Sex in reference to The Quran

By A Taha, London, United Kingdom

Updated 25 November 2015

Sex in Islam is best understood in its various aspects and perspectives through, in the first place, citations to the Quran. There are sufficient numbers of Ayahs in the Quran that are clear and expressively direct on all vital issues. The Quran confirms Prophet Mohammad as the first role model for every Muslim [see Ayahs Nos. 6.162-163 shown below]. His conduct of his life and what he said and did is the ideal model to follow for blessed life, including happy marriage. There are many books of Hadeeth (Prophet Mohammad actions or statements), vast number of voluminous publications that have been accumulated over centuries of works by outstanding scholars in many schools of thought. Yet, it remains vital for every Muslim, man and woman, irrespective of sect and school of thought to carefully listen to the Quranic Ayahs on sex, sexuality and sexual behaviours. After all, the key word in the Quran on this matter is “Nikah” (Arabic: نكاح ) which literally means “sexual intercourse”. Practical and domestic problems, including forced marriages, incest, dysfunctional sexual life, honour killings, and lesbianism stigma would be successfully mitigated and may not even arise if one refers to, understand and truly comply with what is clearly outlined in the Quran.

The Quran

Muslims believe the Quran is the words of The Creator, GOD (in Arabic: Allah), and not a document authored by a human (or humans) or angles or any other than The Creator Himself (GOD). The Quran was read by The Creator’s Angel messenger (Gabriel) directly to The Creator’s human messenger (Prophet Muhammad) over a period of 23 years nearly 14 centuries ago. Since then people memorize the Quran; generation after generation.

It is not possible to make precise translation of the Quran from the original Arabic; but the meanings of the words are translated from Arabic to over 40 of World languages. Though each translation effort aims to deliver the original Arabic words’ meaning or interpretation thereof; such effort remains unable to provide the presence, beauty, fullness, coherence, depth and perfection of the Quran when recited in original Arabic. Therefore, it is recommended to refer to the Quran in the original Arabic language and if such is not possible then one should consult more than one translation. There are many attempts to translate the Quran to English.

The Quran Muslims believe the Quran is the words of The Creator, God (in Arabic: Allah), and not a document authored by a human (or humans) or angles or any other than The Creator Himself (God). The Quran was read by The Creator’s Angel messenger (Gabriel) directly to The Creator’s human messenger (Prophet Muhammad) over a period of 23 years nearly 14 centuries ago. Since then people memorize the Quran; generation after generation. In today’s printed form on paper the Quran is normally contained in a single book of around 600 pages widely available in recorded voice, video, paper and on the internet. The Quran contains 114 Surah each constitutes a number of Ayahs .

The Quran
In today’s printed form on paper the Quran is normally contained in a single book of around 600 pages widely available in recorded voice, video, paper and on the internet. The Quran contains 114 Surah each constitutes a number of Ayahs .

 Ignorance and Knowledge

The Arabic word “Jaheleyah ” refers to the era of “ignorance” prior to the advent of Islam in Arabia. In this era of ignorance, marriage was a “status” rather than a fair “contract”. Under such status men would disregard a woman view in respect of her own marriage or own divorce; a man would inherit his father wives (including his own mother!) and a man could sell or bury his own new-born daughter alive! All such “statuary” practices were abolished by the arrival of Islam.

Judgment Day

The meaning of the Arabic word “Deen” is “way of life” and the English word “religion” is therefore considered by Muslims insufficient to describe Islam. Individual’s way of life in submission to the will of GOD encompasses the Arabic phrase “Deen al Islam”.

Muslims believe in “personal responsibility” and do not believe in “vicarious atonement”. In Christianity, atonement refers to the forgiving or pardoning of sin through the “death and resurrection” of Jesus. To atone means to make amends (to repair a wrong done) and mankind, according to Christians, are  sinners and cannot atone for themselves. Throughout the centuries, Christians have used different metaphors and given differing explanations of the atonement to express how the atonement might work.

The Quran repeatedly stresses the message to mankind that “each person” is responsible for his or her own actions and that on Judgment Day everyone will be resurrected and each human will individually have to answer directly to GOD for every word, thought and deed.

Jihad

The Arabic word “Jihad “, which is frequently used in the Quran, means “to strive” or “to struggle” and it does not mean “holy war” which is in Arabic “Harb Muqadasa-  حرب  مقدسه ” a phrase not found in the Quran.

The Arabic word “Jihad “ refers to three basic struggles:

(1) Individual’s inner struggle to submit their will to the will of GOD,

(2) Physical struggle against persecution and oppression, and

(3) Struggle to build a robust corruption-free society.

Sex is naturally a prime component in each of these three struggles and therefore a thorough and deep understanding of sexual acts, guidelines and regulations is critical for every Muslim man and women.

 Celibacy 

GOD states in the Quran that He did not ordain Celibacy (on mankind) but people (monks) invented it [57.27] and the Quran confirms that previous Prophets (beginning with Adam) have married and produced children [2.35, 13.38].

Chastity and Marriage Importance

GOD calls for chastity [24.33, 33.35] and gave the ultimate example of chastity in the person of Virgin Mary mother of Jesus [19.20-21, 21.91].

Muslim youths are expected to remain chaste. Prophet Yusuf opted to choose jail rather than violate his chastity even under extreme seductive pressures [12.32-33].

GOD calls upon Muslim men to get married to believing women including servants (slaves) [4.25]. Note that said Ayah (24.33] is also preceded by [24.32] which calls for single Muslims to marry and not refrain from marriage even in poverty. At the same time, slander and false accusations against believing chaste women is strongly deplored [24.33].

Marital Home in Islam

GOD presents comprehensive guidelines and rules on the setting out of a Muslim household [see for example; 4.19-22, 4.34-35, and 4.128-130].

Nikah Contract

Marriage in Islam is a contract called “Nikah”, which means “sexual intercourse” literary, and it is a sign of GOD’s Mercy that should bring peace and tranquillity to the husband and the wife [30.21].

Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali (1058-1111), the teacher at Baghdad’s Nizamia College and the most influential thinker of that Classical era,  abruptly left his position and spent a decade in or between Damascus, Makka, Madina, and Jerusalem. During this period, he wrote his master-piece “Revivification of the Religious (Deen) Learnings” (in Arabic: Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Din), a grand work of forty books (including one on marriage), then returned to teaching. He left a legacy of works in jurisprudence, philosophy, theology, and Sufism.

Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali (1058-1111), the teacher at Baghdad’s Nizamia College and the most influential thinker of that Classical era, abruptly left his position and spent a decade in or between Damascus, Makka, Madina, and Jerusalem. During this period, he wrote his master-piece “Revivification of the Religious (Deen) Learnings” (in Arabic: Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Din), a grand work of forty books (including one on marriage), then returned to teaching. He left a legacy of works in jurisprudence, philosophy, theology, and Sufism. The above image is an artist impression on how Al Gazali might have looked like more than 900 years ago.

Marriage by Nickah contract normally includes;

• Spouse selection; proposal from the man (or the woman) and acceptance by the woman (or the man) [2.221, 2.235, 4.3, 4.6, 4.22-25, 24.3, 24.26, 24.32-33].

• Permission from the woman guardians [4.25].

• Payment of a dowry from the man to the woman [4.4].

• Man’s acceptance of his position as protector, maintainer and supporter of the family as the head of the household [4.34-35].

• Declaration of compliance with the Quran, including but not limited to requirements of divorce should it occur in future [2.231-237, 2.241, 33.49, and 65.1-2].

The man and the woman each has the right to declare their own specific conditions (if any) and the Nickah contract is then written in the presence of at least two witnesses.

Marriage in Islam is a unique contract. GOD refers to it in the Quran using powerful phrases and words such as “Solemn Covenant” that have serious consequences if disregarded [4.21]. Note that GOD uses the same phrase for the agreement made between GOD and the Prophets before granting them the responsibility of Prophet-hood [33.7].

Blessed Marriage

The Quran tells that the Angels glorify and praise GOD, and believe in Him, and they ask forgiveness for those who believe and repent [40.7] and appeal to GOD to admit them into Paradise and the righteous among their parents, spouses, and children [40.8] and protect them from falling into sin on Judgment Day [40.9].

So a blessed marriage, bearing in mind [63.9, 66.6] and thanking GOD for it in this life would not end in it, but it is greatly rewarded in the permanent life here after. The successful [43.69] will be told to enter Paradise, together with their spouses, and rejoice [43.70].

Nobel Women in Islam

GOD consistently reminds man of the woman rights, pursues the woman protection and highlights the fact that some of the most noble among mankind are women.

In The Quran, in addition to a Surah named Women [4] and another named Divorce [65] there is a Surah named Mary (the mother of Jesus) [19] and another named The Pleading Woman (after a women who was complaining to GOD concerning her husband) [58].

