) [58].

يتناول القرآن الكريم مريم بالاسم،  بين جميع النساء [3.42] ويذكر أيضا، كتلك بين أنبل بين البشر الأم  ويلقي موسى الرضيع في النهر دون الحزن أو الخوف) [(28.7)] وزوجة فرعون  [(66،11)] وزوجة عمران (أم مريم) [(3،35-37)] وملكة اليمن  مع النبي سليمان [(27،44)] وحتى زوجة العزيز الذي حاول إغواء النبي يوسف وتاب [(12،32 حتي 33)، (12،52 حتي 53)].
أفضل زوج
قام النبي محمد بالأعمال المنزلية.  الطبخ، وتنظيف المنزل. قال النبي محمد: “إن أفضل  الرجال من هم جيد لزوجاتهم” (ويستشهد هذا الحديث في العديد من مصادر الحديث).
الله يعطي الإذن للرجل ممارسة الجنس مع زوجته في رمضان (ليلا بعد الإفطار)، ولكن ليس في المساجد [2،187].
ولكن، يدعو الله  أزواج للفصل من زوجاتهم أثناء الحيض واستئناف ممارسة الجنس بعد أن يتم تطهيرها  منه [2،222].
و للزوج المسلم  تقبيل زوجته قبل الخروج للصلاة (دون تكرار الوضوء) أو حتى للصائم كما أفيد أن النبي محمد فعل ذلك.
حول عقد نكاح
تاريخيا، واصل بعض المسلمين تعديلات على عقد النكاح لأسباب وأهداف مختلفة بما في ذلك الحصول على الجنس والرفقة. هذه التعديلات غالبا ما تركز على اتفاق متبادل بين الرجل والمرأة كالتنازل عن بعض حقوقها الزوجية . يمارس الآن في عصرنا تحت عناوين مختلفة.
*  الزواج (المسيار)  في الغالب  في دول الخليج. من خلاله يستسلم الزوج حقه بشكل منتظم ( الزوجين لا يعيشون عادة معا) وزوجة يستسلم حقها في السكن والنفقات  والتقسيم المتساوي الليالي بين الزوجات في حالات تعدد الزوجات.
Several reports in the Media indicate Egypt's Grand (from 2003-2013) Mufti Dr. Ali Gomaa announced that

Several reports in the Media indicate Egypt’s Grand (from 2003-2013) Mufti Dr. Ali Gomaa announced that “travellers marriages,” known in Arabic as “Nikah Mesyar “, are legitimate unless banned by the state. However, it was also reported Saudi Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan (b. 1933) advised against it whilst Saudi Sheikh Adel Salim Al Kelbani approved a version of it.

وتشير العديد من التقارير في وسائل الإعلام أعلن المفتي  في مصر (2003-2013) الدكتور علي جمعة أن “الزواج المسافرين”،  مشروعة إلا إذا منعت من قبل الدولة. ومع ذلك، أفيد أيضا السعودي الشيخ صالح آل فوزان  نصح ضده بينما السعودي الشيخ عادل بن سالم  وافق على نسخة من ذلك.

* زواج المتعة   يمارس في الغالب في إيران (كما في لبنان، المملكة المتحدة، ودول أخرى)؛ له حد زمني    استسلم بعض الحقوق مثل زوجين لا ترث من بعضهم البعض، والرجل عادة ليس مسؤول عن تحقيق الرفاه الاقتصادي للمرأة وأنها قد تترك منزلها.
Ali al-Sistani (b. 1930), prominent Shia ceric in Iraq, wrote on his web site guidelines on Mutah Marriage (Temporary Marriage).

Ali al-Sistani (b. 1930), prominent Shia ceric in Iraq, wrote on his web site guidelines on Mutah Marriage (Temporary Marriage).

علي السيستاني (ولد في 1930)  الشيعي البارز في العراق، كتب على موقعه على شبكة الإنترنت على إرشادات الزواج المؤقت

*  الزواج (‘العرفي) يأخذ في الغالب مكان في مصر، في كثير من الأحيان سرا، دون موافقة  من ولي أمر العروس، على الرغم من أن العقد رسميا من قبل رجل الدين وأحيانا من قبل ممثل الدولة.
ومن بين النتائج الإيجابية تتمثل في الحصول على الجنس والأمومة، والرفقة والهروب من العنوسة. ومن بين الآثار السلبية على الأطفال اليتيم والتشرد المفاجئ للمرأة المعنية. وقد ناقش العلماء هذه التعديلات لسنوات عديدة، وهناك بعض العلماء المعروفين في كلا الجانبين من النقاش (مع أو ضد).
 العمر
ومن الأهمية بمكان أن نلاحظ أن سورة 65 في القرآن هي حول الطلاق وآية [65.4]  لا تتكلم عن الفتيات الذين لم يبلغوا بعد سن البلوغ حيث أن بعض العلماء قد اقترح ذالك، ولكن المطلقات  في سن الإنجاب الذين لا تحيض؛
هذا هو حالة طبية تعرف باسم  انقطاع الطمث الذي يعرف بأنه “عدم وجود فترة الحيض في امرأة في سن الإنجاب”. الفتيان والفتيات قبل سن البلوغ ليسو بعد في سن الإنجاب.
الله يربط الحد الأدنى لسن الزواج (للذكور والإناث) للوصول إلى البلوغ، في سورة 4 في القرآن وعدم الوصول إلى عدد معين من سنوات من العمر البلوغ  تختلف من فرد إلى آخر.
[4،6].
الله لا يحدد سن محدد لزواج رجل أو امرأة؛    الله يعرف هذا العصر كما الفتيان و الفتيات الحصول على صفة “نكاح” (أو سن البلوغ).
ويعرف البلوغ باسم “عملية التغيرات الجسدية التي من خلالها جسم الطفل  نضج إلى هيئة الكبار قادرة على التكاثر الجنسي لتمكين التخصيب”. وبعبارة أخرى، ينبغي للرجل لا يتمم الزواج مع عروسه الشابه حتى أنها جسديا قادرة على تحمل الجماع (وقادرة على الحمل).
سن الزواج وبطبيعة الحال يختلف من عصر  ومكان وبيئة إلى أخرى. ولكن، في كل الحالات، العصور والبيئات  يجب أن تصل إلى حالة “نكاح” لتكون متزوجة. القرآن لا يحتوي على السن  المحدد للزواج، لكنه  جعل من الواضح أن الرجال والنساء يجب أن يكون كلا ناضجة جسديا والحكم السليم من أجل الزواج
تعدد الزوجات
وقد مارست تعدد الزوجات من قبل البشر منذ العصور القديمة ودراسة حديثة (2003) نشرت في
USA-NCBI،
اختتمت
“كان البشر متعدد الزوجات أساسا خلال الكثير من تاريخهم”.
 في الهند كانت نسبة الزيجات بين عامي 1951 و 1961 بين الهندوس (5.06٪) أكثر من بين المسلمين (4.31٪) رغم إئه غير قانوني (من قبل الدولة) عند الهندوس أن يكون  لهم   تعدد الزوجات .
الله في القرآن [4.3،] يسمح تعدد الزوجات (الزواج من رجل واحد لأكثر من امرأة واحدة)، مع اشتراط أن الرجل قادر ومستعد لتقسيم وقته والثروة بصورة عادلة بين الزوجات .
حت هذه الآية [4،3]. الجنس ينبغي أن يتم في إطار عقد نكاح التي يمكن أن تمتد أيضا إلى أشكال أخرى من العلاقة التعاقدية (مثل تلك التي بين الزوج وامرأة أو أكثر مأسورة في الحرب أو رقيق النساء في الأيام التي كانت تمارس ويبرر).
سرد تاريخي في “صحيح البخاري” ينص نزلت هذه الآية [4.3] بعد غزوة أحد. والكثير من الرجال المسلمين الذين قتلوا  وترك الأرامل والأيتام، وبالتالي كان  إذن تعدد الزوجات أيضا في الوقت المناسب.
Muhammad Al-Bukhari (810-870) collected and compiled several thousand Hadiths in a volume known as “Sahih Al-Bukari”. He finished this work around 846 and its authenticity seems to have been accepted by other scholars of that era such as Ahmad ibn Hanbal (855), Yahya ibn Ma'in (847), and Ali ibn al-Madini (848). The “Sahih Al-Bukhari” ranks as the most authentic of the Kutub al-Sittah, the six books containing collections of hadith (sayings or acts of the prophet Muhammad).The next one is “Sahih Muslim”, collected by Muslim bin al-Hajjaj (d. 875 ).

Muhammad Al-Bukhari (810-870) collected and compiled several thousand Hadiths in a volume known as “Sahih Al-Bukari”. He finished this work around 846 and its authenticity seems to have been accepted by other scholars of that era such as Ahmad ibn Hanbal (855), Yahya ibn Ma’in (847), and Ali ibn al-Madini (848). The “Sahih Al-Bukhari” ranks as the most authentic of the Kutub al-Sittah, the six books containing collections of hadith (sayings or acts of the prophet Muhammad).The next one is “Sahih Muslim”, collected by Muslim bin al-Hajjaj (d. 875 ).

محمد البخاري (810-870) جمع  عدة آلاف من الأحاديث باسم “صحيح آلبخاري”. أنهى هذا العمل حوالي 846 ويبدو تم قبولها من قبل علماء آخرين في تلك الحقبة مثل أحمد بن حنبل (855)، يحيى بن معين (847)، وعلي بن المديني (848). “صحيح البخاري” تصنف باعتبارها الأكثر أصالة من الكتب الستة التي تحتوي على مجموعات من الحديث (أقوال أو أفعال النبي محمد). والمرحلة التالية هي “صحيح مسلم”، التي جمعها مسلم بن

-Hajjaj (د. 875).

،فوائد تعدد الزوجات لا يمكن إنكاره في العديد من الحالات الأخرى، على سبيل المثال إذا كانت الزوجة قاحلة أو مرضت بشكل خطير. الله لا يجعل تعدد الزوجات إلزاميا ولكن اختيار (للرجل) مع التحدي والحذر التي تتطلب عدالة الزوج إلى كل من زوجاته [4،129].
Recently, several campaigns have been launched by scholars , as well as unmarried women, calling upon married men to marry more than one wife. Marriage costs have become beyond the reach of young men leaving a lot of young women facing the prospects of staying spinsters.

Recently, several campaigns have been launched by scholars , as well as unmarried women, calling upon married men to marry more than one wife. Marriage costs have become beyond the reach of young men leaving a lot of young women facing the prospects of staying spinsters.

مؤخرا، تم إطلاق العديد من الحملات في الشرق الأوسط من قبل العلماء، وكذلك النساء غير المتزوجات، داعيا الرجال المتزوجين على الزواج بأكثر من زوجة واحدة. أصبحت تكاليف الزواج ليست في متناول الشباب وترك الكثير من الشابات  تواجه احتمالات البقاء عوانس.

في الإسلام، لا يجوز تعدد الأزواج (زواج امرأة واحدة لأكثر من رجل ).
الطلاق
الطلاق في الإسلام تم تناولها بدقة في القرآن الكريم. وينبغي النظر في الطلاق كملاذ أخير بعد محاولات من الوقت والمصالحة [2،226] جهود الانتظار، (وأيضا بعد وساطة [4.35)؛.
عندما  يحدث [2،227]. ثم مصالح الرجل [(2،228)] ومصالح النساء [2،229]  [(65،1 حتي 2)].
لاحظ أن الردع وضع للرجل  قبل أن يعلن أخيرا عن “تصريح الطلاق الثالث” [2،230].
ثم تصبح أمرين في غاية الأهمية ويجب أن تحضر بشكل عادل. وهي حماية الأطفال [2،233]. ومصالح النساء المطلقات [2،241].
رؤية المزيد من التفاصيل في الآيات الأخرى، مثل [2،231 حتي 232 و235-237  (33.49)، (65،1 حتي 2)].
وبالمثل مصالح النساء الأرامل يجب أن تكون محمية [(2،234، 2،240 حتي 241)].

الزنا

الله يحرم الزنا [17،32، 24،2 حتي 10، (24.26)  ,( 25.68)].