The Quran addresses Mary, by name, as the woman whom GOD purified among all women [3.42] and also mentions, as those among the most noble among mankind;

  • Moses mother who obeyed GOD and cast Moses the infant into the river without sadness or fear [28.7],
  • Wife of Pharaoh who adopted Moses [66.11],
  • Wife of Imran mother of Mary [3.35-37],
  • Queen of Yemen who submitted to Islam with Prophet Suleiman [27.44], and
  • Even the wife of Al-Aziz who tried to seduce Prophet Yusuf and repented [12.32-33, 12.52-53].

Slander

Charles le Gai Eaton (1921 – 2010) was a British diplomat, writer and Islamic scholar.  Eaton was educated at Cambridge, where he studied history. Later he became consultant to the Islamic Cultural Centre at Regent's Park Mosque in London for over two decades. He recalled the story of slander against Aisha (Prophet Mohammad wife) in his book “Islam and the Destiny of Man “, first published in 1985, ISBN 0-04-297047-4, pages 85-86.

Charles le Gai Eaton (1921 – 2010) was a British diplomat, writer and Islamic scholar. Eaton was educated at Cambridge, where he studied history. Later he became consultant to the Islamic Cultural Centre at Regent’s Park Mosque in London for over two decades. He recalled the story of slander against Aisha (Prophet Mohammad wife) in his book “Islam and the Destiny of Man “, first published in 1985, ISBN 0-04-297047-4, pages 85-86.

GOD repeatedly warned Muslims in the Quran against the spread of immorality as well as the spread of false accusations of immorality.

Aisha, the Prophet’s wife, was looking for her lost necklace whilst their army caravan halted briefly in the desert then moved on without her by error. A young man following in the rear-guard discovered her asleep on the sand. Losing no time he escorted and re-united her with the main body of the caravan. Tongues wagged and those who resented her or her father were quick to voice their suspicions.

A month passed, it was a terrible situation for Aisha as she was unable to prove a negative.

GOD intervened in the matter and exonerated her and condemned her detractors [24.11-20]. With this came verses of legislation concerning accusations of adultery which have remained valid for ever after.

Best Husband

Prophet Mohammad carried out domestic chores; he cooked, cleaned and even sewed in the home. Prophet Muhammad once said: “The best of men are those who are good to their wives”.

Muslims are expected to engage in marriage having a comprehensive understanding of the rights and obligations of the Islamic marriage contract.

GOD gives permission for men to have sex with their wife(s) in Ramadan (at night after breaking the fast), but not while they keep to the mosques [2.187].

Also, GOD calls for husbands to detach from their wives during Menstruation and only resume sex after they are cleansed from it [2.222].

A Muslim husband can kiss his wife before going out for prayer (without repeating ablution) or even when fasting as it has been reported that Prophet Mohammad did so.

Several reports in the Media indicate Egypt's Grand (from 2003-2013)  Mufti  Dr. Ali Gomaa  announced that "travellers marriages,” known in Arabic as “Nikah Mesyar “, are legitimate unless banned by the state. However, it was also reported Saudi  Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan (b. 1933) advised against it whilst Saudi Sheikh Adel Salim Al Kelbani approved a version of it.

Several reports in the Media indicate Egypt’s Grand (from 2003-2013) Mufti Dr. Ali Gomaa announced that “travellers marriages,” known in Arabic as “Nikah Mesyar “, are legitimate unless banned by the state. However, it was also reported Saudi Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan (b. 1933) advised against it whilst Saudi Sheikh Adel Salim Al Kelbani approved a version of it.

Around Nickah Contract

Historically, some Muslims pursued modifications to the Nikah contract for various reasons and objectives including access to sex and companionship.

These modifications often focus on mutual agreement between the man and the woman that amounts to surrendering certain marital rights of the Nikah contract.

The same is practiced now in our time under various titles;

• Travel Marriage (Misyar) mostly takes place in The Gulf states; through which a husband surrenders his right to regular access (as the couple do not normally live together) and the wife surrenders her right to housing, maintenance expenditure and the equal division of nights between wives in cases of polygyny.

• Pleasure Marriage ( Mut‘ah) predominantly practiced in Iran (also in Lebanon, UK, and other countries); it has a time limit, again certain rights are surrendered such as the couple do not inherit from each other, the man usually is not responsible for the economic welfare of the woman and she may leave her home at her own discretion.

• Confidential Marriage (‘Urfi) mostly takes place in Egypt, often secretly, without the public approval of the bride’s guardians, even though the contract is officiated by a religious cleric and sometimes by a state representative.

Among positive consequences are access to sex, motherhood, companionship and escape from spinsterhood.

Among negative consequences are fatherless children and sudden homelessness for involved women.

Ali al-Sistani (b. 1930), prominent Shia ceric in Iraq, wrote on his web site guidelines on Mutah Marriage (Temporary Marriage).

Ali al-Sistani (b. 1930), prominent Shia ceric in Iraq, wrote on his web site guidelines on Mutah Marriage (Temporary Marriage).

Scholars have debated such modifications for many years and there are some well-known scholars on both sides of the debate (for and against).

Whilst scholars continue their debate, every Muslim should bear in mind  all the obstacles placed in the Quran by God on the man before he can divorce his wife such as : wait 4 months cooling period before divorce [2:226], seek a council from the 2 families [4:35], give the wife a divorce compensation [2:241], not expel the wife from the marriage home [65:1], all these obstacles are there to establish the fact that God regards marriage as a long lasting bond under a “Solemn Covenant”;  see sub-title “Divorce” below.

Marriageable Age

It is critical to note that Chapter 65 in the Quran is about Divorce and the verse [65.4] words “those who have not menstruated” do not speak of girls who have not yet reached puberty as some scholars have suggested, but they speak of divorced women of reproductive age who do not menstruate. This is a medical condition in women known as Amenorrhoea which is defined as “the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age”.

Boys and girls before puberty are not yet at reproductive age. GOD ties the minimum age of marriage (for male and female) to reaching puberty in Surah 4 in the Quran and not to reaching a specific number of years of age since puberty attainment differ from one individual to another.

In [4.6], GOD does not specify the exact age for the marriage of a man or woman; instead GOD defines this age as that at which boys or girls attain “Nikah” status (or puberty).

Puberty is defined as ” the process of physical changes through which a child’s body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction to enable fertilization”. In other words, a man should not consummate marriage with his young bride until she is physically able to bear intercourse (and capable of getting pregnant).

Marriageable age naturally varies from one era, place and environment to another. But, in all cases, eras and environments a person must reach “Nickah” status to be married.

Polygyny

GOD, in the Quran [4.3], allows Polygyny (the marriage of one man to more than one woman), with the requirement that the man is able and willing to partition his time and wealth fairly among the respective wives. Under this Ayah; sex should take place within the framework of Nikah contract which can also extend to other forms of a contractual relationship (such as that between the husband and one or more women captured in war or slave women in the days when that were practised and warranted).

A historical account in Sahih al-Bukhari stipulates the Ayah [4.3] was revealed after the Battle of Uhud. Many Muslim men were killed in this battel, leaving widows and orphans and hence the permission of Polygyny was also timely.

However, benefits of Polygyny cannot be denied in many other situations, for example if the single wife is barren or falls seriously ill.

GOD does not make Polygyny mandatory but a choice (to the man) with a challenge and a caution that demands fairness of the husband to all of his wives [4.129].

Polygyny has been practiced by mankind since ancient times. One recent interesting citation is that in India the percentage of polygamous marriages between the years 1951 and 1961 was among Hindus (5.06%) more than among Muslims (4.31%) despite it is being made illegal (by the State) for Hindus to have multiple wives.

In Islam, polyandry (the marriage of one woman to more than one man) is not allowed.

Divorce

Divorce in Islam has been thoroughly addressed in the Quran. Divorce should only be considered as a last resort after attempts of waiting time [2.226], reconciliation [2.228] efforts, and mediation [4.35] till the invoking of the “third divorce pronouncement” by the husband [2.229-230].

When and if divorce has to and does happen [2.227] the interests of the man [2.228] and the women [2.229] have to be thought of and approached carefully [65.1-2].

A deterrent is put in place for the man to bear in mind before he finally announces his “third divorce pronouncement” [2.230].

Then two matters become of paramount importance and must be attended equitably: (1) Divorced women interests [2.231-232, 2.235-237, 2.241, 33.49, and 65.1-2], and (2) Protection of children [2.233].

Similarly interests of widowed women have to be protected [2.234, 2.240].

Adultery (Zina) 

The Arabic word “Zina” refers to adultery (in the case of a married person) and fornication (in the case of an unmarried person). GOD prohibits adultery [17.32, 24.2-10, and 25.68].

However, some Jurists have taken the position that the 100 lashes punishment prescribed in [24.2] is for fornicators who have never been married. If a person (man or woman) was ever married before committing the crime of Zina sin, he or she is to be punished by stoning to death (subject to confession or evidence of four witnesses who saw the intercourse act).

Muslims must bear in mind that the Quran prescribe punishment after conviction as 100 lashes [24.2] and there is no reference in the Quran for stoning to death. Furthermore, the Quran prescribe 80 lashes [24.4] for the accusers if they fail to provide reputable four males who have definitely witnessed the adultery act. False accusations are not tolerated in the Quran.

Incest

GOD prohibits incest marriage and expressively outlines a comprehensive list of the women among relatives and other close associates with whom sex is forbidden [4.23-24].

It is interesting to note that a Muslim man can marry a girl who is his first cousin (from father side or mother side), but cannot marry any girl who breast fed from a woman (even if this woman is not his mother) who breast fed him when they were infants. Also, a Muslim man can marry the divorcee of his adopted son [33.37] unless she is one of those listed in [4.23-24] and cannot marry any women who were previously married to his father [4.22].

Islam Openness on Sexual Pleasures

GOD reminds Muslims that He created mankind, animals and plants of sexual pairs [4.1, 16.72, 25.54, 30.21, 36.36, 49.13, 51.49, and 53.45-46].

Sex is part of mankind Fitrah (mankind natural instincts) and hence sex in Islam, the religion of natural instincts, is strongly encouraged and must not be suppressed. Islam has an open and playful approach to sex so long as it is within marriage, free of lewdness, fornication and adultery [2.187, 2.223, 3.14, 4.3, 4.15, 4.23, 4.25, 5.87, 17.32, 24.26, 24.32, and 25.74].

Today, Muslims (men and women) have a tendency to shy away from frank sexual discussions. The arrival of Islam encouraged open and unembarrassed discussion concerning sex, sexual pleasure and in particular women’s pleasure. This openness has been lost over time, and all mention of sex has become taboo. It is not Islam but Muslims who have boxed themselves in. Today, in many societies, sex has been a difficult topic to talk about publicly among the Muslims. This topic is always shoved aside and not dealt with in an honest manner.

While most Islamic societies go to great lengths to insure all things sex-related remain taboo, sex between a married man and woman is, by Islamic jurisprudence, allowed to be sensual and uninhibited. Imam Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali (died in 1111) cited a Hadeeth which advises the Muslim husband to engage in acts that enable his wife to achieve orgasm first.

He was also cited to have said Ibn Umar (one of the scholarly Companion to the Prophet) used to break his fast with sexual intercourse before eating and that after the death of Fatima, her husband Ali remarried in seven days.

Today, men should at least be expected to have taken the time and effort to learn the techniques (not from porn, but from proper educational sources) while investing in the marital relationship and making their wives feel valuable. Both husband and wife should focus on increasing their knowledge, skills and emotional know-how to mutually enjoy their sexual experience.

Foreplay

GOD (strongly) calls for the practice of foreplay [2.223] and this call is echoed by the Prophet Hadeeth.

Foreplay is considered to include flirting outside the bedroom, talking, kissing, touching, massage, hugging, fondling, undressing, petting, and anything to get in the mood and reach full arousal including other acts some of which are discussed here.

Masturbation

Ahmad Al-Kubaisi  (b. 1934), an Iraqi scholar based in UAE, who  is the head of Sharia Studies at UAE University and Baghdad University and leads prayers at the state mosque of Abu Dhabi , also spoke on TV (2013-14) regarding Oral Sex as being permissible citing Muhammad Al-Qurtubi (1214-1273) the scholar who was born in Cordoba, Spain.

Ahmad Al-Kubaisi (b. 1934), an Iraqi scholar based in UAE, who is the head of Sharia Studies at UAE University and Baghdad University and leads prayers at the state mosque of Abu Dhabi , also spoke on TV (2013-14) regarding Oral Sex as being permissible citing Muhammad Al-Qurtubi (1214-1273) the scholar who was born in Cordoba, Spain.

Scholars debated this subject over the centuries; a school of thought appears to have taken the position that if a person masturbates with the intention of saving himself from committing sin (such as adultery) it will not be a sin and if he does it with the intention of enjoyment he will be a sinner. They recommend that he does good deeds as there is in Islam “no doubt the virtues wipe away the sins” [11.114].

Men may enjoy masturbating physically, but some may find it leaving them emotionally empty, depressed or lonely for the real thing or companionship.

A Muslim should perhaps resist this temptation as he or she who masturbates might, according to some scholars, be  considered among “those who crave something” beyond that specified in [23.5-7] , but one must bear in mind the Quran does not mention masturbation.

It has been cited that it is lawful (according to Hanbali school) for a husband to achieve ejaculation by his wife masturbating him, and by rubbing his penis between her thighs or breasts.

Oral Sex

The Quran and the Hadeeth do not mention and thus do not prohibit Oral Sex between husband and wife.

Oral sex is the use of the mouth or the tongue to stimulate another person’s genitals (oral stimulation of the male organ is called “fellatio” and oral stimulation of the female genital is known as “cunnilingus”).

Oral Sex covers a wide range of activities, from simply kissing the genitalia to the actual taking in and swallowing of sexual fluids. Man’s semen is not considered impure (or unclean) according to the Shäfi scholars, contrary to the Hanafï scholars, but both seem to agree swallowing of sexual fluids should not be permissible.

This subject has also been a matter of debate for centuries.

Yusuf al-Qaradawi (b. 1926), an Egyptian scholar based in Qatar, is the author of some 80 books. Among his most famous works are “The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam” and “Fiqh al-Zakat”. He released statements on Oral Sex (cited in this Article) and expressed opposition to female genital mutilation (FGM).

Yusuf al-Qaradawi (b. 1926), an Egyptian scholar based in Qatar, is the author of some 80 books. Among his most famous works are “The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam” and “Fiqh al-Zakat”. He released statements on Oral Sex (cited in this Article) and expressed opposition to female genital mutilation (FGM).

Opinion of famous contemporary Egyptian scholar Yusuf Al-Qaradawi (based in Qatar) who most probably has studied this debate thoroughly has been quoted as follows “ … Muslim jurists are of the opinion that it is lawful for the husband to perform cunnilingus on his wife, or a wife to perform the similar act for her husband (fellatio) and there is no wrong in doing so. But if sucking leads to releasing semen, then it is blameworthy (or disliked), but there is no decisive evidence to make it unlawful, especially if the wife agrees with it or achieves orgasm by practicing it… Scholars maintain that the husband is allowed to enjoy his wife through any means of enjoyment except anal sex …”.

Woman-Woman Sex

Some Muslim women feel they are in a conundrum; one wrote “I am a Lesbian, I was born that way. But at the same time, I pray five times a day. I fast in Ramadan. I enjoy attending Islamic talks at uni (university)”.

Information, from surveys and blogs, provide indications on what and how two women perform in bed could have sex (without a man). Apparently, they may kiss, hug, suck, caress each other’s bodies for hours and caress each other’s nipples and/or clitorises, touch their vulvas with fingers and tongues, press and rub their bodies and vulvas or masturbate together, oral sex to one another (or at the same time with each other in the ’69’ position), making noises, licking (tongues, vaginas or breasts), scissoring (where they touch their genitals together and or rub them) and basically turn each other on such that one, both, or neither may orgasm once or several times.

A recent article about latest developments in same-sex marriages in the USA brought the announcement that a lesbian “throuple”, a new phrase referring to “three lesbians in a single relationship”, is awaiting their first born child! This article indicated some 300 LGBT allies now agreed on “there is no reason not to further re-shape ‘marriage’ to include multiple partner unions”, according to the McCormick Professor of Jurisprudence at Princeton University.

USA Supreme Court ruled by a 5-to-4 vote in June 2015 that the Constitution guarantees a right to same-sex marriage nationwide. President Obama called the Supreme Court decision "a victory for America." In the build up to this legislation, the New York Post, on April 23, reported that Doll, Kitten, and Brynn Young, three Massachusetts women in a polyamorous relationship, were expecting their first child after uniting in an August 2013 commitment ceremony. And after undergoing IVF with an unknown sperm donor, the youngest of the group is now with child. This action, as in the case of three men in polyamorous relationship, is not criminal offence in the USA where it is a criminal offence for a man to marry two women! One wonders on what President Barak Hossein Obama think of where the USA legal system heading with this?

USA Supreme Court ruled by a 5-to-4 vote in June 2015 that the Constitution guarantees a right to same-sex marriage nationwide. President Obama called the Supreme Court decision “a victory for America.” In the build up to this legislation, the New York Post, on April 23, reported that Doll, Kitten, and Brynn Young, three Massachusetts women in a polyamorous relationship, were expecting their first child after uniting in an August 2013 commitment ceremony. And after undergoing IVF with an unknown sperm donor, the youngest of the group is now with child. This action, as in the case of three men in polyamorous relationship, is not criminal offence in the USA where it is a criminal offence for a man to marry two women! One wonders on what President Barak Hossein Obama think of where the USA legal system heading with this?