إذا أدين، فإن الرجل المسلم أو المرأة  تخضع لعقوبة 100 جلدة لكل منهما على النحو المنصوص عليه في
[24.2   ].
إذا لم تتم إدانتهم،  متهميهم (الذين يفشلون في توفير أربعة شهود) سيكون موضوع 80 جلدة على النحو المنصوص عليه في
[24.4].
 القربى
الله يحرم زواج المحارم ويحدد صراحة على قائمة شاملة من النساء بين الأقارب والمقربين معه ممنوع الجنس
[4،23-24].
  نلاحظ أن رجل مسلم  يتزوج الفتاة التي هي ابنة عمه الأولى ، ولكن لا يمكن أن تتزوج أي فتاة رضعت معه الثدي من امرأة (حتى لو هذه المرأة ليست أمه) عندما كانوا رضع.
أيضا، يمكن للرجل المسلم الزواج من مطلقة ابنه بالتبني [(33،37)] إلا أن تكون واحدة من تلك المدرجة في [4،23-24] أعلاه.
و رجل لا يمكن أن  تزوج أي المرأة كانت متزوجة سابقا إلى والده
[4.22،].
 الانفتاح على المتع الجنسية
الله يذكر المسلمين ومن آياته أن خلق البشر والحيوان والنبات أزواج جنسية [(4.1)، 16.72 (25.54)، (30.21)، (36.36)، (49.13)، (51.49)، و53،45-46].
الجنس هو جزء من الغرائز الطبيعية البشرية. و يشجع بشدة ويجب عدم قمعه
.الإسلام نهج منفتح لمرحة الجنس طالما أنها في إطار الزواج، وخالية من الفسق والزنا، انظر [2.187، 4.3، 4.23، 4.25، 24.26، 24.32]  و[2.223، 3.14، 5.87 و 25.74} ؛
اليوم، المسلمين (رجالا ونساء) لديهم ميل إلى نخجل من المناقشات الجنسية الصريحة. وصول الإسلام شجع النقاش حول الجنس  ، المتعة الجنسية خاصة للمرأة. وقد خسر هذا الانفتاح على مر الزمن، وأصبح  ذكر الجنس من المحرمات.
في كثير من المجتمعات،  الجنس موضوعا صعب الحديث  علنا بين المسلمين. ويشق هذا الموضوع دائما جانبا وعدم التعامل مع بطريقة صادقة.
 يتم الخلط بين الشباب المسلم من التناقض يظهر تجاه الجنس من قبل والديهم  يخرجون في العالم حيث أقرانهم منخراط في الجنس ويتحدث عن الجنس ولكن بعد ذلك يعودون إلى مجتمعاتهم الإسلامية فقط لتجد أن كبار السن ليسوا على استعداد لإشراك الموضوع بطريقة  ذات الصلة والأخلاقية.
أبو حامد الغزالي (1058-1111) ا     قدم المشورة   على الأزواج  الانخراط في الأعمال التي تمكن المرأة من تحقيق النشوة أولا.
وقال الغزالي في المادة 10 (من أصل 12) في المادة 3 من كتابه الشهير” إحياء علوم الدين “، أن الزوج المسلم لا ينبغي “التعايش مع زوجته دون التحدث معها أو دون تقبيلها وأو بدون أن
يكون قادر على كبح جماح القذف من السائل المنوي له قبل ذلك من السائل المنوي من زوجته “.
وقد استشهد أيضا أن ابن عمر قال (واحد من أهل العلم رفيق النبي}   ليفطر مع الجماع قبل الأكل وبعد وفاة فاطمة، تزوج زوجها علي في سبعة أيام.
Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali (1058-1111), the teacher at Baghdad’s Nizamia College and the most influential thinker of that Classical era, abruptly left his position and spent a decade in or between Damascus, Makka, Madina, and Jerusalem. During this period, he wrote his master-piece “Revivification of the Religious (Deen) Learnings” (in Arabic: Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Din), a grand work of forty books (including one on marriage), then returned to teaching. He left a legacy of works in jurisprudence, philosophy, theology, and Sufism.

Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali (1058-1111), the teacher at Baghdad’s Nizamia College and the most influential thinker of that Classical era, abruptly left his position and spent a decade in or between Damascus, Makka, Madina, and Jerusalem. During this period, he wrote his master-piece “Revivification of the Religious (Deen) Learnings” (in Arabic: Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Din), a grand work of forty books (including one on marriage), then returned to teaching. He left a legacy of works in jurisprudence, philosophy, theology, and Sufism.

أبو حامد الغزالي (1058-1111)، والمعلم في  كلية بغداد والمفكر الأكثر نفوذا في تلك الحقبة الكلاسيكية، غادر فجأة موقفه وقضى عشر سنوات في أو بين دمشق ومكة والمدينة المنورة والقدس. خلال هذه الفترة،  كتب   ( إحياء علوم الدين )، وهو عمل ضخم من أربعين كتابا (بما في ذلك واحد على الزواج)، ثم عاد إلى التدريس . و انه ترك إرثا من الأعمال في الفقه والفلسفة واللاهوت، والصوفية.
الصورة أعلاه هو انطباع فنان كيف الغزالي قد بدا  منذ أكثر من 900 سنة.

،  على  الرجال اليوم اتخاذ من الوقت والجهد لتعلم تقنيات (ليس من الاباحية، ولكن من مصادر تعليمية مناسبة) في العلاقة الزوجية، وجعل زوجاتهم يشعرون قيمة.
ينبغي أن تركز كل من الزوج والزوجة على زيادة معارفهم ومهاراتهم  الجنسية للاستمتاع المتبادل .
المداعبة
الله (بقوة) يدعو إلى ممارسة المداعبة، انظر [2.223]، وردد هذا النداء عن النبي   – الحديث.
المداعبة   تشمل مزح خارج غرفة النوم، والحديث، والتقبيل واللمس والتدليك، والمعانقة، الملاطفة، تعري، الملاعبة، وأي شيء للحصول على مزاج والوصول إلى الإثارة الكاملة
الاستمناء
ناقش العلماء هذا الموضوع على مدى قرون.
 مدرسة فكرية اتخذت الموقف  إذا كان الشخص استمنى بقصد إنقاذ نفسه من ارتكاب الخطيئة (مثل الزنا) لن يكون خطيئة، وإذا كان يفعل ذلك مع نية التمتع انه سيكون آثم . وأوصوا بأن يفعل الحسنات كما يوجد في الإسلام “لا شك فضائل يمحو الخطايا
” [11.114].
الرجال قد يتمتع استمناء جسديا، ولكن البعض قد تجد أنه تركهم فارغة عاطفيا، والاكتئاب أو وحيدا لشيء حقيقي أو الرفقة.
وينبغي أن يكون مسلم تقاوم هذا الإغراء كما هو أو هي من استمنى قد، وفقا لبعض العلماء، ويعتبر من بين “أولئك الذين يسعون إليه شيئا” ما وراء تلك المحددة في [23،5 حتي 7].
ولكن، يجب  أن نضع في اعتبارنا أن القرآن لا يذكر الاستمناء.
من ناحية أخرى، وقد ذكر أنه من الشرعي (وفقا لمذهب الحنبلي) للزوج أن تحقيق القذف من قبل زوجته استمناء له، وفرك قضيبه بين فخذيها أو الثديين.
الجنس عن طريق الفم
القرآن والحديث لا يذكر، وبالتالي لا تحظر الجنس عن طريق الفم بين الزوج والزوجة.
Ahmad Al-Kubaisi (b. 1934), an Iraqi scholar based in UAE, who is the head of Sharia Studies at UAE University and Baghdad University and leads prayers at the state mosque of Abu Dhabi , also spoke on TV (2013-14) regarding Oral Sex as being permissible citing Muhammad Al-Qurtubi (1214-1273) the scholar who was born in Cordoba, Spain.

Ahmad Al-Kubaisi (b. 1934), an Iraqi scholar based in UAE, who is the head of Sharia Studies at UAE University and Baghdad University and leads prayers at the state mosque of Abu Dhabi , also spoke on TV (2013-14) regarding Oral Sex as being permissible citing Muhammad Al-Qurtubi (1214-1273) the scholar who was born in Cordoba, Spain.

تحدث أحمد الكبيسي (ولد في 1934)، وهو باحث عراقي مقيم في دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة، هو رئيس قسم دراسات الشريعة في جامعة الإمارات العربية المتحدة وجامعة بغداد ويؤدي صلاة الجمعة في مسجد الدولة أبوظبي، وأيضا على التلفزيون (2013-14) حول الجنس عن طريق الفم على أنه يجوز نقلا عن محمد القرطبي (1214-1273) الباحث الذي ولد في قرطبة، إسبانيا.

الجنس عن طريق الفم هو استخدام الفم أو اللسان لتحفيز الأعضاء التناسلية لشخص آخر (التحفيز الشفوي للجهاز الذكور يسمى “اللسان” والتحفيز الشفوي من الأعضاء التناسلية كما هو معروف “اللحس”). ويشمل الجنس عن طريق الفم مجموعة واسعة من الأنشطة، من مجرد تقبيل الأعضاء التناسلية لاتخاذ الفعلي في والبلع من السوائل الجنسية. لا يعتبر المني الرجل نجس (النجس) وفقا لعلماء الشافي، خلافا لعلماء الحنفية، ولكن على حد سواء يبدو أن نتفق ابتلاع السوائل الجنسية ينبغي ألا يكون مسموحا به. كان واحدا من المناقشات التي جرت مؤخرا بين اثنين من العلماء التركي (الموالية والمعارضة) على شاشة التلفزيون في يوليو 2015.
Yusuf al-Qaradawi (b. 1926), an Egyptian scholar based in Qatar, is the author of some 80 books. Among his most famous works are “The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam” and “Fiqh al-Zakat”. He released statements on Oral Sex (cited in this Article) and expressed opposition to female genital mutilation (FGM).

Yusuf al-Qaradawi (b. 1926), an Egyptian scholar based in Qatar, is the author of some 80 books. Among his most famous works are “The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam” and “Fiqh al-Zakat”. He released statements on Oral Sex (cited in this Article) and expressed opposition to female genital mutilation (FGM).

يوسف القرضاوي (ولد في 1926)، وهو  مصري مقره في قطر، وهو مؤلف من نحو 80 كتابا. ومن بين أعماله الأكثر شهرة هي “الحلال والممنوع في الإسلام” و “فقه الزكاة”. وأصدر بيانات عن الجنس عن طريق الفم (المذكورة في هذه المادة)، وأعرب عن المعارضة لتشويه الأعضاء التناسلية للإناث (ختان الإناث).

لذلك، كان هذا الموضوع أيضا موضوع نقاش لعدة قرون. رأي الشهير الباحث المصري المعاصر يوسف القرضاوي (مقره في قطر) الذي درس على الأرجح هذا النقاش بدقة وقد نقل على النحو التالي “… فقهاء المسلمين هي من رأي أنه  قانوني للزوج لأداء اللحس على زوجته، أو زوجة لأداء عمل مماثل لزوجها (اللسان) وليس هناك أي خطأ في ذلك، ولكن إذا مص يؤدي إلى الإفراج عن السائل المنوي، فمذموم (أو مكروه)، ولكن ليس هناك دليل حاسم لجعله غير قانوني، وخاصة إذا كانت الزوجة توافق معها أو تحقق النشوة الجنسية من خلال ممارسة ذلك “.
السحاق
بعض النساء المسلمات يشعرون أنهن في معضلة. كتب أحدهن “أنا مثلية، لقد ولدت بهذه الطريقة، ولكن في نفس الوقت، وأنا أصلي خمس مرات في اليوم. أصوم في رمضان. أنا أستمتع حضور محادثات الإسلامية في  (الجامعة)”.
: مؤشرات على ما وكيفية أداء امرأتين في السرير يمكن أن يكون الجنس (بدون رجل). على ما يبدو
، قبلة، عناق، مص، يداعب كل جسد الآخر لساعات ويداعب حلمات و / أو البظور بعضهم البعض، المس  مع أصابع وألسنة، الصحافة وفرك اجسادهم و أو الاستمناء معا، الجنس عن طريق الفم مع بعضها البعض (أو في نفس الوقت مع بعضهم البعض في موقف ’69’)، مما يجعل الضوضاء، لعق (الالسنه، المهبل أو الثدي)، المقص (حيث لمس أعضائهم التناسلية معا وأو فرك لهم)ا يمكن أن هزة الجماع مرة واحدة أو عدة مرات.
جلبت مقالة نشرت مؤخرا عن أحدث التطورات في الزواج من نفس الجنس في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية بإعلان أن “throuple” ، عبارة جديدة تشير إلى “ثلاثة مثليات الزوجية”،! وأشارت هذه المادة اتفق نحو 300 حلفاء المثليين الآن فصاعدا “لا يوجد سبب لعدم مواصلة إعادة تشكيل” الزواج “لتشمل شريك متعددة”، وفقا لأستاذ ماكورميك الفقه في جامعة برينستون
USA Supreme Court ruled by a 5-to-4 vote in June 2015 that the Constitution guarantees a right to same-sex marriage nationwide. President Obama called the Supreme Court decision

USA Supreme Court ruled by a 5-to-4 vote in June 2015 that the Constitution guarantees a right to same-sex marriage nationwide. President Obama called the Supreme Court decision “a victory for America.” In the build up to this legislation, the New York Post, on April 23, reported that Doll, Kitten, and Brynn Young, three Massachusetts women in a polyamorous relationship, were expecting their first child after uniting in an August 2013 commitment ceremony. And after undergoing IVF with an unknown sperm donor, the youngest of the group is now with child. This action, as in the case of three men in polyamorous relationship, is not criminal offence in the USA where it is a criminal offence for a man to marry two women! One wonders on what President Barak Hossein Obama think of where the USA legal system heading with this?

المحكمة العليا

التزام ثلاثة رجال ، ليست جريمة جنائية في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية حيث هو جريمة جنائية للرجل أن يتزوج امرأتين!
من جهة أخرى، استنادا إلى بيانات الباحثون ان النساء لديهم احتمال أكبر من الرجال من الانجذاب إلى كل من الرجال والنساء … وهذا يدل على أن الحياة الجنسية للمرأة قد تكون أكثر مرونة وتكيفا من الرجال.
لفهم هذا الموضوع، وهناك ثلاثة الآيات [3.14، 19.20 و 4.15] في القرآن الكريم التي تستدعي اهتماما وثيقا.
كلمة رئيسية في [3.14] هو “الناس”، والذي يشير بوضوح “للرجال والنساء” وليس فقط الى “الرجال”!
 وآية  الثانية [19:20]، والتي توفر تأكيدا حاسما و “الوضوح الدقيق” إلى أقصى درجات النقاء والعفة مريم، يستخدم كلمة رئيسية أخرى هو ” بشر”  التي تشير إلى “رجل أو امرأة”، بدلا من  فقط إلى “رجل”! وهذا أمر مهم، لأنه من الممكن، على الأقل وفقا لخدمة البريطانية الوطنية للصحة
(NHS) موقع على شبكة الإنترنت للمرأة للحصول على الحمل دون الجماع الجنسي، على سبيل المثال: إذا كانت (أو شريكها – ذكرا كان أو إناث) والسائل
المنوي أو ما قبل القذف على الأصابع ولمس مهبلها.
هذه الآيات اثنين [3.14، 19.20]  أن يمكن للمرأة، وبطبيعها  تسعى أيضا متع جنسية من نساء أخريات. ولكن، نكاح بيت الزوجية التعاقدية، التي يرأسها رجل، هو المؤسسة الشرعية الوحيدة في القرآن؛ انظر [4.3، 4.34، و4،128-129] .
في الإسلام، يجب على المسلمين تلبية كل ما لديهم الجنسية (وكذلك الملذات الأخرى والجذب الكامنة بما في ذلك الحب، والرفقة والإنجاب، والرحمة، والاحتياجات المادية والعاطفية، والرغبات والشهوات) داخل الزيجات التعاقدية نكاح
. ولذلك، الخيارات المتاحة لكلا الطرفين هي على النحو التالي؛
• للرجل المسلم يمكن أن يكون أكثر من زوجة واحدة بشرط أن يكون قادرا ومستعدا لتقسيم وقته والثروة بصورة عادلة بين الزوجات منها؛ أو غير ذلك يجب أن يتزوج من زوجة واحدة فقط، انظر
[3.14، 4.3] .
• للمرأة المسلمة (مع رغبات مثليه ) يمكن أن يكون الزوج الذي هو على استعداد لقبول حالتها (بدعم من واحده على الأقل من زوجاته القائمة التي هي على استعداد للقيام بأعمال مثليه مع  الزوجة الجديدة )؛ أو    قمع السحاق  وتعيش مع زوجها في الجنس الثابت الوحيد الذي هي قادرة  ايضا قادره  عليه بشكل طبيعي  انظر
[3.14، 4.3] .
لاحظ أنه يتم السماح للنساء لوضع بنود وشروط مقدما في عقد نكاح بهم.
وفقا لذلك، قد تكون الأفعال مثليه فقط مشروعا ضمن حدود الزواج متعدد الزوجات [4،3]، داخل خصوصية بيت الزوجية الخاصة، وتوفير، بطبيعة الحال، موافقة مسبقة من أزواجه و زوجة المعنية .
والثالثه [4.15 ]. يعالج النساء المتزوجات اللواتي ارتكبن عمل مثليه مع غيرها من النساء الذين ليسوا زوجات زوجها . هذه الآية يدل على هذا الفعل كما الفاحشة (بذيئة) والمخاطر، عند الإدانة، والعقوبة السجن المؤبد (الإقامة الجبرية).
Laura Poyneer is a white American convert to Islam who lives near Seattle, USA. By day, she works for a blogging company, while in the evenings she serves as Muslim ARC’s Membership Services Chair. She wrote Articles on Seattle mosques and, in September 2015, most notably, on her personal experiences in life as an “asexual” and Muslim.

Laura Poyneer is a white American convert to Islam who lives near Seattle, USA. By day, she works for a blogging company, while in the evenings she serves as Muslim ARC’s Membership Services Chair. She wrote Articles on Seattle mosques and, in September 2015, most notably, on her personal experiences in life as an “asexual” and Muslim.

لورا Poyneer

أمريكيه اعتنقت الإسلام   بالقرب من سياتل، الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية. انها تعمل في شركة تدوين،    

  تكتب  عن المساجد سياتل و، في سبتمبر 2015، وعلى الأخص، على تجربتها الشخصية في الحياة بأنه “عديم الجنس” ومسلمه.

وبالمثل، فإن “عديم الجنس” امرأة مسلمة يمكن، إذا رغبت،    تدخل عقد الزواج بإعلان حالتها مقدما على موافقة مسبقة من قبل الرجل. ويعرف اللاجنسية ب “عدم وجود  الجذب الجنسي لأي شخص أومنخفضة أو غائبة في النشاط الجنسي”.
الجنس الشرجي مع زوجه
قلة من العلماء، الذين يقولون هذا الفعل جائز، ذلك وفقا لهذا التفسير لمعنى [2.223، ] بناء على حديث واحد أفاد به محمد بن إسماعيل البخاري (810-870)، ولكن غالبية العلماء لا توافق على مثل هذا التفسير وتشير إلى هذا العمل لا يجوز نقلا عن عدد من الأحاديث كما ورد في عدة مصادر أخرى موثوق بها.
إذا كان الرجل عادة يفعل هذا أو يصر على ممارسة الجنس الشرجي مع زوجته،  انها لديها الحق في طلب الطلاق، لأنه يعتبر التسبب في ضرر بنشاطاته (أيضا لأن واحدا من مقاصد النكاح لا يمكن أن يتحقق من خلال هذا العمل).
تشويه الأعضاء التناسلية الأنثوية (ختان الإناث)
لا يوجد أي شرط في القرآن لختان الإناث.
الله في القرآن والنبي محمد في الحديث يلمح الى طبيعة العلاقات الجنسية كوسيلة لتحقيق الارتياح المتبادل والتواصل والتراحم بين الزوج وزوجته .
ختان الإناث هو عادة تمارس منذ فترة طويلة قبل ظهور الإسلام في الجزيرة العربية في العديد من الأماكن بما فيها روسيا وأمريكا الجنوبية؛ فإنه لا يزال يمارس في السودان، وبدرجة أقل في مصر.
ممارسة “البظر” يمكن أن يكون الإجراء معتدل تنطوي على قطع من جزء صغير جدا من الجزء الخارجي للبظر
(حوالي 1mm إلى 3MM ومقصوص من أعلى جدا من البظر) التي قد لا يقلل من الرغبة الجنسية أو يؤدي إلى الآخر المضاعفات.
ولكن، تشويه الأعضاء التناسلية الأنثوية (ختان الإناث) يمكن أن تكون شديدة، أقسى بكثير وغير المحترمة، وبالتالي غير مقبول في الإسلام لأنه يؤدي إلى الضعف الجنسي للمرأة شديد، وبالتالي منعها من تحقيق فاء الجنسي الذي هو حق لها كإنسان.
اللواط
واستنكر هذا العمل مرارا وتكرارا في القرآن من خلال قصة سيدنا لوط المتعلقة شعبه الذي يمارس عليه، انظر على سبيل المثال
[27،54-58].
انظر أيضا [(7،80-84)، (11،78 حتي 83)، (15،61 حتي 75)، (21.74)، (26،162 حتي 174)، و (29،28 حتي 30)].
العلماء يعترفون بأن القرآن لا ينص صراحة عقوبة محددة. ومع ذلك، كثير من العلماء أن عقوبة هذا الفعل يجب أن يكون نفس بتهمة الزنا. .
وتجدر الإشارة إلى أن العقوبات الزنا توصف في القرآن على أدلة على أربعة شهود ذكورحسن السمعة. بعض المعلقين النظر في مستويات الإثبات التي تتطلبها الشريعة الإسلامية هي عالية جدا، بحيث الإدانة إذا تم تطبيق القواعد بشكل صحيح من المستحيل تقريبا
Alfred Kinsey (1894 –1956) published, in 1948-1953, a scale which uses grading from 0, meaning exclusively heterosexual, to 6, meaning exclusively homosexual. An additional grade, listed as

Alfred Kinsey (1894 –1956) published, in 1948-1953, a scale which uses grading from 0, meaning exclusively heterosexual, to 6, meaning exclusively homosexual. An additional grade, listed as “X”, was used to mean “no socio-sexual contacts or reactions” or asexual. In approximate numbers, it brands bi-sexual behaviours (3-5) in 12% of men and 5% of women and homosexual behaviours (6) in 10% of men and 2% of women, and some 1% are placed under X. Kinsey was himself bi-sexual. Jones, James H. (1997) wrote that Kinsey’s sexual activity influenced his work, that he over-represented prisoners and prostitutes, classified some single people as “married” and that he included a disproportionate number of homosexual men, which may have distorted his studies. Nevertheless, this simplistic straight-line scale caught the public eye in the Western world. The Kinsey Reports, which led to a storm of controversy, are regarded by many as a precursor to the sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s.

ألفريد كينزي (1894 -1956)، نشر في 1948-1953، السلوكيات  الجنسية الدرجات من 0، إلى 6،

“X”
تقارير كينزي، ا أدى إلى عاصفة من الجدل من قبل العديد تمهيدا للثورة الجنسية
i980 – 1960
في العالم الغربي.
 في عام 1995، جامعة ستانفورد بيان صحفي أشارت تحت عنوان “أساس البيولوجي التوجه الجنسي” أن 3٪ -5٪ م      الذي هو أقل من التقدير كينزي السابق البالغ 10٪ من دراسة 1950
في مايو 2009، صحيفة الغارديان البريطانية ذكرت “لا أحد من المسلمين البريطانيين الذين تمت مقابلتهم 500 يعتقد أن الأفعال المثلية مقبولة أخلاقيا”. حتى التقدميين       والمعتدلين مثل الإمام حمزة يوسف في الولايات المتحدة والبروفيسور طارق رمضان في المملكة المتحدة تنظر الشذوذ الجنسي أن يكون خطيئة جسيمة.
وتفيد التقارير أنه حكم على رجل سعودي في عام 2010 إلى جلد 500 جلدة وخمس سنوات في السجن لممارسة الجنس مع رجل آخر، وأنه منذ غزو العراق عام 2003 أكثر من 700 شخص قد قتلوا بسبب هذه الأفعال. وذكر أيضا أن تقدير 4000 مثليون جنسيا قد أعدموا في إيران منذ قيام الثورة في ذلك البلد في عام 1979، فضلا عن عمليات الإعدام العلنية على نطاق واسع من مثليون جنسيا في أفغانستان من قبل حركة طالبان.
في الإسلام، بغض النظر عن الدراسات الاستقصائية أو إحصاءات السلوكية، إذا كان هناك مثل أقلية من النزعات السلوكية بين الرجال المسلمين من المتوقع أن السيطرة على أنفسهم والحفاظ على واضح من هذا الفعل؛ وإلا فإنها قد تواجه عواقب وخيمة في الدنيا والآخرة
استنتاج
الجنس هو هدية رائعة من الله. الخاسرون هم الذين الاعتداء عليه. والفائزون هم أولئك الذين يستخدمونه بمسؤولية لتحقيق أقصى قدر من الملذات والسعادة مع مراعاة أساسيات التالية:
الزوج المسلم يمكن أن يكون الجنس فقط مع زوجته . واستنكر اللواط مرارا وتكرارا في القرآن الكريم.
الزوجة المسلمة يمكن أن يكون الجنس مع رجل واحد فقط؛ زوجها. انها أيضا التمتع أفعال مثلية مع زوجات زوجها أو أفعال  مع زوجها وزوجاته .
منع الوطء في الدبر والزنا،
يحظر أي نشاط جنسي  خارج  عقد الزواج على جميع المسلمين، رجالا ونساء.
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Sex with reference to the Quran

 

By A. Taha, London, United Kingdom

Updated on 10 November 2015

Sex in Islam is best understood in its various aspects and perspectives through, in the first place, citations from the Quran. There are sufficient numbers of Ayahs (Ayahs) in the Quran that are clear and expressively direct on all vital issues.

The Quran confirms Prophet Muhammad (570-632) as the first role model for every Muslim, see English translation of Ayahs [6.162-163] shown below;

[6:162] Say: ‘My prayer and my rituals, and my living, and my dying, are all for God, the Lord of the Worlds [6:163] No associate has He. And to this, I have been commanded, and I am the first of those who submit’.

His conduct of his life and what he said is the ideal model to follow for blessed life, including happy marriage. There are many books of Hadith (Prophet Mohammad actions or statements), vast number of voluminous publications that have been accumulated over centuries of works by outstanding scholars in many schools of thought. Yet, it remains vital for every Muslim, man and woman, irrespective of sect and school of thought to carefully listen to the Quranic Ayahs on sex, sexuality and sexual behaviours. After all, the key word in the Quran on this matter is ”Nikah” (Arabic: نكاح) which literally means “sexual intercourse”. Practical and domestic problems, including forced marriages, incest, dysfunctional sexual life, honour killings, lesbianism stigma and FGM would be successfully mitigated and may not even arise if one refers to, understand and truly comply with what is clearly outlined in the Quran.

The Quran

The Quran Muslims believe the Quran is the words of The Creator, God (in Arabic: Allah), and not a document authored by a human (or humans) or angles or any other than The Creator Himself (God). The Quran was read by The Creator’s Angel messenger (Gabriel) directly to The Creator’s human messenger (Prophet Muhammad) over a period of 23 years nearly 14 centuries ago. Since then people memorize the Quran; generation after generation. In today’s printed form on paper the Quran is normally contained in a single book of around 600 pages widely available in recorded voice, video, paper and on the internet. The Quran contains 114 Surah each constitutes a number of Ayahs .

The Quran
Muslims believe the Quran is the words of The Creator, God (in Arabic: Allah), and not a document authored by a human (or humans) or angles or any other than The Creator Himself (God). The Quran was read by The Creator’s Angel messenger (Gabriel) directly to The Creator’s human messenger (Prophet Muhammad) over a period of 23 years nearly 14 centuries ago. Since then people memorize the Quran; generation after generation. In today’s printed form on paper the Quran is normally contained in a single book of around 600 pages widely available in recorded voice, video, paper and on the internet. The Quran contains 114 Surah each constitutes a number of Ayahs .

It is not possible to make precise translation of the Quran from the original Arabic to any other language. But many attempts have already been made to translate the Quran from Arabic to over 40 of World languages. Though each translation effort aims to deliver the original Arabic words’ meaning or a thorough interpretation thereof; such effort remains unable to provide the presence, beauty, fullness, coherence, depth and perfection of the Quran when recited in original Arabic. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to refer to the Quran in the original Arabic language and if such is not possible then one should consult more than one translation, see subtitle “Citations from the Quran” at the bottom of this Article.

This Quran translation to English is by Yusuf Ali (1872 –1953) a British-Indian Islamic scholar. He died in London and is buried in England at the Muslim cemetery at Brookwood, Surrey (near Woking), not far from the burial place of Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall (1875 –1936) who was a Western Islamic scholar (a convert from Christianity) also noted for his translation of the Qur'an (1930) from Arabic to English.