On the other hand, another recent article based on data the researchers of which tracked 5,018 women and 4,191 men found women have a greater probability than men of being attracted to both men and women… and this indicates that women’s sexuality may be more flexible and adaptive than men’s.

To comprehend this subject, there are three Ayahs in the Quran that warrant close attention;

The first is [3.14], its opening statement is “Adorned (Beautified) for people (mankind) is the love of lusts (desires) from women, “. The key word here is “for people” which refers “to men and women” and not only “for men”!

The second Ayah [19:20], which provide decisive clarity to the ultimate purity and chastity of Mary the mother of Jesus uses another key word “human”, instead of “man”! This is significant, because it’s possible, at least according to British National Health Service (NHS) web site for a woman to get pregnant without having sexual intercourse, for example: if she (or her partner – male or female-) has semen or pre-ejaculate on fingers and touch her vagina.

These two Ayahs [3.14, 19.20] document the fact that women may also, naturally (by Fitra),  seek sexual pleasures from other women.

But, the Nikah contractual marital home, headed by a man, as the protector and maintainer, is the only legitimate institution in the Quran [4.3, 4.34, 4.128-129] inside which Muslims should satisfy all their sexuality needs (as well as other pleasures and inherent attractions including love, companionship, procreation, mercy, physical and emotional needs, desires and lusts).

Therefore, available choices for both parties (the Muslim man and the Muslim woman) are as follows;

Laura Poyneer is a white American convert to Islam who lives near Seattle, USA. By day, she works for a blogging company, while in the evenings she serves as Muslim ARC’s Membership Services Chair. She wrote Articles on Seattle mosques and, in September 2015, most notably, on her personal experiences in life as an “asexual” and Muslim.

Laura Poyneer is a white American convert to Islam who lives near Seattle, USA. By day, she works for a blogging company, while in the evenings she serves as Muslim ARC’s Membership Services Chair. She wrote Articles on Seattle mosques and, in September 2015, most notably, on her personal experiences in life as an “asexual” and Muslim.

• A Muslim man can have more than one wife providing he is able and willing to partition his time and wealth fairly among the respective wives; or otherwise he should marry only one wife [3.14, 4.3].

• A Muslim woman (lesbian or bisexual) can have a husband who is willing to accept her condition (supported by at least one of his existing wives who is willing to conduct lesbian acts with the new wife); or otherwise she has to supress her lesbianism and live with her husband in straight sex only which she is naturally capable of [3.14, 4.3].

Thus, a Muslim woman who wants to act on her lesbian desires may do so within the Nikah contract only, which by definition must be made with a man; in order to comply with the Nikah (sexual intercourse) requirement.

Note that women as well as men are allowed to put clauses and conditions up-front in their Nikah contract. Accordingly, as in the case of husband’s perusal of sexual intercourse with more than one wife within the confines of polygynous marriage, also lesbian acts may only be legitimate within the confines of polygynous marriage [4.3], inside the privacy of their own marital home, providing, of course, prior agreement of their husband and his concerned wife(s).

The third Ayah is [4.15]; it addresses married women who commit a lesbian act with other women who are not wives of their own husband marital household. This Ayah denotes such act as outrageous (lewd) and risks, upon conviction, the punishment by life-time imprisonment (house arrest).

Similarly, a Muslim “Asexual” woman could, if she wish, enter Nickah marital contract by declaring her conditions in advance for prior agreement by the man. Asexuality is defined as the lack of sexual attractions to anyone or low or absent interest in sexual activity.

Anal Sex with Wife

Majority of scholars indicate this action is not permissible citing a number of Hadeeths as reported in some reliable sources.

The minority, who say this act is permissible, do so as per an interpretation of the meaning of [2.223] based on a single Hadeeth reported by Bukhari. Majority of scholars (including Ibn al-Qayyim, al-Nasaa’I, Abu Dawood and others) do not agree to such interpretation.

Summary of Sahih Al Bukari

Muhammad Al-Bukhari (810-870) collected and compiled several thousand Hadiths in a volume known as “Sahih Al-Bukari”. He finished this work around 846 and its authenticity seems to have been accepted by other scholars of that era such as Ahmad ibn Hanbal (855), Yahya ibn Ma’in (847), and Ali ibn al-Madini (848). The “Sahih Al-Bukhari” ranks as the most authentic of the Kutub al-Sittah, the six books containing collections of hadith (sayings or acts of the prophet Muhammad).The next one is “Sahih Muslim”, collected by Muslim bin al-Hajjaj (d. 875 ).

Scholars maintain that if a man habitually does this or insists on having anal sex with his wife, she has the right to ask for a divorce, because he is considered causing harm by his action (also because one of the purposes of marriage cannot be achieved through this action).

Some scholars take the position that while anal sex is unlawful, it is lawful to place a finger on the anus as long as it does not penetrate.

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) 

There is no requirement in the Quran for female circumcision.

GOD in the Quran and Prophet Mohammad in Hadeeth allude to the nature of sexual relations as a means of attaining mutual satisfaction, closeness and compassion between husband and his wife(s).

Female circumcision is a habit practised long before Islam advent in Arabia (in many places including Russia and South America); it is still practiced in Sudan and to lesser extent in Egypt.

The practice of “clitoridectomy” can be a mild procedure involving the cutting off a tiny part from the outer portion of the clitoris (about 1mm to 3mm is snipped off the very top of the clitoris) which may not diminish sexual desire or result in other complications.

But, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) can be severe, much harsher and undignified and hence unacceptable in Islam because it results in a severe sexual debilitation of the woman and thus preventing her from achieving sexual fulfilment which is her right as a human and as a Muslim.

Man-Man Sex

This act is deplored repeatedly in the Quran through the Prophet Lot story concerning his people who practiced it [7.80-84, 11.78-83, 15.72-75, 21.74, 26.162-174, 27.54-58, and 29.28-30].

Scholars acknowledge that the Quran does not expressively prescribe specific punishment, beyond that in [4.16] for first-time offense.

Alfred Kinsey (1894 –1956) published, in 1948-1953, a scale which uses grading from 0, meaning exclusively heterosexual, to 6, meaning exclusively homosexual. An additional grade, listed as "X", was used to mean "no socio-sexual contacts or reactions" or asexual. In approximate numbers, it brands bi-sexual behaviours (3-5) in 12% of men and 5% of women and homosexual behaviours (6) in 10% of men and 2% of women, and some 1% are placed under X. Kinsey was himself bi-sexual. Jones, James H. (1997) wrote that Kinsey's sexual activity influenced his work, that he over-represented prisoners and prostitutes, classified some single people as "married" and that he included a disproportionate number of homosexual men, which may have distorted his studies. Nevertheless, this simplistic straight-line scale caught the public eye in the Western world. The Kinsey Reports, which led to a storm of controversy, are regarded by many as a precursor to the sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s.

Alfred Kinsey (1894 –1956) published, in 1948-1953, a scale which uses grading from 0, meaning exclusively heterosexual, to 6, meaning exclusively homosexual. An additional grade, listed as “X”, was used to mean “no socio-sexual contacts or reactions” or asexual. In approximate numbers, it brands bi-sexual behaviours (3-5) in 12% of men and 5% of women and homosexual behaviours (6) in 10% of men and 2% of women, and some 1% are placed under X. Kinsey was himself bi-sexual. Jones, James H. (1997) wrote that Kinsey’s sexual activity influenced his work, that he over-represented prisoners and prostitutes, classified some single people as “married” and that he included a disproportionate number of homosexual men, which may have distorted his studies. Nevertheless, this simplistic straight-line scale caught the public eye in the Western world. The Kinsey Reports, which led to a storm of controversy, are regarded by many as a precursor to the sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s.

However, many scholars have ruled that the punishment for this act should be the same as for adultery; that is one hundred whiplashes (stripes) for the man who has never married, and death by stoning for the married man (as mentioned above the Quran prescribe 100 lashes for adultery and the stoning to death is not in the Quran).

It should be noted that adultery (Zina) punishments are prescribed in the Quran upon the evidence of four reputable male witnesses.

Some commentators consider the levels of proof required by Islamic law are so high that if the rules are properly applied conviction is virtually impossible baring the conduct of adulterer’s sexual intercourse in the public arena.

In May 2009, the British newspaper The Guardian reported “None of the 500 British Muslims interviewed believed that homosexual acts were morally acceptable”.

Even self-identified progressives and moderates such as Imam Hamza Yusuf in the United States and Professor Tariq Ramadan in the UK consider homosexuality to be a grave sin.

It is reported that in 2010 a Saudi man was sentenced to 500 lashes and five years in jail for having sex with another man and that since the 2003 invasion of Iraq more than 700 people have been reportedly killed because of such acts.