This Quran translation to English is by Yusuf Ali (1872 –1953) a British-Indian Islamic scholar. He died in London and is buried in England at the Muslim cemetery at Brookwood, Surrey (near Woking), not far from the burial place of Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall (1875 –1936) who was a Western Islamic scholar (a convert from Christianity) also noted for his translation of the Qur’an (1930) from Arabic to English. This translation is one of 10 other translations listed at the bottom of this Article.. Total number of translations count is beyond this Article scope.

The English translation of all cited Ayahs within this Article, such as [6.162] shown above,  is from a single source; that is as published on the Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought, Amman, Jordan, 2008. The English translation of the cited Ayahs under subtitle “Citations from the Quran” at the bottom of this Article, such as [24.11] is primarily based on cautious correlation-comparison of more than one translation with the Arabic original.

Each of the cited Ayahs, whether within this Article text or those listed under subtitle “Citations from the Quran” at the bottom of this Article, is preceded by a numerical code within two brackets; for example: [4.3] refers to Ayah number 3 in Surah number 4.

Ignorance and Knowledge

The Arabic word “Jaheleyah – جاهيليه” refers to the era of “ignorance” prior to the advent of Islam in Arabia. In this era of ignorance, marriage was a “status” rather than a fair “contract”. Under such status men would disregard a woman view in respect of her own marriage or own divorce; a man would inherit his father wives (including his own mother!) and could sell or bury his own new-born daughter alive!  All such “statuary” practices were abolished by the arrival of Islam.

Islam is “way of life”

The meaning of the Arabic word “Deen – دين” is “way of life” and the English word “religion” is therefore considered by Muslims insufficient to describe Islam. Individual’s way of life in submission to the will of God encompasses the Arabic phrase “Deen al Islam

Judgment Day

Muslims believe in “personal responsibility” and do not believe in “vicarious atonement” .

In Christianity, atonement refers to the forgiving or pardoning of sin in general and original sin in particular through the “death and resurrection” of Jesus. To atone means to make amends (to repair a wrong done) and man is a sinner and cannot atone for himself. Throughout the centuries, Christians have used different metaphors and given differing explanations of the atonement to express how the atonement might work.

In contrast, the Quran repeatedly stresses the message to mankind that “each person” is responsible for “his” or “her” own actions and that on Judgment Day everyone will be resurrected and each human will individually have to answer directly to God for every word, thought and deed.

Jihad

The Arabic word “Jihad – جهاد “, which is frequently used in the Quran, means “to strive” or “to struggle” and it does not mean “holy war” which is in Arabic “Harb Muqadasa- مقدسه حرب” a phrase not found in the Quran.

The Arabic word “Jihad – جهاد ” refers to three basic struggles:

  • Individual’s inner struggle to submit their will to the will of God.
  • Physical struggle against persecution and oppression, and
  • Struggle to build a robust corruption-free society.

Sex is naturally a prime component in each of these three struggles and therefore a thorough and deep understanding of sexual acts, guidelines and regulations is critical for every Muslim man and women.

Celibacy

God states in the Quran that He did not ordain Celibacy (on mankind) but people (monks) invented it [57.27];

[57:27] Then We sent to follow in their footsteps Our messengers, and We sent to follow, Jesus son of Mary, and We gave him the Gospel, and We placed in the hearts of those who followed him kindness and mercy. But [as for] monasticism, they invented it — We had not prescribed it for them — only seeking God’s beatitude. Yet they did not observe it with due observance. So We gave those of them who believed their reward; but many of them are immoral.

And the Quran confirms that previous Prophets (beginning with Adam) have married and produced children [2.35, 13.38];

[2:35] And We said, ‘Adam, dwell and your wife in the Garden and eat thereof easefully where you desire; but do not come near this tree lest you be evildoers (in another translation: lest you sin)’.

[13:38] And indeed We sent messengers before you, and We assigned to them wives and seed; and it was not for any Messenger that he should bring a sign, save by God’s leave. For every term there is a Book.

Slander

God repeatedly warned Muslims in the Quran against the spread of immorality as well as the spread of false accusations of immorality.

Charles le Gai Eaton (1921 – 2010) was a British diplomat, writer and Islamic scholar. Eaton was educated at Cambridge, where he studied history. Later he became consultant to the Islamic Cultural Centre at Regent's Park Mosque in London for over two decades. He recalled the story of slander against Aisha (Prophet Mohammad wife) in his book “Islam and the Destiny of Man “, first published in 1985, ISBN 0-04-297047-4, pages 85-86.

Charles le Gai Eaton (1921 – 2010) was a British diplomat, writer and Islamic scholar. Eaton was educated at Cambridge, where he studied history. Later he became consultant to the Islamic Cultural Centre at Regent’s Park Mosque in London for over two decades. He recalled the story of slander against Aisha (Prophet Mohammad wife) in his book “Islam and the Destiny of Man “, first published in 1985, ISBN 0-04-297047-4, pages 85-86.

Aisha, the Prophet’s wife, was looking for her lost necklace whilst their army caravan halted briefly in the desert then moved on without her by error. A young man following in the rear-guard discovered her asleep on the sand. Losing no time he escorted and re-united her with the main body of the caravan. Tongues wagged and those who resented her or her father were quick to voice their suspicions. A month passed, it was a terrible situation for Aisha as she was unable to prove a negative. God intervened in the matter and exonerated her and condemned her detractors [(24.11-20), Note: English translation of an Ayah number given within two smooth brackets ( ) is given below at the bottom of this Article under sub-title “Citations from the Quran”]. With this came Ayahs of legislation concerning accusations of adultery which have remained valid for ever after.

Chastity and Marriage Importance

God calls for chastity [24.33, (33.35)];

[24:33] And let those who cannot find the means to marry be continent, until God enriches them out of His bounty. And those who seek a written contract [of emancipation], from among those whom your right hand owns, contract with them accordingly, if you know in them any good, and give them out of the wealth of God which He has given you. And do not compel your slave-girls to prostitution when they desire to be chaste, that you may seek the transient things of the life of this world. And should anyone compel them, then surely God, after their compulsion, will be Forgiving, Merciful.

And gave the ultimate example of chastity in the person of Virgin Mary mother of Jesus in [3.42, 19.20-21];

[3:42] And when the angels said, ‘O Mary, God has preferred you, and made you pure; He has preferred you above all women of the worlds.

[19:20] She said, ‘How shall I have a boy when no human being has [ever] touched me, neither have I been unchaste?’ [19:21] He said, ‘It shall be so! Your Lord has said: “It is easy for Me, and so that We may make him a sign for mankind, and a mercy from Us. And it is a thing [already] decreed” ‘.

Muslim youths are expected to remain chaste. Prophet Yusuf opted to choose jail rather than violate his chastity even under extreme seductive pressures [(12.32-33)];

God calls upon Muslim men to get married to believing women including servants (slaves) [4.25];

[4:25] And whoever has not the means wherewith to be able to marry believing women in wedlock, let him take believing maids whom your right hands own. God knows very well your faith; the one of you is as the other. So marry them, with the permission of their folk, and give them their wages, honourably, as women in wedlock, not illicitly, or taking lovers. But when they are given in wedlock, if they commit lewdness, they shall be liable to half the chastisement, of married women. That is for those of you who fear the distress of sin, yet it is better for you to be patient. God is Forgiving, Merciful.

Note that Ayah [24.33], shown above, is also preceded by [24.32] which calls for single Muslims to marry and not refrain from marriage even in poverty;

[24:32] And marry off the spouseless among you and the righteous ones among your male slaves and your female slaves. If they are poor, God will enrich them out of His bounty. God is Embracing.

At the same time, slander and false accusations against believing chaste women is strongly deplored [(24.11-20)].

Marital Home in Islam and Nikah Contract

God presents comprehensive guidelines and rules on the setting out of a Muslim household. See for example [(4.19-22), (4.34-35), (4.128-130)]. Marriage in Islam is a contract called “Nikah”, which means “sexual intercourse” literary, and it is a sign of God’s Mercy that should bring peace and tranquillity to the husband and the wife [30.21];

[30:21] And of His signs is that He created for you from yourselves mates that you might find peace by their side, and He ordained between you affection and mercy. Surely in that there are signs for a people who reflect.

Another translation of Ayah [30.21]

Another translation of Ayah [30.21]

Marriage by Nikah contract normally includes;

  • Spouse selection; proposal from the man (or the woman) and acceptance by the woman (or the man) [2.221, 2.235, 4.3, (4.6), (4.22-24), (24.3), (24.26)];

[2:221] Do not marry idolatresses until they believe; a believing slavegirl is better than an idolatress, though you may admire her. And do not marry idolaters, until they believe. A believing slave is better than an idolater, though you may admire him. Those call to the Fire; and God calls to Paradise and pardon by His leave; and He makes clear His signs to the people so that they might remember.

[2:235] You would not be at fault regarding the proposal you present or hide in your hearts to women. God knows that you will be mindful of them; but do not make arrangements with them secretly, unless you speak honourable words. And do not resolve on the knot of marriage until that which is written has reached its term; and know that God knows what is in your souls; so be fearful of Him; and know that God is Forgiving, Forbearing.

[4:3] If you fear that you will not act justly towards the orphans, marry such women as seem good to you, two or three or four, but if you fear you will not be equitable, then only one, or what your right hands own; thus, it is likelier that you will not be unjust (in another translation: that will be more suitable to avoid hardship (of a large family)).

See also [24:32-33] shown above.

  • Permission from the woman guardians, see  [4.25] shown above.
  • Payment of a dowry from the man to the woman [4.4];
[4:4] And give women their dowries as a free gift; but if they are pleased to offer you any of it of their own accord, consume it with wholesome appetite.
  • Man’s acceptance of his position as protector, maintainer and supporter of the family as the head of the household, see [4.34-35] shown above.

Also, both parties should confirm declaration of compliance with the Quran, including but not limited to requirements of divorce should it occur in future [(2.231-237), (2.241), (33.49), and (65.1-2)]; see also sub-title “Divorce” below. The man and the woman each has the right to declare their own specific conditions (if any) and the Nikah contract is then written in the presence of at least two witnesses.

Marriage in Islam is a unique contract. God refers to it in the Quran using powerful phrases and words such as “Solemn Covenant” that have serious consequences if disregarded [4.21];

[4:21] How shall you take it, when each of you has been privily with the other, and they have taken from you a solemn covenant.

Note that God uses the same phrase for the agreement made between God and the Prophets before granting them the responsibility of Prophet-hood [33.7];

[33:7] And when We took a pledge from the prophets and from you, and from Noah and Abraham and Moses and Jesus son of Mary. And We took from them a solemn pledge (in another translation: “solemn covenant” corresponding to Arabic “methaqan ghalethan“as in [4.21])

Blessed Marriage

The Quran tells that the Angels glorify and praise God, and believe in Him, and they ask forgiveness for those who believe and repent [40.7];

[40:7] Those who bear the Throne and those around it glorify with praise of their Lord, and they believe in Him, and they ask forgiveness for those who believe: ‘Our Lord, You embrace all things in [Your] mercy and knowledge. So forgive those who repent and follow Your way and shield them from the chastisement of Hell-fire.

And appeal to God to admit them into Paradise and the righteous among their parents, spouses, and children [40.8];

[40:8] Our Lord, and admit them into the Gardens of Eden that which You have promised them, along with whoever were righteous among their fathers and their wives and their descendants. Surely You are the One Who is the Mighty, the Wise.

And protect them from falling into sin on Judgment Day [40.9];

[40:9] And shield them from evil deeds for whomever You shield from evil deeds that day, verily him You will have had been merciful to; and that is indeed the supreme triumph’

So a blessed marriage in this life would not end in it, but it is greatly rewarded in the permanent life here after by bearing in mind [63.9, 66.6]  and thanking God for it;

[63:9] O you who believe, do not let your possessions and your children divert you from the remembrance of God; for whoever does that — it is they who are the losers.

[66:6] O you who believe! Guard yourselves and your families against a Fire whose fuel is people and stones, over which stand angels, stern, mighty, who do not disobey God in what He commands them, but do what they are commanded.

The successful [43.69] will be told to enter Paradise, together with their spouses, and rejoice [43.70];

[43:69] those who believed in Our signs and had submitted themselves [to Me] [43:70] Enter Paradise, you and your spouses to be made joyful.

Nobel Women in Islam

God consistently reminds man of the woman rights, pursues the woman protection and highlights the fact that some of the most noble among mankind are women. In The Quran, in addition to a Surah named Women [4] and another named Divorce [65] there is a Surah named Mary (the mother of Jesus) [19] and another named The Pleading Woman (after a women who was complaining to God concerning her husband) [58].

The Quran addresses Mary, by name, as the woman whom GOD purified among all women [3.42, shown above] and also mentions, as those among the most noble among mankind Moses mother (who obeyed God and cast Moses the infant into the river without sadness or fear) [(28.7)] and the wife of Pharaoh (who adopted Moses) [(66.11)] and the wife of Imran (mother of Mary) [(3.35-37)] and the queen of Yemen who submitted to Islam with Prophet Suleiman [(27.44)] and even the wife of Al-Aziz who tried to seduce Prophet Yusuf and repented [(12.32-33), (12.52-53)].

Best Husband

Prophet Mohammad carried out domestic chores; he cooked, cleaned and even sewed in the home. Prophet Muhammad once said: “The best of men are those who are good to their wives” (this Hadith is cited in many Hadith sources). Muslims are expected to engage in marriage having a comprehensive understanding of the rights and obligations of the Islamic marriage contract.

God gives permission for men to have sex with their wife(s) in Ramadan (at night after breaking the fast), but not while they keep to the mosques [2.187];

[2:187] Permitted to you, upon the night of the Fast, is to go in to your wives; they are a vestment for you, and you are a vestment for them; God knows that you have been betraying yourselves, and so He has turned to you [relenting], and He has pardoned you. So now, lie with them and seek what God has prescribed for you, and eat and drink until the white thread is distinct to you from the black thread at daybreak; then complete the fast to the night; and do not lie with them, while you cleave to the mosques in devotion [to God]. Those are God’s bounds; do not approach them. So, God makes clear His signs to people so that they might fear.