It is also reported that an estimate of 4,000 homosexuals have been executed in Iran since that country’s revolution in 1979 as well as large-scale public executions of homosexuals in Afghanistan by the Taliban

In 2004, a paper published by Concerned Women for America (CWA) was titled “Born or Bred? Science Does Not Support the Claim That Homosexuality Is Genetic”.

Earlier, in 1995, Stanford University News Release indicated under “Biological basis of sexual orientation” that 3%-5% of men are homosexual (which is less than the previous estimate of 10% from a 1950s study by Kinsey).

Regardless of the opinion of biologists or statisticians, if there is such a minority among Muslim men  with such inclination they are expected to control themselves and keep clear from this act; otherwise they could face adverse consequences in this life and in the permanent life hereafter.

Conclusion

Sex is fantastic gift from GOD. The losers are those who abuse it. The winners are those who use it responsibly to maximize their pleasures and happiness;

• A Muslim husband can only have sex with his wife(s) [23.5-6]. Man-man sex is repeatedly deplored in the Quran [7.80-84, 11.78-83, 15.72-75, 21.74, 26.162-174, 27.54-58, and 29.28-30].

• A Muslim wife can only have sex with one man; her husband. Additionally, a Muslim wife may enjoy lesbian acts with her husband’s wives or bisexual acts with her husband and his wives providing husband and concerned wife(s) are in mutual agreement [3.14, 4.3].

• Bar anal intercourse and adultery, a Muslim marital home bonded by Nikah marital contract between husband and his wife(s) should enjoy and even indulge, within the privacy of their marital home, in limitless scope of husband-wife straight sexual acts (within their monogamous marriage) or husband-wives straight, lesbian and bisexual acts (within their polygamous marriage).

Any sexual activity (be it straight, lesbian or bisexual) outside Nikah marriage contract is prohibited on all Muslims, men and women.

Citations from The Quran

A total of about 140 Quran Ayahs (addressing sex or topics related to or associate with sex) have been cited in this Article. Ideally, the readers who know Arabic should refer directly to the original Quran in Arabic. This is because Quran translations to other languages have always been difficult, even though many attempts have already been made in the past.

Quran Complex in Medina published Translations of the Meanings of the Quran to 39 languages.. It was established in 1982-1984 by the government of Saudi Arabia..

Quran Complex in Medina published Translations of the Meanings of the Quran to 39 languages.. It was established in 1982-1984 by the government of Saudi Arabia..

Three decades ago, in 1982-84, a Quran Complex was established by Saudi Arabia government, named after King Fahd. This Complex outlines Quran translation difficulties to English language, and considers all translations from original Arabic to any other language are translations to the “meanings” or “interpretations” of the Quran. This Complex headings of own Quran translations states “Translations of the Meanings of the Quran”.

There are several well-known Quran translations to English which can be found on the internet or published in the form of books such as the following 10 translations by;

This Quran translation to English is by Yusuf Ali (1872 –1953) a British-Indian Islamic scholar. He died in London and is buried in England at the Muslim cemetery at Brookwood, Surrey (near Woking), not far from the burial place of Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall (1875 –1936) who was a Western Islamic scholar (a convert from Christianity) also noted for his translation of the Qur'an (1930) from Arabic to English.

This Quran translation to English is by Yusuf Ali (1872 –1953) a British-Indian Islamic scholar. He died in London and is buried in England at the Muslim cemetery at Brookwood, Surrey (near Woking), not far from the burial place of Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall (1875 –1936) who was a Western Islamic scholar (a convert from Christianity) also noted for his translation of the Qur’an (1930) from Arabic to English.

(1) Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought, Amman, Jordan, 2008.

(2) Quran Complex which was established in 1982-84 by Saudi Arabia government, named after King Fahd.

(3) Dr.  Mohammad Ghali (born in 1920) who was a Professor of Linguistics and Islamic Studies, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

(4) Muhammad Pickthall (1875-1936); he was a Western; a convert from Christianity.

(5) Mohammad Muhsin Khan (born in 1927). He is a contemporary author of Pashtun origin who completed this translation with Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali.

(6) Shakir: There is a controversy on the real identity of the translator who may be Egyptian judge Muhammad Habib Shakir (1866-1939) or likely Mohammedali Habib Shakir the son of Habib Esmail of The House of Habib in Pakistan.

(7) Yusuf Ali (1872-1953) who was a British-Indian Islamic scholar.

(8) Sahih International; in 1989 three American converts to Islam joined together to form “Saheeh International” and published their translation in 1997.

(9) Muhammad Asad (1900–1992) who was a Jewish-born Austro-Hungarian journalist, traveller, linguist, diplomat and Islamic scholar.

(10) Dr. Martin Lings (1909–2005) who is best known for his English language biography of Prophet Muhammad, titled “Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources”. He passed away before completing his translation.

Martin Lings (1909 – 2005), an English writer and scholar, best known as the author of “Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources”, first published in 1983. He passed away before completing his translation of the Quran to English.

Martin Lings (1909 – 2005), an English writer and scholar, best known as the author of “Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources”, first published in 1983. He passed away before completing his translation of the Quran to English.

The following English translations for Ayahs  are primarily based on cautious correlation-comparison of one or more than one translation with that of the Arabic original. Once again, the readers who know Arabic should refer directly to the original Quran in Arabic, if not possible then it is recommended that readers do not rely on any single translation but try, as much as possible, to consult more than one translation.

Cited English text translations for Ayahs  of the Quran relevant to this Article are presented below, each cited verse is preceded by a numerical code within two brackets; for example: [4.3] refers to Ayah number 3 in Surah number 4;

[2.2] This is the Book, in it there is no doubt. Guidance for the God-fearing.

[2.35] We said, “O Adam, live with your wife in Paradise, and eat therefrom generously, as you please, but do not approach this tree, lest you sin.”

[2.187] Permitted for you is sexual intercourse with your wives during the nights of fasting. They are clothing for you (keepers of your secrets), and you are clothing for them (keepers of their secrets). GOD knew that you used to betray your souls (deceive yourselves), and He has redeemed you, and has pardoned you. Henceforth, you may have intercourse with them, seeking what GOD has permitted for you. You may eat and drink until the white thread of light becomes distinguishable from the dark thread of night at dawn. Then, you shall fast until sunset. Sexual intercourse is prohibited if you decide to retreat to the masjid (staying for worship in the mosques). These are GOD’s laws; you shall not transgress them. GOD thus clarifies His revelations for the people, that they may attain salvation.

[2:221] Do not marry idolatresses unless they believe; a believing woman is better than an idolatress, even if you like her. Nor shall you give your daughters in marriage to idolatrous men, unless they believe. A believing man is better than an idolater, even if you like him. These invite to Hell, while GOD invites to Paradise and forgiveness, as He wills. He clarifies His revelations for the people, that they may take heed.

[2.222] They ask you about menstruation: say, “It is harmful; you shall avoid sexual intercourse with the women during menstruation; do not approach them until they are rid of it. Once they are rid of it, you may have intercourse with them in the manner designed by GOD. GOD loves the repeaters, and He loves those who are clean.”

[2.223] Your women are a tilth for you (to cultivate) so go to your tilth however you like, and priory provide for yourselves (foreplay). Fear GOD and know you will meet Him. Give good news to the believers.

[2:226] Those who intend to divorce their wives shall wait four months (cooling off); if they change their minds and reconcile, then GOD is Forgiver, Merciful.

[2:227] If they go through with the divorce, then GOD is Hearer, Knower.

[2:228] The divorced women shall wait three menstruations (before marrying another man). It is not lawful for them to conceal what GOD creates in their wombs, if they believe in GOD and the Last Day. The husband’s wishes shall supersede the wife’s wishes in case of pregnancy, if he wants to remarry her. The women have rights, as well as obligations, equitably. Thus, the man’s wishes prevail (in responsibility and in case of pregnancy). GOD is Almighty, Most Wise.

[2.229] Divorce is twice. The divorced woman shall be allowed to live in the same home amicably, or leave it amicably. It is not lawful for the husband to take back anything he had given her. However, the couple may fear that they may transgress GOD’s law. If there is fear that they may transgress GOD’s law, they commit no error if the wife willingly gives back whatever she chooses. These are GOD’s laws; do not transgress them. Those who transgress GOD’s laws are the unjust.

[2:230] If he divorces her (for the third time), it is unlawful for him to remarry her, unless she marries another man, then he divorces her. The first husband can then remarry her, if they consider that they are able to observe the limits of GOD’s laws; these are the limits of GOD’s laws; He explains them for people who know.