But, God calls for husbands to detach from their wives during Menstruation and only resume sex after they are cleansed from it [2.222];

[2:222] They will ask you about the monthly period. Say: ‘It is an ailment; so part with women in the monthly period, and do not approach them until they are pure; when they have cleansed themselves, then come to them, as God has commanded you’. Truly, God loves those who repent, and He loves those who cleanse themselves.

A Muslim husband can kiss his wife before going out for prayer (without repeating ablution) or even when fasting as it has been reported that Prophet Mohammad did so.

Around Nikah Contract

Historically, some Muslims pursued modifications to the Nikah contract for various reasons and objectives including access to sex and companionship. These modifications often focus on mutual agreement between the man and the woman that amounts to surrendering certain marital rights of the Nikah contract. The same is practiced now in our time under various titles;

*       Travel Marriage (Misyar) mostly takes place in The Gulf states; through which a husband surrenders his right to regular access (as the couple do not normally live together) and the wife surrenders her right to housing, maintenance expenditure and the equal division of nights between wives in cases of polygyny.

Several reports in the Media indicate Egypt's Grand (from 2003-2013) Mufti Dr. Ali Gomaa announced that

Several reports in the Media indicate Egypt’s Grand (from 2003-2013) Mufti Dr. Ali Gomaa announced that “travellers marriages,” known in Arabic as “Nikah Mesyar “, are legitimate unless banned by the state. However, it was also reported Saudi Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan (b. 1933) advised against it whilst Saudi Sheikh Adel Salim Al Kelbani approved a version of it.

*      Pleasure Marriage (Mut‘ah) predominantly practiced in Iran (also in Lebanon, UK, and other countries); it has a time limit, again certain rights are surrendered such as the couple do not inherit from each other, the man usually is not responsible for the economic welfare of the woman and she may leave her home at her own discretion.

Ali al-Sistani (b. 1930), prominent Shia ceric in Iraq, wrote on his web site guidelines on Mutah Marriage (Temporary Marriage).

Ali al-Sistani (b. 1930), prominent Shia ceric in Iraq, wrote on his web site guidelines on Mutah Marriage (Temporary Marriage).

*      Confidential Marriage (‘Urfi) mostly takes place in Egypt, often secretly, without the public approval of the bride’s guardians, even though the contract is officiated by a religious cleric and sometimes by a state representative.

Among positive consequences are access to sex, motherhood, companionship and escape from spinsterhood. Among negative consequences are fatherless children and sudden homelessness for involved women.  Scholars have debated such modifications for many years and there are some well-known scholars on both sides of the debate (for and against).

Marriageable Age

It is critical to note that Surah 65 in the Quran is about Divorce and the Ayah [65.4] words “those who have not menstruated” do not speak of girls who have not yet reached puberty as some scholars have suggested, but they speak of divorced women of reproductive age who do not menstruate;

[65:4] And [as for] those of your women who no longer expect to menstruate, if you have any doubts, their prescribed [waiting] period shall be three months, and [also for] those who have not yet menstruated. And those who are pregnant, their term shall be when they deliver. And whoever fears God, He will make matters ease for him.

This is a medical condition in women known as Amenorrhoea which is defined as “the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age”. Boys and girls before puberty are not yet at reproductive age.

God ties the minimum age of marriage (for male and female) to reaching Nikah age, or puberty, in Surah 4 in the Quran and not to reaching a specific number of years of age since puberty attainment differ from one individual to another.

In [4.6];

[4:6] Try well the orphans until they reach the age of marrying (in another translation: when they reach sexual intercourse; corresponding to Quran in Arabic “the Nikah”); then, if you perceive in them maturity, deliver their property to them; consume it not wastefully and in haste, lest they should grow up. If any man is rich, let him be abstinent; if he is poor, let him consume honourably. And when you deliver to them their property, take witnesses over them. God suffices as a reckoner.

God does not specify the exact age for the marriage of a man or woman; instead God defines this age as that at which boys or girls attain “Nikah” status (or puberty). Puberty is defined as “the process of physical changes through which a child’s Physical body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction to enable fertilization”. In other words, a man should not consummate marriage with his young bride until she is physically able to bear intercourse (and capable of getting pregnant). The marriageable age naturally varies from one era, place and environment to another. But, in all cases, eras and environments a person must reach “Nikah” status to be married. The Quran does not contain a specific legal age of marriage, but it does make clear that men and women must be both physically mature and of sound judgement in order to get married

Polygyny

Polygyny has been practiced by mankind since ancient times and a recent study (2003) published in the NCBI, USA concluded “humans were essentially polygynous during much of their history”. Another interesting citation is that in India the percentage of polygamous marriages between the years 1951 and 1961 was among Hindus (5.06%) more than among Muslims (4.31%) despite it is being made illegal (by the State) for Hindus to have multiple wives.

God, in the Quran [4.3, shown above] allows Polygyny (the marriage of one man to more than one woman), with the requirement that the man is able and willing to partition his time and wealth fairly among the respective wives. Under this Ayah [4.3]; sex should take place within the framework of Nikah contract which can also extend to other forms of a contractual relationship (such as that between the husband and one or more women captured in war or slave women in the days when that were practised and warranted).

A historical account in “Sahih al-Bukhari” stipulates this Ayah [4.3] was revealed after the Battle of Uhud. Many Muslim men were killed in this battel, leaving widows and orphans and hence the permission of Polygyny was also timely.

Muhammad Al-Bukhari (810-870) collected and compiled several thousand Hadiths in a volume known as “Sahih Al-Bukari”. He finished this work around 846 and its authenticity seems to have been accepted by other scholars of that era such as Ahmad ibn Hanbal (855), Yahya ibn Ma'in (847), and Ali ibn al-Madini (848). The “Sahih Al-Bukhari” ranks as the most authentic of the Kutub al-Sittah, the six books containing collections of hadith (sayings or acts of the prophet Muhammad).The next one is “Sahih Muslim”, collected by Muslim bin al-Hajjaj (d. 875 ).

Muhammad Al-Bukhari (810-870) collected and compiled several thousand Hadiths in a volume known as “Sahih Al-Bukari”. He finished this work around 846 and its authenticity seems to have been accepted by other scholars of that era such as Ahmad ibn Hanbal (855), Yahya ibn Ma’in (847), and Ali ibn al-Madini (848). The “Sahih Al-Bukhari” ranks as the most authentic of the Kutub al-Sittah, the six books containing collections of hadith (sayings or acts of the prophet Muhammad).The next one is “Sahih Muslim”, collected by Muslim bin al-Hajjaj (d. 875 ).

However, benefits of Polygyny cannot be denied in many other situations, for example if the single wife is barren or falls seriously ill. God does not make Polygyny mandatory but a choice (to the man) with a challenge and a caution that demands fairness of the husband to all of his wives [4.129];

[4:129] You will never be able to be just (in another translation: equitable) to your wives, even if you be eager; yet do not turn altogether away, so that you leave her like one suspended. If you set things right, and fear, surely God is ever Forgiving, Merciful.

Recently, several campaigns have been launched by scholars , as well as unmarried women, calling upon married men to marry more than one wife. Marriage costs have become beyond the reach of young men leaving a lot of young women facing the prospects of staying spinsters.

Recently, several campaigns have been launched in the Middle East by scholars , as well as unmarried women, calling upon married men to marry more than one wife. Marriage costs have become beyond the reach of young men leaving a lot of young women facing the prospects of staying spinsters.

In Islam, polyandry (the marriage of one woman to more than one man) is not allowed.

Divorce

Divorce in Islam has been thoroughly addressed in the Quran. Divorce should only be considered as a last resort after attempts of waiting time and reconciliation [2.226] efforts, (and also after mediation [4.35, shown above under Marital Home in Islam]);

[2:226] For those who forswear (in another translation: those who intend to divorce) their women, a wait of four months; if they revert, God is Forgiving, Merciful.

When and if divorce has to and does happen [2.227];

[2:227] But if they resolve upon divorce; surely God is Hearing, Knowing.

Then the interests of the man [(2.228)] and the interests of the women [2.229] have to be thought of and approached carefully; see also [(65.1-2)]. Note that a deterrent is put in place for the man to bear in mind before he finally announces his “third divorce pronouncement” [2.230].

[2:229] Divorce is twice; then honourable retention; or setting free kindly. It is not lawful for you to take of what you have given them unless the couple fear that they may not maintain God’s bounds. If you fear they may not maintain God’s bounds, neither of them would be at fault if she were to ransom herself. Those are God’s bounds; do not transgress them. Whoever transgresses God’s bounds – those are the evildoers [2:230] If he divorces her, she shall not be lawful to him after that, until she marries another husband. If he divorces her, then neither of them would be at fault to return to each other, if they think that they will maintain God’s bounds. Those are God’s bounds, which He makes clear to a people who have knowledge.

Then two matters become of paramount importance and must be attended equitably; namely the protection of Children [2.233];

[2:233] Mothers suckle their children for two full years for such as desire to fulfil the suckling. It is for the father to provide them and clothe them honourably. No soul is charged save to its capacity; a mother shall not be harmed by her child; neither a father by his child. The heir has a similar duty. But if the two desire by mutual consent and consultation to wean, then they would not be at fault. And if you desire to seek nursing for your children, you would not be at fault, provided you hand over what you have given honourably, and fear God, and know that God sees what you do.

And the interests of divorced women [2.241];

[2:241] There shall be provision for divorced women, honourably – an obligation on those who fear.

See more details in other Ayahs, such as [2.231-232 and 235-237 shown above, (33.49), (65.1-2)].

Similarly interests of widowed women have to be protected [(2.234, 2.240-241)].

Adultery (Arabic: Zina – زنى)

God prohibits adultery [17.32, 24.2-10, (24.26 and 25.68)];

[17:32] And do not come [anywhere] near fornication (in another translation: adultery). It is indeed an indecency and an evil way.

[24:2] As for the fornicatress and the fornicator, strike each of them a hundred lashes. And do not let any pity for them overcome you in God’s religion, if you believe in God and the Last Day. And let their punishment be witnessed by a group of the believers [24:3] The fornicator shall not marry anyone but a fornicatress or an idolatress, and the fornicatress shall be married by none except a fornicator or an idolater, and that is forbidden to believers [24:4] And those who accuse honourable women [in wedlock], and then do not bring four witnesses, strike them eighty lashes, and do not accept any testimony from them ever; and those, they are the immoral [24:5] except those who repent thereafter and make amends, for God is indeed Forgiving, Merciful.

If convicted, a Muslim man or women will be the subject of the punishment of 100 lashes each as prescribed in [24.2, shown above]. If not convicted, then their accusers (who fail to provide four witnesses) will be the subject of 80 lashes as prescribed in [24.4, also shown above].

Incest

God prohibits incest marriage and expressively outlines a comprehensive list of the women among relatives and other close associates with whom sex is forbidden [4.23-24];

[4:22] And do not marry women whom your fathers married, unless it be a thing of the past; surely that is obscene and abominable, an evil way [4:23] Forbidden to you are your mothers, and daughters, your sisters, your paternal aunts, and maternal aunts, your brother’s daughters, your sister’s daughters, your foster mothers who have given you milk, your foster sisters, your mothers-in-law, your step-daughters, who are in your care being born of your wives you have been in to – but if you have not yet been in to them you are not at fault – and the spouses of your sons who are of your loins, and that you should take to you two sisters together unless it be a thing of the past. God is ever Forgiving, Merciful [4:24] And wedded women, save what your right hands own, this is what God has prescribed for you. Lawful for you beyond all that is that you seek using your wealth, in wedlock and not in illicitly. Such wives as you enjoy thereby, give them their wages as an obligation; you are not at fault in agreeing together, after the obligation. God is ever Knowing, Wise.

It is interesting to note that a Muslim man can marry a girl who is his first cousin (from father side or mother side), but cannot marry any girl who breast fed from a woman (even if this woman is not his mother) who breast fed him when they were infants. Also, a Muslim man can marry the divorcee of his adopted son [(33.37)] unless she is one of those listed in [4.23-24] above.  Also, a man cannot marry any women who were previously married to his father [4.22, as shown above].

Islam Openness on Sexual Pleasures

God reminds Muslims that He created mankind, animals and plants of sexual pairs [(4.1), 16.72, (25.54), (30.21), (36.36), (49.13), (51.49), and 53.45-46];

 [16:72] And God made for you mates from your own selves, and made for you, from your mates, children and grandchildren, and He provided you with the good things. Is it then in falsehood that they believe and in the grace of God that they disbelieve?

[53:45] and that He [Himself] creates the two spouses, the male and the female [53:46] from a drop [of semen] once it is emitted (in another translation: from a tiny drop if fertilized)

Sex is part of mankind natural instincts, Arabic “فطره “. It is strongly encouraged and must not be suppressed. Islam has an open and playful approach to sex so long as it is within marriage, free of lewdness and adultery, see [2.187, 4.3 , 4.23 , 4.25, 24.26, 24.32 ] shown above, and [2.223, 3.14, 5.87 and 25.74};

[2:223] Your women are a tillage for you; so come to your tillage as you wish; and offer for your souls (in another translation: and priory provide for yourselves (foreplay)); and fear God; and know that you shall meet Him; and give good tidings to the believers.

[3:14]Beautified for mankind is love of lusts – of women, children, stored-up heaps of gold and silver, horses of mark, cattle, and tillage. That is the comfort of the life of this world; but God – with Him is the more excellent abode.

[5:87] O you who believe, do not forbid the good things that God has made lawful for you and do not transgress; God does not love transgressors.

[25:74] And those who say, ‘Our Lord! Grant us in our spouses and our offspring a joyful sight, and make us paragons for the God-fearing’.

Today, Muslims (men and women) have a tendency to shy away from frank sexual discussions. The arrival of Islam encouraged open and unembarrassed discussion concerning sex, sexual pleasure and in particular women’s pleasure.  This openness has been lost over time, and all mention of sex has become taboo.

In many societies, sex has been a difficult topic to talk about publicly among the Muslims. This topic is always shoved aside and not dealt with in an honest manner. Muslim youth are confused by the ambivalence shown toward sex by their parents and elders. They go out in the world where their peers are engaging in sex and talking about sex but then they come back to their Muslim communities only to find that their elders are unwilling to engage the topic in a manner both relevant and ethical.

While most Islamic societies go to great lengths to insure all things sex-related remain taboo, sex between a married man and woman is allowed to be sensual and uninhibited to achieve orgasm. Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali (1058-1111) cited a Hadith which advises husbands to engage in acts that enable the women to achieve orgasm first. Al-Ghazali stated, in Rule 10 (out of 12) in Section 3 of his famous book “Revival of Religion (Deen) Learnings”, that  Muslim husband should not “cohabit with wife without talking with her or without kissing her and or without being able to restrain the ejaculation of his semen before that of the semen of his wife”. He was also cited to have said Ibn Umar (one of the scholarly Companion to the Prophet) used to break his fast with sexual intercourse before eating and that after the death of Fatima, her husband Ali remarried in seven days.

Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali (1058-1111), the teacher at Baghdad’s Nizamia College and the most influential thinker of that Classical era, abruptly left his position and spent a decade in or between Damascus, Makka, Madina, and Jerusalem. During this period, he wrote his master-piece “Revivification of the Religious (Deen) Learnings” (in Arabic: Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Din), a grand work of forty books (including one on marriage), then returned to teaching. He left a legacy of works in jurisprudence, philosophy, theology, and Sufism.

Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali (1058-1111), the teacher at Baghdad’s Nizamia College and the most influential thinker of that Classical era, abruptly left his position and spent a decade in or between Damascus, Makka, Madina, and Jerusalem. During this period, he wrote his master-piece “Revivification of the Religious (Deen) Learnings” (in Arabic: Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Din), a grand work of forty books (including one on marriage), then returned to teaching. He left a legacy of works in jurisprudence, philosophy, theology, and Sufism. The above image is an Artist impression of how Al-Ghazali might have looked like over 900 years ago.

Today, men should at least be expected to have taken the time and effort to learn the techniques (not from porn, but from proper educational sources) while investing in the marital relationship and making their wives feel valuable. Both husband and wife should focus on increasing their knowledge, skills and emotional know-how to mutually enjoy their sexual experience.

Foreplay

God (strongly) calls for the practice of foreplay, see [2.223, shown above ], and this call is echoed by the Prophet Hadith.

Foreplay is considered to include flirting outside the bedroom, talking, kissing, touching, massage, hugging, fondling, undressing, French kissing, petting, and anything to get in the mood and reach full arousal including other acts some of which are discussed here.

Masturbation

Scholars debated this subject over the centuries; a school of thought appears to have taken the position that if a person masturbates with the intention of saving himself from committing sin (such as adultery) it will not be a sin and if he does it with the intention of enjoyment he will be a sinner. They recommend that he does good deeds as there is in Islam “no doubt the virtues wipe away the sins” [11.114];

[11:114] And establish prayer at the two ends of the day, and in some watches of the night. Indeed good deeds annul misdeeds. That is a remembrance for the mindful.

Men may enjoy masturbating physically, but some may find it leaving them emotionally empty, depressed or lonely for the real thing or companionship. A Muslim should resist this temptation as he or she who masturbates might, according to some scholars, is considered among “those who crave something” beyond that specified in [23.5-7];

[23:5] and who guard their private parts [23:6] except from their spouses, and what [slaves] their right hands possess, for then they are not blameworthy [23:7] But whoever seeks [anything] beyond that, those, they are transgressors.

But, one must bear in mind the Quran does not mention masturbation.

On the other hand, it has been cited that it is lawful (according to Hanbali school) for a husband to achieve ejaculation by his wife masturbating him, and by rubbing his penis between her thighs or breasts.

Oral Sex

The Quran and the Hadith do not mention and thus do not prohibit Oral Sex between husband and wife.

Ahmad Al-Kubaisi (b. 1934), an Iraqi scholar based in UAE, who is the head of Sharia Studies at UAE University and Baghdad University and leads prayers at the state mosque of Abu Dhabi , also spoke on TV (2013-14) regarding Oral Sex as being permissible citing Muhammad Al-Qurtubi (1214-1273) the scholar who was born in Cordoba, Spain.

Ahmad Al-Kubaisi (b. 1934), an Iraqi scholar based in UAE, who is the head of Sharia Studies at UAE University and Baghdad University and leads prayers at the state mosque of Abu Dhabi , also spoke on TV (2013-14) regarding Oral Sex as being permissible citing Muhammad Al-Qurtubi (1214-1273) the scholar who was born in Cordoba, Spain.

Oral sex is the use of the mouth or the tongue to stimulate another person’s genitals (oral stimulation of the male organ is called “fellatio” and oral stimulation of the female genital is known as “cunnilingus”). Oral Sex covers a wide range of activities, from simply kissing the genitalia to the actual taking in and swallowing of sexual fluids. Man’s semen is not considered impure (unclean) according to the Shäfi scholars, contrary to the Hanafï scholars, but both seem to agree swallowing of sexual fluids should not be permissible. One of the recent debates was between two Turkish scholars (pro and against) on TV in July 2015.

Yusuf al-Qaradawi (b. 1926), an Egyptian scholar based in Qatar, is the author of some 80 books. Among his most famous works are “The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam” and “Fiqh al-Zakat”. He released statements on Oral Sex (cited in this Article) and expressed opposition to female genital mutilation (FGM).

Yusuf al-Qaradawi (b. 1926), an Egyptian scholar based in Qatar, is the author of some 80 books. Among his most famous works are “The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam” and “Fiqh al-Zakat”. He released statements on Oral Sex (cited in this Article) and expressed opposition to female genital mutilation (FGM).

So, this subject has also been a matter of debate for centuries. Opinion of famous contemporary Egyptian scholar Yusuf Al-Qaradawi (based in Qatar) who most probably has studied this debate thoroughly has been quoted as follows ” … Muslim jurists are of the opinion that it is lawful for the husband to perform cunnilingus on his wife, or a wife to perform the similar act for her husband (fellatio) and there is no wrong in doing so, but, if sucking leads to releasing semen, then it is blameworthy (or disliked), but there is no decisive evidence to make it unlawful, especially if the wife agrees with it or achieves orgasm by practicing it”.

Woman-Woman Sex

Some Muslim women feel they are in a conundrum; one wrote “I am a Lesbian, I was born that way. But at the same time, I pray five times a day. I fast in Ramadan. I enjoy attending Islamic talks at uni (university)”.

Information, from surveys and blogs, provide indications on what and how two women perform in bed could have sex (without a man). Apparently, they may kiss, hug, suck, caress each other’s bodies for hours and caress each other’s nipples and/or clitorises, touch their vulvas with fingers and tongues, press and rub their bodies and vulvas or masturbate together, oral sex to one another (or at the same time with each other in the ’69’ position), making noises, licking (tongues, vaginas or breasts), scissoring (where they touch their genitals together and or rub them) and basically turn each other on such that one, both, or neither may orgasm once or several times

A recent article about latest developments in same-sex marriages in the USA brought the announcement that a lesbian “throuple”, a new phrase referring to “three married lesbians”, is awaiting their first born child! This article indicated some 300 LGBT allies now agreed on  “there is no reason not to further re-shape ‘marriage’ to include multiple partner unions”, according to the McCormick Professor of Jurisprudence at Princeton University!.

USA Supreme Court ruled by a 5-to-4 vote in June 2015 that the Constitution guarantees a right to same-sex marriage nationwide. President Obama called the Supreme Court decision

USA Supreme Court ruled by a 5-to-4 vote in June 2015 that the Constitution guarantees a right to same-sex marriage nationwide. President Obama called the Supreme Court decision “a victory for America.” In the build up to this legislation, the New York Post, on April 23, reported that Doll, Kitten, and Brynn Young, three Massachusetts women in a polyamorous relationship, were expecting their first child after uniting in an August 2013 commitment ceremony. And after undergoing IVF with an unknown sperm donor, the youngest of the group is now with child. This action, as in the case of three men in polyamorous relationship, is not criminal offence in the USA where it is a criminal offence for a man to marry two women! One wonders on what President Barak Hossein Obama think of where the USA legal system heading with this?

On the other hand, another recent article based on data the researchers of which tracked 5,018 women and 4,191 men found women have a greater probability than men of being attracted to both men and women… and this indicates that women’s sexuality may be more flexible and adaptive than men’s.

To comprehend this subject, there are three Ayahs [3.14, 19.20 and 4.15] in the Quran that warrant close attention. Whilst doing so, it is worth having a closer look at some of the difficulties associated with Quran translations. Consider the following;

A translation, by Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought (2008), Amman, Jordan,  to the first two Ayahs is given below;

[3:14] Beautified for mankind is love of lusts – of women, children, stored-up heaps of gold and silver, horses of mark, cattle, and tillage. That is the comfort of the life of this world; but God – with Him is the more excellent abode.

[19:20] She (Mary) said, ‘How shall I have a boy when no human being has [ever] touched me, neither have I been unchaste?’

The key word that is relevant to this subject, in the first Ayah [3.14], is the Arabic word “Al Nas (الناس)” which in the above translation given as “mankind”, but in other translations it is given differently – compare following examples;

  • “Mankind” in Dr. Ghali, Pickthall and Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought translations.
  • “Men” in Muhsin Khan, Shakir and Yusuf Ali translations.
  • “People” in Sahih International translation.

The normal translation, say using the online Google Translate, of the Arabic word “Al Nas (الناس )” is “people” and hence the word “mankind” or “people” is much closer than “men” which is in Arabic “Rejal (رجال )” a word not in [3.14].

Again, the key word that is relevant to this subject, in the second Ayah [19.20], is the Arabic word “Basharon (بشر)” which in the above translation given as “human”, but in other translations it is given differently – compare following examples;

  • “Mortal” in Dr. Ghali, Pickthall, and Shakir translations.
  • “Man” in Muhsin Khan, Sahih International translations.
  • “Human” in Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought translation.

The normal translation of the Arabic word “Basharon (بشر)” is “human” and hence “mortal” or “human” is much closer than “man” which is in Arabic “Rajolon  (رجل ) ” a word not in [19.20].

So, one must always bear in mind all Quran translations are influenced by the translator perception of the meaning of the corresponding Arabic word or by an interpretation citing a Hadith or an understanding by a scholar. This is extremely important, because as can be seen from the above two examples a single improper translation of a single key word could have an enormous impact on the meaning or the intention of the whole Ayah (see also below; Citations from The Quran).

Now, back to our subject, the key word in [3.14] is the Arabic word “Al Nas (الناس)”, that is “mankind” or “people”, which obviously refers “to men and women” and not only to “men”! The second Ayah [19:20], which provide decisive confirmation and “exact clarity” to the ultimate purity and chastity of Mary the mother of Jesus, uses another Arabic key word “Basharon (بشر)”,that is “human”, which refers to “man or woman”, instead of solely to “man”! This is significant, because it’s possible, at least according to British National Health Service (NHS) web site for a woman to get pregnant without having sexual intercourse, for example: if she (or her partner – male or female-) has semen or pre-ejaculate on fingers and touch her vagina.

These two Ayahs [3.14, 19.20] document the fact that women may, naturally, also seek sexual pleasures from other women. But, the Nikah contractual marital home, headed by a man, is the only legitimate institution in the Quran; see [4.3 , 4.34, and 4.128-129] shown above. In Islam, Muslims must satisfy all their sexuality (as well as other pleasures and inherent attractions including love, companionship, procreation, mercy, physical and emotional needs, desires and lusts) inside their Nikah contractual marriages. Therefore, available choices for both parties are as follows;

  • A Muslim man can have more than one wife providing he is able and willing to partition his time and wealth fairly among the respective wives; or otherwise he should marry only one wife, see [3.14, 4.3] shown above.
  • A Muslim woman (with lesbian or bisexual desires) can have a husband who is willing to accept her condition (supported by at least one of his existing wives who is willing to conduct lesbian acts with her being the proposed new wife); or otherwise she has to suppress her lesbianism and live with her husband in straight sex only which she is naturally capable of, see [3.14, 4.3] shown above.

Thus, a Muslim woman who wants to act on her lesbian desires may do so within the Nikah contract only, which by definition must be made with a man; in order to comply with the Nikah (sexual intercourse) requirement. Note that women are allowed to put clauses and conditions up-front in their Nikah contract.

Accordingly, as in the case of husband’s perusal of sexual intercourse, lesbian acts may only be legitimate within the confines of polygynous marriage [4.3], inside the privacy of their own marital home, providing, of course, prior agreement of their husband and his concerned wife(s).

The third is [4.15 shown above]; it addresses married women who commit a lesbian act with other women who are not wives of their own husband marital household. This Ayah denotes such act as outrageous (lewd) and risks, upon conviction, the punishment by life-time imprisonment (house arrest).

Laura Poyneer is a white American convert to Islam who lives near Seattle, USA. By day, she works for a blogging company, while in the evenings she serves as Muslim ARC’s Membership Services Chair. She wrote Articles on Seattle mosques and, in September 2015, most notably, on her personal experiences in life as an “asexual” and Muslim.

Laura Poyneer is a white American convert to Islam who lives near Seattle, USA. By day, she works for a blogging company, while in the evenings she serves as Muslim ARC’s Membership Services Chair. She wrote Articles on Seattle mosques and, in September 2015, most notably, on her personal experiences in life as an “asexual” and Muslim.