[2.231] If you divorce the women, once they fulfill their interim (three menstruations), you shall allow them to live in the same home amicably, or let them leave amicably. Do not force them to stay against their will, as revenge (or to hurt them). Anyone who does this wrongs his own soul. Do not take GOD’s revelations in vain. Remember GOD’s blessings upon you, and that He sent down to you the scripture and wisdom to enlighten you. You shall observe GOD, and know that GOD is aware of all things.

[2:232] If you divorce the women, once they fulfill their interim (three menstruations), do not prevent them from remarrying their husbands, if they reconcile amicably. This shall be heeded by those among you who believe in GOD and the Last Day. This is purer for you, and more righteous. GOD knows, while you do not know.

[2:233] (Divorced) mothers shall nurse (suckle) their infants two full years, to whoever wishes to complete the nursing (duration). The father shall provide the mother’s food and clothing equitably. No one shall be burdened beyond his ability. No mother shall be harmed on account of her infant, nor shall the father be harmed because of his infant. The inheritor (if the father dies) shall assume these responsibilities. If the infant’s parents mutually agree to part, after due consultation, they commit no error by doing so. You commit no error by hiring nursing mothers, so long as you pay them equitably. You shall observe GOD, and know that GOD is Seer of everything you do.

[2:234] Those who die and leave wives, their widows shall wait four months and ten days (before they remarry). Once they fulfil their interim, you commit no error by letting them do whatever righteous matters they wish to do. GOD is fully Cognizant of everything you do.

[2:235] You commit no sin by speaking of your intentions to propose (announcing your engagement) to women, or keeping it secret. GOD knows that you will think about them. Do not meet them secretly, unless you have something righteous to discuss. Do not consummate the marriage until their interim is fulfilled. You should know that GOD knows your innermost thoughts, and observe Him. You should know that GOD is Forgiver, Clement.

[2:236] You commit no error by divorcing the women before touching them, or before setting the dowry for them. In this case, you shall compensate them – the rich as he can afford and the poor as he can afford – an equitable compensation. This is a duty upon the righteous.

[2:237] If you divorce them before touching them, but after you had set the dowry for them, the compensation shall be half the dowry, unless they voluntarily forfeit their rights, or the party responsible for causing the divorce chooses to forfeit the dowry. To forfeit is closer to righteousness. You shall maintain the amicable relations among you. GOD is Seer of everything you do.

[2:240] Those who die and leave wives, a will shall provide their wives with support for a year, provided they stay within the same household. If they leave, you commit no sin by letting them do whatever they wish, so long as righteousness is maintained. GOD is Almighty, Most Wise.

[2:241] The divorcees also shall be provided for, equitably. This is a duty upon the righteous.

[3:14] Adorned (Beautified) for people (mankind) is the love of lusts (desires) from women, having children, piles upon piles of gold and silver, trained (branded) horses, livestock (cattle), and crops (tilled land). These are the materials of this world. With GOD is a far better abode.

[3:35] The wife of Emran said, “My Lord, I have pledged to You what is in my womb (dedicated the baby in my belly to You), totally, so accept from me. You are Hearer, Omniscient.”

[3:36] When she gave birth to her, she said, “My Lord, I have given birth to a female”, GOD was fully aware of what she bore (delivered) , the male is not the same as the female. “And I have named her Mary, and I invoke Your protection (seek refuge in You) for her and her descendants from the rejected (expelled) devil.”

[3:37] Her Lord accepted her gracious acceptance, and brought her up (caused her to grow up) a gracious upbringing, and put her in the care (under the guardianship) of Zachariah. Whenever Zachariah entered her sanctuary (prayer chamber) he found provisions with her. He would ask, “Mary, where did you get this from?” She would say, “It is from GOD. GOD provides for whomever He chooses, without limits (account).”

[3:42] The angels said, “O Mary, GOD has chosen you and purified you. He has chosen you from all the women (chosen you above the women of the World).

[4:1] O people, observe your Lord; the One who created you from one being (one soul), and created from it its mate, then spread from the two many men and women. You shall regard GOD, by whom you ask one another (by whom you are enquiring about), and regard the parents. GOD is watching over you.

[4.3] If you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans, then marry whom you like from the women (mothers of orphan children or orphan adult girls), two or three or four, but if you fear that you will not be just, then only one or what you already have that will be more suitable to avoid hardship (of a large family).

[4:4] You shall give the women their due dowries, equitably. If they give up willingly to you anything of it, then take it in satisfaction and ease.

[4:6] You shall test the orphans when they reach sexual intercourse (puberty, marriageable age). As soon as you find them mature enough, give them their property. Do not consume it extravagantly and in a hurry, before they grow up. The rich guardian shall not charge any wage, but the poor guardian may charge equitably. When you give them their properties, you shall have witnesses. GOD suffices as Reckoner.

[4:15] Those who commit lewdness (unlawful sexual act) among your women, you must have four witnesses against them, from among you. If they do bear witness, then you shall keep such women in their homes until they die, or until GOD creates for them an exit (a way).

[4:16] And the two who commit it dishonour them both (by strong words). If they repent and reform, you shall leave them alone. GOD is Redeemer, Most Merciful.

[4:19] O you who believe, it is not lawful for you to inherit what the women leave behind, against their will. You shall not force them to give up anything you had given them, unless they commit a proven lewdness (unlawful sexual act). Live with them on a footing of kindness and equity, and if you take a dislike to them, it may be that you dislike a thing through which GOD brings about a great deal of good.

[4:20] If you decide to take one wife in place of another, and you had given one of them a great deal (or whole treasure), you shall not take back anything you had given her. Would you take it fraudulently and manifest slander?

[4:21] How could you take it back, after you have been intimate with each other, and they had taken from you a solemn covenant?

[4:22] Do not marry the women who were previously married to your fathers; existing marriages are exempted and shall not be broken. It was lewdness, gross offense and an abominable act.

[4:23] Prohibited for you (in marriage) are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, the sisters of your fathers, the sisters of your mothers, the daughters of your brother, the daughters of your sister, your nursing mothers, the girls who nursed from the same woman as you, the mothers of your wives, the daughters of your wives with whom you have consummated the marriage – if the marriage has not been consummated, you may marry the daughter. Also prohibited for you are the wives of your sons who are from your [own] loins (women who were married to your genetic sons). Also, you shall not be married to two sisters at the same time but do not break up existing marriages. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.

[4:24] Also prohibited are the women who are already married, except those flee their disbelieving husbands who are at war with you. These are GOD ‘s commandments to you. All other categories are permitted for you in marriage, so long as you pay them their due dowries. You shall maintain your chastity not committing unlawful sexual intercourse (adultery). Thus, whoever you like among them, you shall pay them their due compensation as an obligation (the dowry decreed for them). You commit no error by mutually agreeing to any adjustments beyond the obligation (of the dowry decreed for them). GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.

[4:25] Those among you who cannot afford to marry free believing women, may marry believing slave (servant) women. GOD knows best about your belief, and you are equal to one another, as far as belief is concerned. You shall obtain permission from their guardians before you marry them, and pay them their due dowry equitably. They shall be chastised not committing unlawful intercourse (adultery), or having secret lovers. Once they are freed through marriage, if they commit adultery, their punishment shall be half of that for the free women. This is for him among you who fears sin. To be patient is better for you. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.

[4:34] The men are made responsible for the women, and GOD has endowed them with certain qualities, and made them the bread earners. The righteous women are devoutly obedient (would cheerfully accept this arrangement), since it is GOD’s commandment, guarding in [the husband’s] absence what GOD would have them guard. If you experience rebellion from the women, you shall first talk to them, then (forsake) desert them in bed, then you may (as a last alternative) beat (strike) them. If they obey you, you are not permitted to transgress against them. GOD is Most High, Supreme.

[4:35] If a couple fears separation, you shall appoint an arbitrator from his folk (family) and an arbitrator from her family (family); if they decide to reconcile, GOD will help them get together. GOD is Omniscient, Cognizant.

 [4.87]  God – there is no god except Him, He will surely gather you to the Day of Resurrection whereof there is no doubt. And who is truer in statement (Arabic: hadith) than God?

[4:128] If a woman senses oppression (contempt, ill treatment) or evasion (desertion) from her husband, the couple shall mutually try to reconcile (settle) their differences, for conciliation (settlement) is best for them. Selfishness (greed, stinginess) is a human trait (present in human souls), so if you do good and heedful (lead a righteous life), GOD is fully Cognizant (Expertly Informed) of everything you do.

[4:129] You will never be able to be equitable in dealing with more than one wife, no matter how hard you try (or strive to do so). Therefore, do not be so biased as to leave one of them hanging (neither enjoying marriage, nor left to marry someone else). If you correct this situation and maintain righteousness, GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.

[4:130] If the couple must decide to part (do separate), GOD will enrich (provide) for each of them from His bounties (abundance). GOD is Bounteous, Most Wise.

[4:130] If the couple must decide to part, GOD will provide for each of them from His abundance (bounties). GOD is Bounteous, Most Wise.

[5:87] O you who believe, do not prohibit (by yourselves) good things that are made lawful to you by GOD, and do not aggress (do not exceed the limits); GOD dislikes the aggressors.

[6.112] And so We have appointed to every Prophet an enemy, devils of mankind and jinn who inspire decorative speech to each other in delusion; yet, had your Lord willed, they would never have done it. So leave them with what they fabricate.

[6.113] And that the hearts of those who do not believe in the Hereafter may incline to it, and that they may be pleased with it, and that they may commit what they are committing.

[6.114] [Say], “Then is it other than Allah I should seek as judge while it is He who has revealed to you the Book explained in detail?” And those to whom We [previously] gave the Scripture know that it is sent down from your Lord in truth, so never be among the doubters.

[6.115] Perfected is the word of your Lord in truthfulness and justice; none can change His words. He is the Hearing, the Knowing.

[6.155] And this [Qur’an] is a Book We have revealed [which is] blessed, so follow it and fear God that you may receive mercy.

[6:162] Say, “My Prayer (Salat), my worship practices, my life and my death, are all devoted absolutely to GOD alone, the Lord of the universe.

[6:163] “He has no partner. This is what I am commanded to believe, and I am the first to submit.”

[7:80] And Lot (Prophet Lot) said to his people, “You commit such an abomination; no one in the world has done it before you”

[7:81] “You approach men with lust (to practice sex with them), instead of the women. Indeed, you are a transgressing people.”

[7:82] His people responded by saying, “Evict them from your village. They are people who pretend to purity (wish to be pure).”

[7:83] (Consequently), we saved him and his family, but not his wife; she was with the doomed (the evildoers).

[7:84] We showered (rained down on) them with a certain shower (heavy rain); note the consequences for the guilty (the criminals).

[11.78] His people came rushing at him (hastening to him), and before that they were committing evil deeds (sinful acts). He said, “O my people, it would be purer for you, if you instead take my daughters (to marry). You shall reverence GOD; do not disgrace (embarrass) me with my guests. Have you not one reasonable (right-thinking) man among you?”

[11:79] They said, “You know well that we have no claim (no need) for your daughters; and you (indeed) know exactly what we want.”

[11:80] He said, “If only I had against you some power (strength) or could take refuge in a strong support (a powerful ally).”

[11:81] (The angels) said, “O Lot, we are your Lord’s messengers, and these people cannot touch (reach) you. You shall leave with your family during a portion of the night, and let not anyone of you look back, except your wife; she is condemned (will be struck) along with those who are condemned. Their appointed time is the morning. Is not the morning near (soon enough)?”

[11:82] When our command (judgment) came, We made the highest part (of the village) its lowest (turned it upside down), and We showered (rained) it with stones of layered hard clay (hard, devastating rocks).

[11:83] (Such rocks) were designated by your Lord and it was not far away from (close to) the transgressors (wrong-doers).

[11:114] You shall observe the Prayer (Salat) at both ends of the day, and during the night. The righteous works (virtues, good deeds) wipe out the evil works (sins, misdeeds). This is a reminder for those who would take heed.

[12:32] She said, “This is the one whom you blamed me of (for falling in love with). I did indeed try to seduce him, and he refused. Unless he does what I order him to do, he will surely go to prison, and will be debased.” (Note: the wife of Al-Aziz is quoted as saying here)

[12:33] He (Prophet Yusuf) said, “My Lord, the prison is more to my liking than that to which they invite me (better than giving in to them). Unless You divert their scheming from me (if You do not avert from me their plan), I might incline toward them (may desire them) and behave like the ignorant ones (and thus be ignorant).”

[12:52] “I hope that he will realize that I never betrayed him in his absence, for GOD does not guide (bless) the schemes of the betrayers”. (Note: the wife of Al-Aziz is quoted as saying here).

[12:53] “I do not claim innocence for myself (I do not acquit myself). The self is an advocate of vice (the self does order bad deeds), except for those who have attained mercy from my Lord. My Lord is Forgiver, Most Merciful.” (Note: the wife of Al-Aziz quote continued here).

[13:38] We have sent messengers before you, and assigned to them wives (made them husbands with wives) and descendants. No messenger can produce a sign (miracle) without GOD ‘s authorization (permission). For every term is a decree (in accordance with a specific predetermined time).

[16:72] And GOD made for you spouses (mates) from among yourselves, and produced for you from your spouses (mates) children and grandchildren, and provided you with good provisions. Should they believe in falsehood, and turn unappreciative (in disbelieve) of GOD ‘s blessings?

[17.32] And come not near unto adultery for it is gross (an abomination, a shameful deed) and an evil way (evil behaviour leading to other evils).

[19:20] She (Mary) said, “How can I have a son, when no human has touched me and I have never been unchaste.”

[19:21] He (the Angle) said, “Thus said your Lord, `It is easy for Me. We will render him a sign for the people and mercy from us. This is a predestined matter (this matter is already decreed).’ “

[21:74] As for Lot, we granted him wisdom (judgment) and knowledge, and we saved him from the community that practiced (did) abominations; they were wicked (lewd) and (folk) of evil people.

[21:91] As for the one who maintained her virginity, we blew into her from our spirit, and thus, we made her and her son a portent (a sign) for the whole world.

[23:5] And they who maintain (guard) of their genitals (private parts) .

[23:6] Except to their spouses, or those who are rightfully theirs, they are not to be blamed.

[23:7] Those who transgress these limits are the transgressors.

[24:2] The adulteress and the adulterer you shall whip each of them a hundred lashes (stripes) and do not let pity for the twain withhold you from carrying out GOD ‘s law, if you (truly) believe in GOD and the Last Day. And let a group of believers witness their penalty (punishment).

[24.3] The adulterer shall not marry except (save) an adulteress or an idolatress, and the adulteress none shall marry except (save) an adulterer or an idolater (a polytheist), all that is forbidden unto believers.

[24:4] Those who accuse married women of adultery, then fail to produce four witnesses, you shall whip (flog) them eighty lashes (stripes), and do not accept any testimony from them; they are wicked (transgressors).

[24.5] Except those who afterward repent and make amends (reform), GOD is Forgiving, Merciful.

[24.6] As for those who accuse their wives (spouses) but have no witnesses except themselves; let the witness of one of them be the equivalent of four witnesses if he testify four testimonies (taking oath) by GOD that he is of those who speak the truth (solemnly telling the truth);

[24.7] The fifth (oath) invoking the curse of GOD on him if he is of those who is telling a lie.

[24:8] Her punishment shall be averted (she shall be considered innocent) if she swears (bear witness) by GOD four times that he is a liar (what he said is indeed false).

[24.9] The fifth (oath) that the wrath of GOD be upon her if he spoke (was telling) the truth.

[24:10] This is GOD ‘s grace and mercy towards you. GOD is Redeemer (Clement), Most Wise.

[24:11] A gang among you produced a big lie. Do not think that it was bad for you; instead, it was good for you. Meanwhile, each one of them has earned his share of the guilt. As for the one who initiated the whole incident, he has incurred a terrible retribution.

[24:12] When you heard it, the believing men and the believing women should have had better thoughts about themselves, and should have said, “This is obviously a big lie.”

[24:13] Only if they produced four witnesses (you may believe them). If they fail to produce the witnesses, then they are, according to GOD, liars.
[24:14] If it were not for GOD’s grace towards you, and His mercy in this world and in the Hereafter, you would have suffered a great retribution because of this incident.

[24:15] You fabricated it with your own tongues, and the rest of you repeated it with your mouths without proof. You thought it was simple, when it was, according to GOD, gross.

[24:16] When you heard it, you should have said, “We will not repeat this. Glory be to You. This is a gross falsehood.”

[24:17] GOD admonishes you that you shall never do it again, if you are believers.

[24:18] GOD thus explains the revelations for you. GOD is Omniscient, Wise.

[24:19] Those who love to see immorality spread among the believers have incurred a painful retribution in this life and in the Hereafter. GOD knows, while you do not know.

[24:20] GOD showers you with His grace and mercy. GOD is Most Kind towards the believers, Most Merciful.
[24:23] Those who slander unaware, chaste, believing women (falsely accuse married women who are pious believers) have incurred condemnation in this life and in the Hereafter; they have incurred a horrendous retribution (for them is a grievous doom).

[24:26] The bad (vile) women for the bad (vile) men, and the bad (vile) men for the bad (vile) women, and the virtuous (good) women for the virtuous (good) men, and the virtuous (good) men for the virtuous (good) women. The latter are innocent of such accusations. They have attained forgiveness and a generous reward.

[24.32] Marry those of you who are single and the righteous among your male and female servants. If they be poor, GOD will enrich them out of His grace (bounty). GOD is of ample means (Bounteous), Aware.