Similarly, a Muslim “Asexual” woman could, if she wishes, enter Nikah marital contract by declaring her condition in advance for prior agreement by the man. Asexuality is defined as “the lack of sexual attractions to anyone or low or absent interest in sexual activity”.

Anal Sex with Wife

Minority of scholars, who say this act is permissible, do so as per an interpretation of the meaning of [2.223, shown above ] based on a single Hadith reported by Muhammad al-Bukhari (810-870), but majority of scholars do not agree to such interpretation and indicate this action is not permissible citing a number of Hadiths as reported in several other reliable sources.

Scholars maintain that if a man habitually does this or insists on having anal sex with his wife, she has the right to ask for a divorce, because he is considered causing harm by his action (also because one of the purposes of marriage cannot be achieved through this action).

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)

There is no requirement in the Quran for female circumcision. God in the Quran and Prophet Mohammad in Hadith allude to the nature of sexual relations as a means of attaining mutual satisfaction, closeness and compassion between husband and his wife(s).

Female circumcision is a habit practiced long before Islam advent in Arabia in many places including Russia and South America; it is still practiced in Sudan and to lesser extent in Egypt.

The practice of “clitoridectomy” can be a mild procedure involving the cutting off a tiny part from the outer portion of the clitoris (about 1mm to 3mm is snipped off the very top of the clitoris) which may not diminish sexual desire or result in other complications.

But, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) can be severe, much harsher and undignified and hence unacceptable in Islam because it results in a severe sexual debilitation of the woman and thus preventing her from achieving sexual fulfilment which is her right as a human and as a Muslim.

Man-Man Sex

This act is deplored repeatedly in the Quran through the Prophet Lot story concerning his people who practiced it, see for example [27.54-58];

[27:54] And Lot, when he said to his people, ‘What! Do you commit [such] abomination while you watch? [27:55] What! Do you come unto men in lust instead of women? Nay, but you are truly a people in ignorance’ [27:56] But the only response of his people was that they said, ‘Expel Lot’s family from your town. They are indeed a folk who [prefer to] remain pure!’ [27:57] So We delivered him and his family, except his wife – We decreed [for] her to be of those who remained behind [27:58] Then We rained on them a rain. And evil indeed was the rain of those who were warned.

See also [(7.80-84), (11.78-83), (15.61-75), (21.74), (26.162-174), and (29.28-30)]. 

Scholars acknowledge that the Quran does not expressively prescribe specific punishment.  However, many scholars have ruled that the punishment for this act should be the same as for adultery; that is one hundred whiplashes (stripes) for the man who has never married, and death by stoning for the married man. It should be noted that adultery (Zina) punishments are prescribed in the Quran upon the evidence of four reputable male witnesses. Some commentators consider the levels of proof required by Islamic law are so high that if the rules are properly applied conviction is virtually impossible baring sexual intercourse in the public arena.

Alfred Kinsey (1894 –1956) published, in 1948-1953, a scale which uses grading from 0, meaning exclusively heterosexual, to 6, meaning exclusively homosexual. An additional grade, listed as "X", was used to mean "no socio-sexual contacts or reactions" or asexual. In approximate numbers, it brands bi-sexual behaviours (3-5) in 12% of men and 5% of women and homosexual behaviours (6) in 10% of men and 2% of women, and some 1% are placed under X. Kinsey was himself bi-sexual. Jones, James H. (1997) wrote that Kinsey's sexual activity influenced his work, that he over-represented prisoners and prostitutes, classified some single people as "married" and that he included a disproportionate number of homosexual men, which may have distorted his studies. Nevertheless, this simplistic straight-line scale caught the public eye in the Western world. The Kinsey Reports, which led to a storm of controversy, are regarded by many as a precursor to the sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s.

Alfred Kinsey (1894 –1956) published, in 1948-1953, a scale which uses grading from 0, meaning exclusively heterosexual, to 6, meaning exclusively homosexual. An additional grade, listed as “X”, was used to mean “no socio-sexual contacts or reactions” or asexual. In approximate numbers, it brands bi-sexual behaviours (3-5) in 12% of men and 5% of women and homosexual behaviours (6) in 10% of men and 2% of women, and some 1% are placed under X. Kinsey was himself bi-sexual. Jones, James H. (1997) wrote that Kinsey’s sexual activity influenced his work, that he over-represented prisoners and prostitutes, classified some single people as “married” and that he included a disproportionate number of homosexual men, which may have distorted his studies. Nevertheless, this simplistic straight-line scale caught the public eye in the Western world. The Kinsey Reports, which led to a storm of controversy, are regarded by many as a precursor to the sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s.

In 2004, a paper published by Concerned Women for America (CWA) was titled “Born or Bred? Science Does Not Support the Claim That Homosexuality Is Genetic”. Earlier, in 1995, Stanford University News Release indicated under “Biological basis of sexual orientation” that 3%-5% of men are homosexual (which is less than the previous estimate of 10% from a 1950s study by Kinsey).

In May 2009, the British newspaper The Guardian reported “None of the 500 British Muslims interviewed believed that homosexual acts were morally acceptable”. Even self-identified progressives and moderates such as Imam Hamza Yusuf in the United States and Professor Tariq Ramadan in the UK consider homosexuality to be a grave sin.

It is reported that in 2010 a Saudi man was sentenced to 500 lashes and five years in jail for having sex with another man and that since the 2003 invasion of Iraq more than 700 people have been reportedly killed because of such acts. It is also reported that an estimate of 4,000 homosexuals have been executed in Iran since that country’s revolution in 1979 as well as large-scale public executions of homosexuals in Afghanistan by the Taliban.

In Islam, regardless of behavioural surveys or statistics, if there is such a minority of behavioural tendencies among Muslim men they are expected to control themselves and keep clear from this act; otherwise they could face adverse consequences in this life and in the permanent life hereafter.

Conclusion

Sex is fantastic gift from God. The losers are those who abuse it. The winners are those who use it responsibly to maximize their pleasures and happiness bearing in mind the following basics;

  • A Muslim husband can only have sex with his wife(s). Man-man sex is repeatedly deplored in the Quran.
  • A Muslim wife can only have sex with one man; her husband. She may also enjoy lesbian acts with her husband’s wives or bisexual acts with her husband and his wives providing husband and concerned wife(s) are in full mutual agreement.

Bar anal intercourse and adultery, a Muslim marital home bonded by Nikah marital contract between husband and his wife(s) should enjoy and even indulge, within the privacy of their marital home, in limitless scope of husband-wife straight sexual acts (within their monogamous marriage) or husband-wives straight, lesbian and bisexual acts (within their polygamous marriage).

Any sexual activity (be it straight, lesbian or bisexual) outside Nikah marriage contract is prohibited on all Muslims, men and women.

Citations from the Quran

A total of about 140 Quran Ayahs (addressing sex or topics related to or associate with sex) have been cited in this Article. Ideally, the readers who know Arabic would refer directly to the original Quran in Arabic. This is because Quran translations to other languages have always been difficult, even though many attempts have already been made in the past.

Three decades ago, in 1982-84, a Quran Complex was established by Saudi Arabia government, named after King Fahd. This Complex outlines Quran translation difficulties to English language, and considers all translations from original Arabic to any other language are translations to the “meanings” or “interpretations” of the Quran. This Complex headings of own Quran translations states “Translations of the Meanings of the Quran”.

Quran Complex in Medina published Translations of the Meanings of the Quran to 39 languages.. It was established in 1982-1984 by the government of Saudi Arabia..

Quran Complex in Medina published Translations of the Meanings of the Quran to 39 languages.. It was established in 1982-1984 by the government of Saudi Arabia..

There are several well-known Quran translations to English which can be found on the internet or published in the form of books such as the following 10 translations by;

(1) Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought, Amman, Jordan, 2008.

(2) Quran Complex which was established in 1982-84 by Saudi Arabia government, named after King Fahd.

(3) Dr.  Mohammad Ghali (born in 1920) who was a Professor of Linguistics and Islamic Studies, Al-Azhar University, CairoEgypt.

(4) Muhammad Pickthall (1875-1936); he was a Western; a convert from Christianity.

(5) Mohammad Muhsin Khan (born in 1927). He is a contemporary author of Pashtun origin who completed this translation with Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali.

(6) Shakir: There is a controversy on the real identity of the translator who may be Egyptian judge Muhammad Habib Shakir (1866-1939) or likely Mohammedali Habib Shakir the son of Habib Esmail of The House of Habib in Pakistan.

(7) Yusuf Ali (1872-1953) who was a British-Indian Islamic scholar.

(8) Sahih International; in 1989 three American converts to Islam joined together to form “Saheeh International” and published their translation in 1997.

(9) Muhammad Asad (1900–1992) who was a Jewish-born Austro-Hungarian journalist, traveller, linguist, diplomat and Islamic scholar.

(10) Dr. Martin Lings (1909–2005) who is best known for his English language biography of Prophet Muhammad, titled “Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources”. He passed away before completing his translation.

Martin Lings (1909 – 2005), an English writer and scholar, best known as the author of “Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources”, first published in 1983. He passed away before completing his translation of the Quran to English.

Martin Lings (1909 – 2005), an English writer and scholar, best known as the author of “Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources”, first published in 1983. He passed away before completing his translation of the Quran to English.

The following English translations for Ayahs (from among those cited above), are primarily based on cautious correlation-comparison of one or more than one translation with that of the Arabic original. Once again, the readers who know Arabic should refer directly to the original Quran in Arabic, if not possible then it is recommended that readers do not rely on any single translation but try, as much as possible, to consult more than one translation.

On Aisha Chastity;

[24:11] A gang among you produced a big lie. Do not think that it was bad for you; instead, it was good for you. Meanwhile, each one of them has earned his share of the guilt. As for the one who initiated the whole incident, he has incurred a terrible retribution [24:12] When you heard it, the believing men and the believing women should have had better thoughts about themselves, and should have said, “This is obviously a big lie.” [24:13] Only if they produced four witnesses (you may believe them). If they fail to produce the witnesses, then they are, according to God, liars. [24:14] If it were not for God’s grace towards you, and His mercy in this world and in the Hereafter, you would have suffered a great retribution because of this incident [24:15] You fabricated it with your own tongues, and the rest of you repeated it with your mouths without proof. You thought it was simple, when it was, according to God, gross [24:16] When you heard it, you should have said, “We will not repeat this. Glory be to You. This is a gross falsehood.” [24:17] God admonishes you that you shall never do it again, if you are believers [24:18] God thus explains the revelations for you. God is Omniscient, Wise [24:19] Those who love to see immorality spread among the believers have incurred a painful retribution in this life and in the Hereafter. God knows, while you do not know [24:20] God showers you with His grace and mercy. God is Most Kind towards the believers, Most Merciful.

On Chastity;

 [12:32] She said, “This is the one whom you blamed me of (for falling in love with). I did indeed try to seduce him, and he refused. Unless he does what I order him to do, he will surely go to prison, and will be debased.” (Note: the wife of Al-Aziz is quoted as saying here) [12:33] He (Prophet Yusuf) said, “My Lord, the prison is more to my liking than that to which they invite me (better than giving in to them). Unless You divert their scheming from me (if You do not avert from me their plan), I might incline toward them (may desire them) and behave like the ignorant ones (and thus be ignorant).”

[33:35] The submitting men, the submitting women, the believing men, the believing women, the obedient men, the obedient women, the truthful men, the truthful women, the steadfast men, the steadfast women, the reverent men, the reverent women, the charitable men, the charitable women, the fasting men, the fasting women, the chaste men, the chaste women, and the men who commemorate God frequently, and the commemorating women; God has prepared for them forgiveness and a great recompense.

On Marital Home in Islam and Nikah Contract;

[2.231] If you divorce the women, once they fulfil their interim (three menstruations), you shall allow them to live in the same home amicably, or let them leave amicably. Do not force them to stay against their will, as revenge (or to hurt them). Anyone who does this wrongs his own soul. Do not take God’s revelations in vain. Remember God’s blessings upon you, and that He sent down to you the scripture and wisdom to enlighten you. You shall observe God, and know that God is aware of all things [2:232] If you divorce the women, once they fulfil their interim (three menstruations), do not prevent them from remarrying their husbands, if they reconcile amicably. This shall be heeded by those among you who believe in God and the Last Day. This is purer for you, and more righteous. God knows, while you do not know

[2:236] You commit no error by divorcing the women before touching them, or before setting the dowry for them. In this case, you shall compensate them – the rich as he can afford and the poor as he can afford – an equitable compensation. This is a duty upon the righteous [2:237] If you divorce them before touching them, but after you had set the dowry for them, the compensation shall be half the dowry, unless they voluntarily forfeit their rights, or the party responsible for causing the divorce chooses to forfeit the dowry. To forfeit is closer to righteousness. You shall maintain the amicable relations among you. God is Seer of everything you do.

4:34] Men are in charge of women because of that with which God has preferred the one over the other, and because of what they expend of their property. Therefore righteous women are obedient, guarding in the unseen because of what God has guarded. And those you fear may be rebellious, admonish them, and share not beds with them, and strike them. If they then obey you, do not seek a way against them. God is ever High, Great.

[4:6] And try orphans (as regards their intelligence) until they reach the age of marriage; if then you find sound judgement in them, release their property to them, but consume it not wastefully and hastily fearing that they should grow up, and whoever (amongst guardians) is rich, he should take no wages, but if he is poor, let him have for himself what is just and reasonable (according to his labour). And when you release their property to them, take witness in their presence; and Allâh is All-Sufficient in taking account.