[24.33] Those who cannot afford to get married shall maintain morality (abstain from sexual relations) until GOD provides for them from His grace (bounty). Those among your servants who wish to be freed in order to marry (seek a contract for emancipation), you shall grant them their wish, once you realize that they are honest (there is within them goodness). And give them from the wealth of GOD which He has given you (that He has bestowed upon you). You shall not force your girls to commit prostitution, seeking the materials (temporary interests) of this world, if they wish to be chaste. If anyone forces them, then GOD, seeing that they are forced, is Forgiver, Merciful.

[25.33] And they do not bring you any similitude, but that We bring you the truth, and [what is] better [as] exposition. 

[25:54] He is the One who created from water a human being, then made him reproduce forefathers and siblings (through marriage and mating). Your Lord is Omnipotent.

[25:68] They never implore beside GOD any other god, nor do they kill any one (as such life) that GOD has made sacred except in the course of justice. Nor do they commit fornication (adultery). Those who commit these offenses will meet penalties.

[25:74] And those who say, “Our Lord, let our wives (spouses) and descendants (children) be a source of joy for us, and keep (make) us in the forefront of the righteous.”

[26.162] [Lot said] I am to you a faithful apostle.

[26:165] “Do you approach males (to have sex with) from among the people?”

[26.166] “and leave (forsake) what your Lord has created for you of your wives? Nay, but you are people who transgress.”

[26:167] They said, “Unless you refrain, O Lot, you will be banished (expelled).”

[26:168] He said, “I deplore your actions.”

[26:169] “My Lord, save me and my family (my household) from their works (from their doings).”

[26:170] We saved him and all his family (all of his household).

[26:171] But not an old woman; she was doomed (among those who stayed behind).

[26:172] We then (afterwards) destroyed the others.

[26:173] We showered (rained on) them with a miserable shower; what a terrible (dreadful) shower for those who had been warned!

[26:174] This should be a lesson, and most them were not believers.

[27:44] She (the queen) was told, “Go inside the palace.” When she saw its interior, she thought it was a pool of water, and she (pulled up her dress,) exposing her legs (to wade through). He (Solomon) said, “This interior is paved (made) of crystal.” She said, “My Lord, I have wronged my soul (myself). I now submit with Solomon to GOD, Lord of the worlds (universe).”

[27:54] Lot said to his people, “How could you commit such an abomination, publicly (knowingly), while you see?

[27:55] “You practice sex with (purse lust from) the men, lustfully, instead of the women. Indeed, you are ignorant people (acting senselessly).”

[27:56] The only response from his people was their saying, “Banish Lot’s family from your village; they are people who wish to be pure.”

[27.57] Then We saved him and his family (household) except his wife; We destined her to be of those who stayed behind (counted her among the doomed).

[27. 58] And We rained upon them a rain; dreadful (miserable) is the rain of those who have been warned.

[28:7] We inspired Moses’ mother: “Nurse (suckle) him, and when you fear for his life, throw him into the river without fear or grief. We will return him to you, and will make him one of Our messengers.”

[28:27] He said, “I wish to offer one of my two daughters for you to marry, in return for working for me for eight pilgrimages (years); if you make (complete) them ten, it will be voluntary on your part. I do not wish to make this matter too difficult for you. You will find me, GOD willing, righteous.”

[29:28] Lot said to his people, “You commit such an abomination; no one previously in the world has ever done it before you.”

[29.29] You come (in lust) to men and stop folks on the highway (commit highway robbery); and conduct in your assembly sin (vice). The only response from his people was to bring us GOD’s torment (retribution) if you are among those who speak the truth (if you are truthful).

[29:30] He said, “My Lord, grant me victory over these wicked (corrupt) people.”

[31.2] These are ayahs of the wise Book.

[33:7] Recall that we took from the prophets their covenant, including you (O Muhammad), Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus the son of Mary and We took from them a solemn pledge.

[30:21] Among His proofs is that He created for you spouses from among yourselves, to tranquil and content with her, and He placed in-between yourselves love and care. In this, there are signs for people who think.

[33:35] The submitting men, the submitting women, the believing men, the believing women, the obedient men, the obedient women, the truthful men, the truthful women, the steadfast men, the steadfast women, the reverent men, the reverent women, the charitable men, the charitable women, the fasting men, the fasting women, the chaste men, the chaste women, and the men who commemorate GOD frequently, and the commemorating women; GOD has prepared for them forgiveness and a great recompense.

[33:37] Recall that you said to the one who was blessed by GOD, and blessed by you, “Keep your wife and reverence GOD,” and you hid inside (concealed within) yourself what GOD wished to proclaim (disclose). Thus, you feared the people, when you were supposed to fear only GOD (GOD has more right that you fear Him). When Zaid was completely through with his wife (had no longer any relationship for her), We had you marry her, in order to establish the precedent that believer men may marry the divorced wife of their adopted sons after they no longer have any relationship with them. GOD’s command shall be done. (Note: Zaid was the adopted son of Prophet Mohammad).

[33:49] O you who believe, if you married believing women, then divorced them before you have touched them (having intercourse with them), they do not owe you any waiting interim (before marrying another man). You shall provide for them (compensate them equitably), and let them go amicably (give them a gracious release).

[36.36] Glory be to Him Who created all the sexual pairs, of that which the earth grow, and of themselves, and of that which they know not.

[ 39.23] God has revealed the best of discourses, a Book, consimilar in coupled phrases — whereat quiver the skins of those who fear their Lord; then their skins and their hearts soften to the remembrance of God. That is God’s guidance, by which He guides whomever He will; and whomever God leads astray, for him there is no guide.

[40:8] “Our Lord, and admit them into the gardens of Eden that You promised for them and for the righteous among their fathers, spouses, and descendants (children). You are the Almighty, Most Wise.

[40:7] Those who serve the throne and all those around it glorify and praise their Lord, and believe in Him. And they ask forgiveness for those who believe: “Our Lord, Your mercy and Your knowledge encompass all things. Forgive those who repent and follow Your path, and spare (ward off from) them the retribution (punishment) of Hell.

[40:8] “Our Lord, and admit them into the gardens of Eden that You promised for them and for the righteous among their parents, spouses, and children (descendants). You are the Almighty, Most Wise.

[40:9] “And protect them from falling in sin. Whomever You protect from falling in sin, on that day, has attained mercy from You. This is the greatest triumph.”

[43:69] They are the ones who believed in our revelations, and were self-surrendered (submitters).

[43:70] Enter Paradise, together with your spouses, (in beauty) and rejoice.

[45.6] These are the ayahs of God which We recite to you with truth. So in what [kind of] discourse then, after God and His ayahs will they believe?

[49:13] O people, We created you from male and female, and rendered (made) you distinct peoples (nations) and tribes, that you may recognize one another (know each other). The best among you in the sight of GOD is the most righteous. GOD is Omniscient, Cognizant.

[51.49] and of everything we created a pair, that you may reflect.

[53.45] And that He created the two spouses, the male and the female (45) from a drop (human-egg) if seeded (by sperm).

[53:45] He is the One who created the two kinds (spouses), male and female.

[53:46] from a tiny drop (seed) if fertilized (by semen).

[57.27] … And hermitism (monasticism) which they innovated (invented), We did not decree for them, (they sought it) only to please GOD therewith and they did not observe it with the right observance, so We gave those among them who believed their recompense (due reward), and many among them were rebellious sinners (wicked).

[63.9] O you who believe! Let not your wealth or your children distract you from the remembrance of GOD, and whoever does that, they are the losers.

[65:1] O you prophet, when you people divorce the women, you shall ensure that a divorce interim is fulfilled. You shall measure such an interim precisely. You shall reverence GOD your Lord. Do not evict them from their homes, nor shall you make life miserable for them, to force them to leave on their own, unless they commit a proven lewdness (adultery). These are GOD ‘s laws. Anyone who transgresses GOD ‘s laws commits an injustice against himself. You never know; maybe GOD wills something good to come out of this.

[65:2] Once the interim is fulfilled, you may reconcile with them equitably, or go through with the separation equitably. You shall have two equitable witnesses from among you and give upright testimony (witness) before GOD. This is to enlighten those who believe in GOD and the Last Day. Anyone who reverences GOD, He will create an exit (appoint a way out) for him.

[65:4] As for the women (wives) who have reached menopause, if you have any doubts, their interim shall be three months, along with those who have it not. As for those who are pregnant, their interim ends upon giving birth. Anyone whoever reverences GOD, He makes matters easy for him.

[66.6] “O you who believe, guard yourselves and your family members from a fire whose fuel is people and stones. Over it are ferocious and powerful angels. They do not disobey and of GOD’s orders and do whatever they are told.

[66:11] And GOD cites (set forth) as an example of those who believed, the wife of Pharaoh. She said, “My Lord, build a home for me (at near You) in Paradise, and save me from Pharaoh and his work; save me from the transgressing people.”