[4:19] O you who believe, it is not lawful for you to inherit what the women leave behind, against their will. You shall not force them to give up anything you had given them, unless they commit a proven lewdness (unlawful sexual act). Live with them on a footing of kindness and equity, and if you take a dislike to them, it may be that you dislike a thing through which God brings about a great deal of good [4:20] If you decide to take one wife in place of another, and you had given one of them a great deal (or whole treasure), you shall not take back anything you had given her. Would you take it fraudulently and manifest slander? [4:21] How could you take it back, after you have been intimate with each other, and they had taken from you a solemn covenant? [4:22] Do not marry the women who were previously married to your fathers; existing marriages are exempted and shall not be broken. It was lewdness, gross offense and an abominable act [4:23] Forbidden to you (for marriage) are: your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your father’s sisters, your mother’s sisters, your brother’s daughters, your sister’s daughters, your foster mother who gave you suck, your foster milk suckling sisters, your wives’ mothers, your step daughters under your guardianship, born of your wives to whom you have gone in – but there is no sin on you if you have not gone in them (to marry their daughters), – the wives of your sons who (spring) from your own loins, and two sisters in wedlock at the same time, except for what has already passed; verily, Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful [4:24] Also (forbidden are) women already married, except those (slaves) whom your right hands possess. Thus has Allâh ordained for you. All others are lawful, provided you seek (them in marriage) with Mahr (bridal-money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage) from your property, desiring chastity, not committing illegal sexual intercourse, so with those of whom you have enjoyed sexual relations, give them their Mahr as prescribed; but if after a Mahr is prescribed, you agree mutually (to give more), there is no sin on you. Surely, Allâh is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.

[4:128] If a woman senses oppression (contempt, ill treatment) or evasion (desertion) from her husband, the couple shall mutually try to reconcile (settle) their differences, for conciliation (settlement) is best for them. Selfishness (greed, stinginess) is a human trait (present in human souls), so if you do good and heedful (lead a righteous life), God is fully Cognizant (Expertly Informed) of everything you do [4:129] You will never be able to be equitable in dealing with more than one wife, no matter how hard you try (or strive to do so). Therefore, do not be so biased as to leave one of them hanging (neither enjoying marriage, nor left to marry someone else). If you correct this situation and maintain righteousness, God is Forgiver, Most Merciful [4:130] If the couple must decide to part (do separate), God will enrich (provide) for each of them from His bounties (abundance). God is Bounteous, Most Wise.

[24.3] The adulterer shall not marry except (save) an adulteress or an idolatress, and the adulteress none shall marry except (save) an adulterer or an idolater (a polytheist), all that is forbidden unto believers.

[24:26] The bad (vile) women for the bad (vile) men, and the bad (vile)  men for the bad (vile) women, and the virtuous (good) women for the virtuous (good) men, and the virtuous (good) men for the virtuous (good) women. The latter are innocent of such accusations. They have attained forgiveness and a generous reward.

[33:49] O you who believe, if you married believing women, then divorced them before you have touched them (having intercourse with them), they do not owe you any waiting interim (before marrying another man). You shall provide for them (compensate them equitably), and let them go amicably (give them a gracious release).

[36.36] Glory be to Him Who created all the sexual pairs, of that which the earth grow, and of themselves, and of that which they know not.

[65:1] O you prophet, when you people divorce the women, you shall ensure that a divorce interim is fulfilled. You shall measure such an interim precisely. You shall reverence God your Lord. Do not evict them from their homes, nor shall you make life miserable for them, to force them to leave on their own, unless they commit a proven lewdness (adultery). These are God ‘s laws. Anyone who transgresses God ‘s laws commits an injustice against himself. You never know; maybe God wills something good to come out of this.

[65:2] Once the interim is fulfilled, you may reconcile with them equitably, or go through with the separation equitably. You shall have two equitable witnesses from among you and give upright testimony (witness) before God. This is to enlighten those who believe in God and the Last Day. Anyone who reverences God, He will create an exit (appoint a way out) for him.

On Nobel Women in Islam;

 [3:35] The wife of Emran said, “My Lord, I have pledged to You what is in my womb (dedicated the baby in my belly to You), totally, so accept from me. You are Hearer, Omniscient.” [3:36] When she gave birth to her, she said, “My Lord, I have given birth to a female”, God was fully aware of what she bore (delivered), the male is not the same as the female. “And I have named her Mary, and I invoke Your protection (seek refuge in You) for her and her descendants from the rejected (expelled) devil.” [3:37] Her Lord accepted her gracious acceptance, and brought her up (caused her to grow up) a gracious upbringing, and put her in the care (under the guardianship) of Zachariah. Whenever Zachariah entered her sanctuary (prayer chamber) he found provisions with her. He would ask, “Mary, where did you get this from?” She would say, “It is from God. God provides for whomever He chooses, without limits (account).”

[3:42] The angels said, “O Mary, God has chosen you and purified you. He has chosen you from all the women (chosen you above the women of the World).

[12:32] She said, “This is the one whom you blamed me of (for falling in love with). I did indeed try to seduce him, and he refused. Unless he does what I order him to do, he will surely go to prison, and will be debased.” (Note: the wife of Al-Aziz is quoted as saying here) [12:33] He (Prophet Yusuf) said, “My Lord, the prison is more to my liking than that to which they invite me (better than giving in to them). Unless You divert their scheming from me (if You do not avert from me their plan), I might incline toward them (may desire them) and behave like the ignorant ones (and thus be ignorant).”

[12:52] “I hope that he will realize that I never betrayed him in his absence, for God does not guide (bless) the schemes of the betrayers”. (Note: the wife of Al-Aziz is quoted as saying here) [12:53] “I do not claim innocence for myself (I do not acquit myself). The self is an advocate of vice (the self does order bad deeds), except for those who have attained mercy from my Lord. My Lord is Forgiver, Most Merciful.” (Note: the wife of Al-Aziz quote continued here).

[27:44] She (the queen) was told, “Go inside the palace.” When she saw its interior, she thought it was a pool of water, and she (pulled up her dress,) exposing her legs (to wade through). He (Solomon) said, “This interior is paved (made) of crystal.” She said, “My Lord, I have wronged my soul (myself). I now submit with Solomon to God, Lord of the worlds (universe).”

[28:7] We inspired Moses’ mother: “Nurse (suckle) him, and when you fear for his life, throw him into the river without fear or grief. We will return him to you, and will make him one of Our messengers.”

[66:11] And God cites (set forth) as an example of those who believed, the wife of Pharaoh. She said, “My Lord, build a home for me (at near You) in Paradise, and save me from Pharaoh and his work; save me from the transgressing people.”

On Divorce;

[2:228] The divorced women shall wait three menstruations (before marrying another man). It is not lawful for them to conceal what God creates in their wombs, if they believe in God and the Last Day. The husband’s wishes shall supersede the wife’s wishes in case of pregnancy, if he wants to remarry her. The women have rights, as well as obligations, equitably. Thus, the man’s wishes prevail (in responsibility and in case of pregnancy). God is Almighty, Most Wise.

 [2:234] Those who die and leave wives, their widows shall wait four months and ten days (before they remarry). Once they fulfil their interim, you commit no error by letting them do whatever righteous matters they wish to do. God is fully Cognizant of everything you do.

[2:240] Those who die and leave wives, a will shall provide their wives with support for a year, provided they stay within the same household. If they leave, you commit no sin by letting them do whatever they wish, so long as righteousness is maintained. God is Almighty, Most Wise.

On Adultery;

[24.6] As for those who accuse their wives (spouses) but have no witnesses except themselves; let the witness of one of them be the equivalent of four witnesses if he testify four testimonies (taking oath) by God that he is of those who speak the truth (solemnly telling the truth) [24.7] The fifth (oath) invoking the curse of God on him if he is of those who is telling a lie [24:8] Her punishment shall be averted (she shall be considered innocent) if she swears (bear witness) by God four times that he is a liar (what he said is indeed false) [24.9] The fifth (oath) that the wrath of God be upon her if he spoke (was telling) the truth[24:10] This is God ‘s grace and mercy towards you. God is Redeemer (Clement), Most Wise.

[24:26] The bad (vile) women for the bad (vile) men, and the bad (vile)  men for the bad (vile) women, and the virtuous (good) women for the virtuous (good) men, and the virtuous (good) men for the virtuous (good) women. The latter are innocent of such accusations. They have attained forgiveness and a generous reward.

[25:68] They never implore beside God any other god, nor do they kill any one (as such life) that God has made sacred except in the course of justice. Nor do they commit fornication (adultery). Those who commit these offenses will meet penalties.

On Incest;

[33:37] And when you said to him to whom God had shown favour, and to whom you [too] had shown favour. ‘Retain your wife for yourself and fear God’. But you had hidden in your heart what God was to disclose, and you feared people, though God is worthier that you should fear Him. So when Zayd had fulfilled whatever need he had of her, We joined her in marriage to you so that there may not be any restriction for the believers in respect of the wives of their adopted sons, when the latter have fulfilled whatever wish they have of them. And God’s commandment is bound to be realised. (Note: Zayd was the adopted son of Prophet Mohammad).

On Islam Openness on Sexual Pleasures;

[4:1] O people, observe your Lord; the One who created you from one being (one soul), and created from it its mate, then spread from the two many men and women. You shall regard God, by whom you ask one another (by whom you are enquiring about), and regard the parents. God is watching over you.

[25:54] He is the One who created from water a human being, then made him reproduce forefathers and siblings (through marriage and mating). Your Lord is Omnipotent.

[30:21] Among His proofs is that He created for you spouses from among yourselves, to tranquil and content with her, and He placed in-between yourselves love and care. In this, there are signs for people who think.

[36.36] Glory be to Him Who created all the sexual pairs, of that which the earth grow, and of themselves, and of that which they know not.

[49:13] O people, We created you from male and female, and rendered (made) you distinct peoples (nations) and tribes, that you may recognize one another (know each other). The best among you in the sight of God is the most righteous. God is Omniscient, Cognizant.

[51.49] and of everything we created a pair, that you may reflect.

On Man-Man Sex;

[7:80]And Lot when he said to his people, ‘Do you commit abomination, such as no one in all the worlds ever committed before you? [7:81] Do you come lustfully to men instead of women? Nay, you are a wanton folk’ [7:82] And the response of his people was only that they said, ‘Expel them from your city. Surely they are folk who would be pure!’ [7:83] So We delivered him and his family, except his wife: she was of those who stayed behind [7:84] And We rained upon them a rain. So behold what was the end of the sinners!

[11.78] His people came rushing at him (hastening to him), and before that they were committing evil deeds (sinful acts). He said, “O my people, it would be purer for you, if you instead take my daughters (to marry). You shall reverence God; do not disgrace (embarrass) me with my guests. Have you not one reasonable (right-thinking) man among you?” [11:79] They said, “You know well that we have no claim (no need) for your daughters; and you (indeed) know exactly what we want.” [11:80] He said, “If only I had against you some power (strength) or could take refuge in a strong support (a powerful ally).” [11:81] (The angels) said, “O Lot, we are your Lord’s messengers, and these people cannot touch (reach) you. You shall leave with your family during a portion of the night, and let not anyone of you look back, except your wife; she is condemned (will be struck) along with those who are condemned. Their appointed time is the morning. Is not the morning near (soon enough)?” [11:82] When our command (judgment) came, We made the highest part (of the village) its lowest (turned it upside down), and We showered (rained) it with stones of layered hard clay (hard, devastating rocks) [11:83] (Such rocks) were designated by your Lord and it was not far away from (close to) the transgressors (wrong-doers).

[15:61] The messengers went to Lot’s town [15:62] He said, “You are unknown people.” [15:63] They said, “We bring to you what they have been doubting [15:64] “We bring to you the truth; we are truthful [15:65] “You shall take your family during the night. Stay behind them, and make sure that none of you looks back. Go straight as commanded.” [15:66] We delivered to him this command: those people are to be annihilated in the morning [15:67] The people of the city came joyfully [15:68] He said, “These are my guests; do not embarrass me [15:69] “Fear God, and do not shame me.” [15:70] They said, “Did we not enjoin you from contacting anyone?” [15:71] He said, “Here are my daughters, if you must.” [15:72] But, alas, they were totally blinded by their lust [15:73] Consequently, the disaster struck them in the morning [15:74] We turned it upside down, and showered them with devastating rocks [15:75] This is a lesson for those who possess intelligence.

[21:74] As for Lot, we granted him wisdom (judgment) and knowledge, and we saved him from the community that practiced (did) abominations; they were wicked (lewd) and (folk) of evil people.

[26.162] [Lot said] I am to you a faithful apostle [26:165] “Do you approach males (to have sex with) from among the people?” [26.166] “and leave (forsake) what your Lord has created for you of your wives? Nay, but you are people who transgress.” [26:167] They said, “Unless you refrain, O Lot, you will be banished (expelled).” [26:168] He said, “I deplore your actions.” [26:169]  “My Lord, save me and my family (my household) from their works (from their doings).” [26:170] We saved him and all his family (all of his household) [26:171] But not an old woman; she was doomed (among those who stayed behind) [26:172] We then (afterwards) destroyed the others [26:173] We showered (rained on) them with a miserable shower; what a terrible (dreadful) shower for those who had been warned! [26:174] This should be a lesson, and most them were not believers.

[27:54] Lot said to his people, “How could you commit such an abomination, publicly (knowingly), while you see? [27:55] “You practice sex with (purse lust from) the men, lustfully, instead of the women. Indeed, you are ignorant people (acting senselessly).” [27:56] The only response from his people was their saying, “Banish Lot’s family from your village; they are people who wish to be pure.” [27.57] Then We saved him and his family (household) except his wife; We destined her to be of those who stayed behind (counted her among the doomed) [27. 58] And We rained upon them a rain; dreadful (miserable) is the rain of those who have been warned.

[29:28]  Lot said to his people, “You commit such an abomination; no one previously in the world has ever done it before you.” [29.29] You come (in lust) to men and stop folks on the highway (commit highway robbery); and conduct in your assembly sin (vice). The only response from his people was to bring us God’s torment (retribution) if you are among those who speak the truth (if you are truthful) [29:30]  He said, “My Lord, grant me victory over these wicked (corrupt) people.”